SO GOD CREATED man in His own image” Genesis 1:26, 27.
“I am fearfully and wonderfully made” Psalms 139:14.
MAN — a tripartite being of body, mind and soul — created in the image and likeness of God, is the supreme miracle and mystery of life on earth.
Part 1. THE BODY OF MAN
“Your body,” says Dr. Peter J. Steincrohn, “is the WORLD’S MOST INCREDIBLE PIECE OF MACHINERY. It manufactures, improves and repairs itself. It has illimitable reserves.” The doctor is right: the average man can get along without his gall bladder, spleen, tonsils and appendix. He can dispense with one lung, one kidney, two-fifths of his liver, part of his brain, most of his stomach, both eyes, ears, arms and legs — and still live!
As an “incredible piece of machinery,” the body is highly complicated and efficient. It is an intricate assembly of thousands of mechanisms working together is synchronized obedience to direction. It contains chemical factories that process chemicals of countless varieties. The body consists of trillions of living cells.
In the body are “a hundred thousand different kinds of protein molecules!” These protein molecules are highly complicated. * Typical proteins are collagen, which provides framework material; hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood cells; keratin, contained in the protective cells of hair, skin, and fingernails; myosin, which converts energy from chemical to mechanical form in muscle cells; and the innumerable specialized enzymes and hormones so important in regulating body activity.
* To illustrate how highly complex protein molecules are: one molecule of hemoglobin, in the blood cell, may have in it 758 atoms of carbon, 1203 of hydrogen, 195 of nitrogen, 3 of sulphur, 1 of iron, and 218 of oxygen, making a total of 2378 atoms. All of the other 100,000 protein molecules are also highly complex and ALL of them are different!
Each of the trillions of cells in the body is a LIVING ORGANISM — living protoplasm — and in order to carry on life processes they must convert food, air and water into energy and tissue and food for tissue. These elements must be changed into such a form that they can be absorbed as food and be carried to all parts of the body. This process is called DIGESTION. Air must enter the body to oxidize foods; this is called RESPIRATION. Altered food and oxygen are dissolved in the blood and carried through the body to hungry cells. The heart pumps the blood to all parts of the body; this is called CIRCULATION. Waste products, like the ashes of a furnace, must be removed; this operation is known as EXCRETION. All of this highly complicated performance must have directing intelligence, and this is in the Central Nervous System, assisted by the Autonomic Nervous System. Working closely with the nervous system are the DUCTLESS GLANDS which pour hormones into the blood stream when needed for the control of various activities.
The Miracle of Conception
It is incredible but true that this amazing human body comes originally from just TWO TINY CELLS: the female egg (ovum) and the male sperm. Conception — the instant when new life is created — takes place the moment a male sperm penetrates and fertilizes a female ovum. Starting with the union of these two cells, as a tiny bit of living protoplasm, and sheltered in the mother’s womb, this minute bit of life grows, divides and redivides, and develops — until finally it grows into the amazingly complex being called man.
Beyond doubt, this is the greatest miracle in nature, that “a SINGLE FERTILIZED CELL SHOULD HAVE THE POWER TO DRAW seemingly from nowhere THE 30 TRILLION CELLS OF THE VIVIPAROUS HUMAN, having all the necessary structures and organs that make up the body of man!”
“The wonder of this miracle is deepened by the fact that while all the cells in the body started from ONE fertilized cell, the ovum, which was itself neither muscle, nerve, blood, or bone cell, each separate colony of cells produced by the process of division becomes an organ whose cells all have a ponderable and demonstrable DIFFERENCE between them and the cells of any other organ in the same body.” — and different from the parent cells! (“Theory of Evolution and Facts of Science,” page 52).
Remember too that the male spermatozoa are incredibly small. In one discharge of seminal fluid there may be from 200,000,000 to 500,000,000 spermatozoa — enough potentially to populate the entire north American continent! Each spermatozoon is composed of two main parts: The flagellum, or tail, and the cell proper, which is the head end. It was PLANNED that way, for the flagellum is the “motor” that drives the sperm on its way to find and contact the ovum. When contact is made, the flagellum dissolves and the sperm head (the true cell) unites with the ovum. The two fuse into one — and conception has taken place!
