Chapter 15. A SUMMARY OF THE FACTS AND ARGUMENTS AGAINST EVOLUTION AND IN FAVOR OF DIVINE CREATION
We believe the evidence presented proves conclusively that the Universe, the world and all life thereon, including man, were brought into being by Divine fiat; and that the orderly profession of life on earth from the lower forms (microscopic protozoa) to the higher forms, up to and including man, is not the result of evolution (“random changes,” “chance mutations,” and “natural selection”), producing through long ages of time the gradual transformism of one genus into another — the lower into the higher — but is the result of special creation.
It is evident that the Creator arranged all life on earth into distinct families of interbreeding, reproducing populations; and though there is great flexibility within each species, resulting in many varieties, breeds, races and strains (from genetic mutations), there is an impassable chemical barrier (Luther Burbank) that prohibits transmutation of one family into another. There are innumerable “horizontal” varieties within the species, but there is no “vertical” transmutation from one genus to another. In the words of the Bible, each “kind” (genus, or family) of life on earth is created with its own type of life that reproduces persistently “after its kind” (Genesis 1:11, 12, etc) and it will not deviate therefrom other than in the flexibility of many varieties in each “kind” of life. (See chapter 1).
The science of genetics teaches us that the chromosomes of each type of life are numbered and keyed; that is, each type of life has its own characteristic chromosomes that will not mix with a different type of chromosome. That excludes the possibility of “transmutation (macromutation) of genera.” It also forbids the interbreeding of diverse populations. At the same time, the genes are the bearers of heredity characteristics, and afford limitless possibility of variety in the individuals of a certain species. (See chapters 1 and 5).
This explains why Prof., Coultre’s statement is true:
“The most fundamental objection to the theory of natural selection is that it cannot originate characters; it only selects among characters already existing.”
Therefore, there are many varieties (due to gene mutations) and the transmission of hereditary characteristics from both parents; but there is no possibility of transmutation (macromutation) of one genus into another, for :”natural selection” and “gene mutations” do not originate characters or organs. (See chapter 1).
Evolution is, as many evolutionists themselves have admitted, “an unproven, unprovable hypothesis.” It fails utterly to account for the following facts and phenomena:
(1) Evolution has no explanation for the origin of the Universe. There is scientific proof that the Universe had a beginning. “Nothing” cannot create “something.” Sheer logic forces us to accept the teaching of Genesis 1:1.
“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”
(2) All matter in the Universe — suns, moons, planets, etc., — is in constant motion. Someone of infinite power had to put that matter into its present motion. Inactive objects, like the stones lying on the ground, do not start themselves moving.
(3) The stars, planets, comets, etc., in the Universe are under controlled motion, kept in their orbits by the interplay of two important laws: gravitation and inertia. “Laws” demand a Lawgiver. A Supreme Being is behind the laws of the universe that keep the heavenly bodies “balanced: and functioning smoothly.
The various and sundry “laws” of chemistry and physics are dependable and have enabled men to make such wonders as the electron microscope, nuclear power plants, the telescope, and a million more wonders of modern science. The “laws” of nature show the presence in the Universe of a Supreme Lawgiver. (See chapters 3, 4).
(4) Between lifeless inorganic matter and life is a vast chasm that could only be spanned by Divine creation. There is no such thing as “spontaneous generation,” because the first forms of life on earth had to be preceded by highly complex “protein molecules,” and these protein molecules can come only from previous, organic life — from cells. (See the last part of chapter 4).
(5) The observable law of nature is not evolution, but, entropy, the tendency of all things to move toward more and more randomness, the universal trend to “run down.” This can be seen in all the universe: from the stars that are gradually “burning out” to the elements, like uranium, that is slowly degenerating into lead. Scientists call this universal tendency toward randomness, the “Second law of Thermodynamics.” (See chapter 4, last part).
(6) There is an impassable gulf between inorganic matter and the amazing viruses. (See chapter 6).
(7) There is an impassable gulf between viruses and bacteria. (See chapter 5).
(8) There is an impassable gap between bacteria and the somatic cell, the basis of all higher plant and animal life. (chapter 5).
(9) There is an impassable gap between protozoa, like the ameba, that multiply by mitosis (simple cell division) and the higher forms of life that propagate and multiply by sex. (chapter 13).
(10) There is an impassable gap between all animal phyla, and all plant divisions, and there are impassable gulfs between all classes, and between all families, and all genera. As a matter of fact there are impassable gulfs even between different species of protozoa! They are so radically different, it is impossible to find connecting links between them, or from any other form of life.
According to the theory of evolution, there should be innumerable intermediary stages between all forms of life — but there are none, neither in the world of nature nor in the fossil world.
The problem presented by these innumerable “missing links” is enormous. How, for instance, did the scales of reptiles evolve into birds’ feathers, as evolutionists teach? And how is the evolutionist going to account for the great gulf between the mind of an ape and the mind of man?
(11) The so-called “simpler” forms of life are not simple at all, but are highly complex! All things in the universe — from the atom to blazing nebulae — are highly complex. All microscopic forms of life: viruses, bacteria, the somatic cell, and the vastly complicated protein molecules, are incredibly intricate.
Read about the minute intricacies of the somatic cell (chapter 5) and be convinced that there are no “simple” forms of life — all life, all creation, bears the hallmark of creation: a wellnigh infinite complexity. This fact of course refutes the concept of many that “the simpler forms of life evolved into the more complex.”