“The sperm with. . . .admirable FORESIGHT has with it a minute quantity of an enzyme, hyaluronidase, which has the ability to loosen the egg’s protective sheath, and so permit penetration. . . .At the same time the egg’s wall (also exhibiting some admirable FORESIGHT) goes through a drastic change, and it becomes no longer penetrable by another sperm assault,” (“Wonders of Conception,” Reader’s Digest).
The ovum (egg) is 35 to 40 times the size of the head of the sperm; and yet the ovum is smaller than a period at the end of a sentence! Though this ovum is a single cell, it is highly complex. In it is the all-important nucleus, and in the nucleus are wonders untold, including 23 chromosomes — worm-shaped structures horizontally striped with bands of light and dark. And — wonder of wonders — these chromosomes contain thousands of genes (estimates vary from 3,000 to 30,000), the “seeds of inheritance.” So infinitesimally small are they that
“even the most powerful peering eye of the electron microscope cannot see inside the unbelievably minute chromosomes” and the far smaller genes. (Secrets of the Human Cell”).
The Miracle of the Growth of the Embryo
“No mind,” said Dr. Arthur I. Brown, “can grasp the wonder of the growth of the embryo. One who has watched this under the microscope or by examination of the very tiny early embryos almost feels as if it cannot be real — such miracles simply are not possible!”
Two cells unite: the ovum and the sperm.
At the end of a month, the growing embryo has its own circulatory system, at the end of the second month the fetus is only an inch long; at the end of the third month a bony structure is beginning to form; at the end of the sixth month the fetus is 10 to 14 inches long — but if born prematurely at this point it will not be able to survive. During the seventh month the baby begins to move about, and two more months of prenatal life are added to complete the maturing process before birth.
The moment of birth is at hand. The mother’s body reacts automatically to this great event, and “this fantastically complicated series of events have interacted, each perfectly timed, to produce the most superb of all achievements: a new human life.” (“Miracle of Birth,” by J. D. Ratcliff).
We stand in awe in the presence of this super miracle: human conception and birth — the miraculous work of a wonder-working God!
The Fallacy of the “Recapitulation Theory”
Evolutionists have developed a theory to explain certain structures and changes that take place in the embryo. It is called “The Recapitulation Theory.” It states that “every creature passes through stages in its embryonic development similar to those which its remote ancestors passed through in evolving upwards.” Their slogan is — “Ontogeny (the development of the individual) recapitulates Phylogeny” (the development of the race). Many people have been deceived into believing in evolution through these subtle, though false, arguments. Their principle arguments are:
(1) “Human life begins as a protozoan.” This is untrue. We all know that human life begins with the union of TWO cells that are NOT “protozoa,” but are the specialized reproductive cells of man.
(2) “The human embryo at one stage of development has gills like a fish.” This is entirely fallacious. The so-called “gill slits” in the human embryo are NOT gill slits at all, but pharyngeal arches. They have grooves, but NO perforations, as in gills. Douglas Dewar, English naturalist, said,
“In the embryo of a reptile, bird or mammal (including man) no clefts form between arches, which never assume the characteristics of gills. It is clearly incorrect to call them gill arches. The embryo of a higher animal never passes through a “fish” stage. . . . Embryology lends no countenance to the view that the higher vertebrates evolved from a fish-like ancestor. It is only by putting far fetched and artificial interpretations on embryological phenomena that they can be made to fit in with the evolution hypothesis.” (page 49, “Difficulties of the Evolutionary Theory)”. *
* Gray’s Anatomy, a medical authority, says “perforation does not occur in the pharyngeal arches in birds or mammals.”
(3) The human embryo in one stage of its development is said to have a tail like a puppy. This so-called “tail” is simply the coccyx, or end of man’s spine. As the embryo grows, the coccyx is covered with tissues and muscles, and the “tail” no longer shows, though it is still there as the end of the spine. The coccyx serves as an anchor for useful muscles. So this argument fades into nothingness.
(4) “The human embryo bears a confusing and close resemblance to the embryo’s of other animals.” This “resemblance” is purely superficial. Close examination at any stage of development always reveals “striking differences.” NO TWO EMBRYOS OF ANY TYPES OF LIFE ARE EVER EXACTLY ALIKE: all bear characteristics of their own family or genus.
Many students are deceived by the “schematized” drawings of overly-zealous evolutionists. Some advocates of the Recapitulation Theory have not hesitated to forge ‘embryonic connecting links.’ Prof. Haeckel, one of the earliest advocates of this Recapitulation theory, actually forged some features of his drawings, as “proof” of Evolution. When tried by the Jena University Court, and convicted, he confessed,
“A small per cent of my embryonic drawings are forgeries; those, namely, for which the observed material is so incomplete or insufficient as to compel us to fill in and reconstruct the missing links by hypothesis and comparative synthesis.” Then follows this startling indictment of other embryologists: “I should feel utterly condemned. . . . were it not that hundreds of the best observers, and biologists lie under the same charge.”
And this is called “Science?” We are under the impression that Science should be honest, and deal with FACTS — not falsifications intended to support a theory that can NOT be supported by facts!
Many drawings of evolutionists are “schematized,” “doctored,” and changed, and many plaster of Paris casts of so-called “missing links” are “reconstructed” to make them APPEAR AS THE EVOLUTIONIST THINKS THEY OUGHT TO APPEAR, with no thought of what they actually are or were in nature! They twist the facts to support their hypothesis.
At the British Association Meeting at Edinburgh, August 10, 1951, Prof. T. S. Westoll called the Recapitulation Theory “Sheer nonsense!”
The Miracle of the Growth of the Body
Many changes take place quickly after birth. Before birth the baby lives in water — in the amniotic fluid, in a sac — a planned device to protect the growing embryo. At that stage the lungs of the unborn child are practically solid flesh; but as soon as the new-born infant gasps for his first breath, accompanied by vigorous crying, the air sacs in his lungs expand, and never again, as long as he lives, will they be entirely devoid of air.
His heart gradually slows down from its furious pre-natal rate to a still rapid 140 to 150 beats per minute.
He is born with a sucking instinct; for his very life depends on it. And now a great mystery begins: the tiny 6 pound baby grows, and grows and grows — until he reaches maturity. WHAT MYSTICAL FORCE MAKES THE BABY GRADUALLY TURN INTO AN ADULT? No one knows; the only answer is, GOD MADE IT SO. And why does the marvelous process of growth STOP at just the right time? Why doesn’t the baby grow to be 30 feet tall? And what keeps the growing process symmetrical and at a uniform rate? That is, why is it that one arm of the boy doesn’t grow to be five feet long, while the other one, let us say, stops at 10 inches? Why is it that the nose on the boy’s face always turns down, as it should; what if, occasionally, it should turn UP, or be twisted SIDEWISE? What a mess that would be! If his nose turned up, instead of down, he would be in trouble in every rainstorm! Fortunately, God has regulated the “growth mechanism,” so that none of these theoretical monstrosities actually happen. The growth of the baby into manhood is uniform at all times.
“Nobody can say why all parts of the body grow in such beautifully regulated proportions. Look at the skin of a six year old, for example. Why doesn’t it grow too much, giving him folds like a hippopotamus, or so little that he looks like a balloon about to burst. This is one of the INCREDIBLY PRECISE CO-ORDINATIONS OF NATURE.”
During its first twenty years, the human body grows to ‘eight heads high’ with a fantastic series of speed-ups and slow-downs, and the infinitely complex influences which change the tiny infant into the full-grown man or woman are interwoven with such astounding precision that even the most cynical skeptic must call it miraculous.” (“The Miracle of Growth,” by Herbert H. Kenny).
MORE MIRACLES OF THE HUMAN BODY
Secrets of the Human Cell
(These facts are taken from the chapter on “Secrets of the Human Cell” in the book, “Family Doctor,” published by the British Medical Ass’n., 6-58.
The body, essentially, is made up of trillions of cells — most of them ALIVE, and able to reproduce themselves.
In a previous chapter we discussed the marvels of cell construction and cell life. Human cells are similar in construction to all cells, having three principle parts: outer membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.
“Each human cell nucleus contains 46 chromosomes, with the exception of egg and sperm cells, which contain half as many. Even the powerful peering eye of the electron microscope cannot see inside the unbelievably minute chromosomes. But indirect evidence indicates that, small as they are, they are still large enough to contain 30,000 genes — the seeds of inheritance.
These cells are so small, it takes 8,000 of them to make an inch, and 64,000,000 of them can be put in a square inch!
“ These ‘bricks’ (cells) from which all living matter is made, are able to perform chemical transformations that baffle the world’s cleverest chemists, producing infinitely complex vitamins, hormones, proteins. They perform striking feats of “biological engineering’ — the outstanding example being the formation of the human ovum and sperm.”