(12) The marvelous wonders of the atom — with its more than 75 infinitestimal particles and resonances; protons, neutrons, electrons, pions, mesons, etc., — assure us that an infinite God is the Creator of the Universe. Such incredible wonders could not “just happen,” (See chapter 4).
(13). Our orderly, well-planned world, having WATER (practically unknown in the rest of the universe), a well-balanced atmosphere, almost 100 necessary and useful elements, and climactic conditions permitting life on earth, gives us abundant evidence that our world is unique in the universe, and was designed by an all-wise and all-powerful Architect for human and animal habitation. “Special design demands a Designer.” (See chapter 3).
(14) The presence of life on earth in such great abundance and variety, constantly maintained in an obviously well-planned and finely “balanced” and interdependent economy, in which plants support animals and animals support plants, and both support mankind, witnesses to the superintendence of a Master Mind. (See chapter 7).
(15) The miracle of “interdependence” as seen in the phenomenon of cross-pollination is a most interesting witness to the fact of Divine creation. The case of the Yucca plant and the Pronuba moth is a notable example of absolute interdependence, for which evolution has no adequate explanation.
(16) Every form of life on earth is highly specialized and “perfectly adapted” to its environment and to its place in life and for the purpose for which it was created. The cactus in the desert, the eagle in the air, the tiger in the jungle, the whale in the sea, all function perfectly where they are. No form of life on earth reveals any need whatever for evolution of any kind. ( See chapter 6).
Moreover, we need, the economy of the world needs, every form of life just as it is and where it is. We need cows, horses and dogs (basically, just as they are); we need camels for the desert. We need the predatory animals to maintain “balance in nature.” Creation is the work of an all-wise Sovereign.
(17) The innumerable and highly complex “specialized organs,” such as the eye and the ear, the sonar system of bats, the beak of the woodpecker, the tongue of a toad, the trunk of an elephant, the spinerettes of the spider, and mother’s breast, are of such a nature that to be useful and functional they had to come into being at once, and could not have developed gradually through “chance mutations,” “random changes,” or “natural selection.” A partially developed “beak” or “tongue” or “eye” or “trunk” is a monstrosity nowhere found in nature, either living or in fossil form. What good would a 20% developed beak do? (See chapters 2, 8, 13).
(18) The persistence of type in all genera the world over is a phenomenon that baffles evolutionists. Scientists tell us that ameba has been in existence for hundreds of millions of years; and amebas are still with us — as they were in the beginning! And amebas still divide true to form to make other amebas. Amebas always produce amebas; they never change.
Experimenters for many years have worked with bacteria, the Drosopila (fruit-fly) and other forms of life, seeking to get them to change into another (higher) form of life, but they have not succeeded. No one, working in the laboratory, has been able to change one genus into another.
Scientists tell us that ants haven’t changed appreciably for the last sixty million years! (Chapter 8 gives many more examples of the “fixity of species).
There is no evidence whatever of transformism — the transmutation, through evolution, of species, from one genus to another.
(19) The instinct which unerringly guides a bird, a whale, an eel and some fish, in their long and amazing migrations; and the instinct which enables a bird to build its own characteristic nest the first time it tries (without previous experience), the instinct that enables bees to build a perfect honeycomb, and a thousand other marvels in insect and animal life due to instinct — showing apparent intelligence, without having the actual, matching intelligence — is the work of a Master Designer. He fully equipped all forms of life to enable each to survive in its own environment, and to serve, in some capacity, the economy of nature. (See chapters 8, 9, 10).
The “social instinct” of bees and ants is most baffling — that is, if one denies special creation. (See chapter 10).
There are amazing forms of life — gifted by instinct — such as the hunting wasps, honeybees, social ants, penguins, crabs, spiders — and myriads of others — having abilities and characteristics far in excess of their humble station in life, which enables them to perform fantastically involved routines. These routines could not be developed by “chance mutations” in a million ages! (See chapters 8, 9, 10, 13).
(20) Birds: “Winged Wonders,” by their well-designed anatomy, their nests, specialized organs such as their wings and beaks, and by their eggs and their songs, give abundant evidence of Divine creation. (See chapter 9).
Birds also show this: to make a bird a flying creature, there had to be a radical “rebuilding” of the entire organism, rather than merely slow, minor changes here and there. How can one account for the radical difference that exists between reptiles, with their heavy bones, heavy scales and entirely different anatomy, and the hollow bones of birds, their light feathers, and their body structure obviously planned for flying? (Chapter 9).
(21) There are many highly complicated, mysterious processes in nature, such as photosynthesis, metamorphosis, the transmission of hereditary qualities and instincts through genes, and the amazing chemical processes in the organs and glands of animals and man, that cannot be explained by any theory of evolution, but demand the wisdom and skill of the Creator. (See chapters 11 and 12).
(22) The world is full of strange creatures that have specialized organs so involved, or instincts so amazing, or body plans so unusual, it is clear they must have been made as they are. Some of these odd specimens are:
The fantastic platypus, “killer plants,” strange cicadas, the extremely odd “praying mantis,” the oyster (the brainless wonder”), and thousands of others! (See chapters 8, 9, 12 and 13).
(23) The wonderful body, mind and soul of man give full proof of creation. (See chapter 11).
(24) Though most American scientists today are evolutionists, there are scores of able, honest scientists who either discredit evolution or raise questions about it.
Such statements are scattered throughout the book. See the Introduction for statements by Dr. Austin H. Clark, Prof., Richard Goldschmidt, and others.
Not only do we affirm our faith in God as the Creator, but also in the Bible as the inspired Revelation from God, and in Christ as the unique Son of God, the Redeemer of mankind.