There are five general types of cells in the human body — All coming originally from the first two specialized cells: the ovum and the sperm. These cells are (1) the nerve cells, (2) epithelial cells, (3) connective tissue, (4) muscle cells and (5) blood cells.
In general, cells in the body have two main responsibilities: their own sustenance and reproduction, and their community responsibilities. The first includes such responsibilities as eating and waste disposal, the second includes the responsibilities of each cell to all others. Tiny cells in the pancreas, for example, produce minute amounts of insulin which control sugar use by all other cells. Fat cells store tiny droplets of oil to be used for energy for the rest of the body.
Researchers have “bumped into a number of problems which have so far proved baffling.” Here is one of the most mysterious:
“Since cells generally show a remarkable specificity — lung cells always divide into lung cells, white blood cells always divide into white blood cells, kidney cells always divide into kidney cells, and so on, WHY DOESN’T THE ORIGINAL FERTILIZED OVUM DUPLICATE ITSELF, instead of going through an amazingly intricate series of divisions and differentiations to produce a mouse, a whale or a man? Cell students have found no satisfactory answer.”
Evolution has no “satisfactory answer” to this miracle; neither has modern science nor philosophy. But there is an answer: GOD MADE IT SO.
YOUR SKIN: The Largest Organ of Your Body
Your tender skin is far more than a protective covering: it is an organ “ranking with the brain, heart and lungs in its importance to human life.” It is the largest organ of your body, and one of the most important. It has an average area of from 16 to 20 square feet.
There are about 2,000,000 sweat glands scattered over the surface of the skin — 500 to every square inch, except on your palms and soles, where there are over 2,000 to every square inch! Thousands of MILES of very small capillaries are in the skin, along with many thousands of sensory nerves. The skin also has about 2,000,000 sebaceous glands that produce sebum to lubricate and waterproof the skin. And the skin has an intricate system of countless ELASTIC FIBERS that keep it smooth and firm, close-fitting, yet pliable. ALL of these parts are highly “specialized” — created for a purpose.
Your skin has three major levels: the EPIDERMIS (outer), the DERMIS (middle) and the SUBDERMAL (inner). This “subdermal” is a subcutaneous fatty tissue, having a cushion effect. In the lower part of the epidermis is a thin sheet of cells where most skin growth occurs. These cells divide and form new cells constantly, which are crowded slowly upward to the surface. The trip may take weeks. On the trip to the surface each cell dies, and so the exterior of the skin disintegrates into microscopic layers of scales.
The result is, “some twenty or more layers of scales form the outer surface of your skin — and lend toughness to it.” These invisible fragments of dead cells are constantly being rubbed off and replaced.
Your skin was PLANNED to serve your body in these ways:
(A) Your skin helps regulate the temperature of your body. By “sweating” your body cools off. Furthermore, when it is warm, the blood vessels in and near the skin enlarge and let the heat escape. When it is cold, the blood vessels contract and conserve the heat of the body.
So precise is this automatic mechanism that the average person in good health maintains a 98.60 temperature whether hunting in the arctic or fishing in the South Pacific. So amazingly efficient is the body’s cooling system, centering around the action of the skin, that if the air is dry and enough water is consumed, human beings actually can tolerate temperatures of from 2400 to 2600 for short periods of time! This is hot enough “to grill a steak.”
(B) Your skin, with the layer of fat underneath it, is in itself a remarkable INSULATOR. Like the asbestos around a hot water pipe, it keeps the heats in and the cold out; or, if the surrounding atmosphere is hotter than your body, the skin tends to keep the heat out of your body.
(C) Your skin, studded with nerve endings, is the principle organ of touch, giving at least six different sensations: light touch, pressure, heat, cold, pain, and tickling. So the skin is a highly complicated ALARM SYSTEM, constantly keeping your mind informed, by its contacts with the outside world, of sensations of pleasure and pain, enemies to the body, and friends. Each of its millions of tiny nerve receptors is a combined “receiver” and “transmitter.”
(D) Your skin helps in ELIMINATING POISONS, and throws off waste materials through the sweat glands. There are 2500 sweat glands on each square inch of the palm!
(E) Your skin is a manufacturing plant: it makes new hair, and nails and new cells. It continuously REBUILDS the surface layer.
(F) Your skin makes a special pigment — MELANIN — that shields you from over-exposure to the sun — and it automatically provides the amount needed. An extra amount shows up in a “tanned” skin.
(G) Your skin is a combination of a sort of “leather jacket” and a “raincoat” to serve you from the elements. Your skin is an “armor” of “overlapping fish-like scales, to protect the tissues of your body.” On the other hand, it is FULL OF HOLES (sweat pores) — and yet it doesn’t leak! Consider the miracle: your skin is so ingeniously made that it will exude sweat, but will NOT permit water to enter your body even though you are immersed for a long time!
(H) Your skin also maintains a delicate system of fine hairs that cover most of the body, though they often are too fine to be visible.
( I ) Your skin is an indicator of your emotions, as we all know. We turn “red” with embarrassment or pale with fright.
( J ) Your skin is an indicator of your health: undue redness may indicate fever, a sallow complexion and paleness have diagnostic value to your doctor. Other skin changes and symptoms indicate diseases to the trained diagnostician.
(K) Your skin is a remarkably roomy “storehouse,” for salts, sugars, fats, water, and other materials, when more is taken into the body than is needed. Later, when needed, the skin returns these to the blood stream for transportation to the organs.
(L) Your skin is a first-class BARRIER to germs — until it is punctured or cut. Your body is covered at all times with countless bacteria, waiting to enter your body and to do their evil work. YOUR SKIN KEEPS THEM OUT.
(M) Your skin also has a marvelous chemical called KERATIN (a chemical similar to gelatin) that protects your body from infiltration by many inimical liquids, such as many oils, diluted acids, alkalies and other chemical enemies of the body.
(N) Your skin is UNIQUELY YOURS; it carries a tell tale identification pattern: your fingerprints. They are never duplicated in anyone else. Your skin is so much a part of yourself that though it can be transplanted from one part of the body to another, it is exceedingly difficult to successfully transplant to another person (except an identical twin).
(O) Your skin is an excellent doctor! It repairs itself. If cut or bruised, it begins immediately to mend itself.
(P) Your skin manufactures vitamin D in the presence of sunlight, thus preventing rickets.
We have gone to some considerable detail to show what seems to be merely a covering for the body is in reality a highly complicated and efficient organ, that gives overwhelming evidence that it was designed and planned and made to function as it does.
BLOOD: The Stream of Life
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood” (Leviticus 17:11). Blood is not the simple fluid it was once thought to be. In the last fifteen years modern research has discovered that “more than 70 different proteins” have been identified in it, not to speak of the various other constituents — the red cells, plasma, white cells and the platelets — of which it is composed. * And the body is constantly manufacturing new supplies of these products to replace the old. A human adult produces about 140 million NEW RED BLOOD CELLS per minute! (“Blood,” by Douglas M. Surgenor, “Scientific American.”).
* The blood also contains “antibodies” against various infections, at least ten substances involved in clotting, twenty different enzymes, fat-containing proteins, carbohydrate-containing proteins, metal-containing proteins, hormones, albumins, and doubtless other still unidentified substances. (See article on “BLOOD” by Douglas M. Surgenor, in “Scientific American”).
The average human body contains 5 litres of blood, which consist of 2.75 litres of plasma, 2.22 litres of red blood cells, .02 litre of platelets and .08 litre of white cells. Blood has these functions in the body:
(1) It transports oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body.
(2) It carries food elements (glucose, amino acids, proteins, fats, etc.) from the alimentary canal to the cells.
(3) It assists in the elimination of waste products such as carbon dioxide, uric acid and creatinine.
(4) It carries hormones, the ductless gland secretions that regulate many important functions of the body.
(5) It maintains a more or less constant temperature in the body.
(6) It plays an important part in resistance to disease.
(7) The blood “maintains its own composition and integrity.”
The Amazing Red Blood Cells
The red blood cell was once thought to be a “dead cell” because when it reaches the blood (it is made in the red marrow of bones) it at once loses its nucleus. But actually, it stays ALIVE — WITHOUT A NUCLEUS! That is a miracle of Divine design, for to rob a cell of its nucleus is almost like robbing a man of his heart. The chief function of the red blood cell is to carry hemoglobin (which in turn carries oxygen to the cells); and since red blood cells can CARRY MUCH MORE WITHOUT A NUCLEUS TO TAKE UP SPACE, GOD MADE THEM INTO LIVING “GHOST CELLS.” * Moreover, this living “ghost cell” is specially “engineered” to carry a maximum load.
* Red blood cells, without their nucleus, are called “ghost cells.”
“The red cells. . . .are a particularly excellent piece of biological engineering. They are BICONCAVE in shape (like a donut, with a thin section in the middle instead of a hole), and this facilitates QUICK ENTRY of oxygen and other supplies to all parts of the cell. If red blood cells were spherical instead of bioncave we would need about NINE TIMES AS MANY OF THEM to distribute oxygen in the body with the same speed.” (Eric Ponder, in “THE RED BLOOD CELL,” Scientific American).
Let every fair-minded person consider this double miracle and see that every red blood cell in man’s body virtually says,
“The Supreme Architect designed me so I can stay alive without a nucleus, and He gave me such an efficient shape, that I can DO NINE TIMES AS MUCH WORK as if I were made like a conventional cell.”
This, my friends, is THE FINGER OF GOD! Evolution could work ten thousand million years and never “evolve” a cell without a nucleus that would stay alive.
There are many other phenomena, “mysterious (features), which testify to the complex structure and the vitality of the red cell. One of the most striking appears when the cell is examined under a phase contrast microscope. The surface of the cell seems to move, as if wind were blowing over a field of wheat. This so-called ‘scintillation’ is believed to be connected with the cells metabolism.” (Ibid).
The deeper we look into God’s creation, the more marvelous it becomes. One miracle is linked to another. If the red blood cell is a miracle of construction, so is hemoglobin. We have already called attention to the fact that hemoglobin is one of the most intricate protein molecules in nature.
“The manufacture of hemoglobin is a great chemical feat. When a new red cell is made, its hemoglobin is made also. This substance is one of THE MOST COMPLEX KNOWN TO CHEMISTRY. It is not only the most complex, it is one of the largest molecules that chemistry knows. . . The chemical skill of the red-bone marrow that makes the hemoglobin is transcendent!” (Ibid). Who gave red-bone marrow such marvelous ability?
Hemoglobin (in the red blood cell) carries oxygen to each body cell and carbon dioxide from each body cell. This involves another miracle and is accomplished by “methods of varying intricacy.”
Oxygen is carried by the red cells; i.e., by the hemoglobin that the red cells carry. The iron-containing protein combines readily with oxygen — and then releases it to the hungry cells. “Whether the hemoglobin molecule will take up oxygen or release it, depends on the oxygen gas pressure in the place where it happens to be. In a place of high oxygen concentration, as in the lungs, hemoglobin attaches oxygen to itself; but when this hemoglobin molecule reaches the hungry tissues, where oxygen concentration is low, it releases the oxygen! . . . In a similar manner, the hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide away from the tissues where it has delivered oxygen.” (“BLOOD,” by Douglas M. Surgenor, Scientific American Magazine).
This is an astonishing performance that can be explained only by admitting that GOD MADE IT SO.
Without exaggeration VOLUMES could be written on MIRACLES OF DESIGN AND FUNCTION in the blood. *
* Volumes HAVE been written on WHITE BLOOD CELLS, ON BLOOD PLASMA, ON ANTIBODIES, ON THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, etc.
Before we pass on to tell of some of the other miracles in the human body, let us consider two more miracles in the blood.
(1) The Marvel of the manufacture and presence in the blood of ANTIBODIES.”
Of extraordinary interest is the story of how the blood makes antibodies to fight disease. Antibodies are “those substances in the blood which are protective agents formed to fight infection by an invading organism. . . .An antibody in the blood is a modified soluble protein with properties that make it stick to the type of molecule or microorganism against which it was developed. After an attack of yellow fever, for example, antibodies against the yellow fever virus are formed. These antibody molecules will immediately coat any new yellow fever viruses that happen to enter the body and WILL EFFECTIVELY PREVENT THEM from causing an attack of the disease.” (“HOW ANTIBODIES ARE MADE,” by Sir Macfarlane Burnet, in the Scientific American Magazine). Science and Medicine know these facts — but can not explain them.
(2) How the Blood MAINTAINS ITS OWN COMPOSITION AND INTEGRITY. The blood works with the liver on this.
“For this nature has developed most ingenious and elaborate mechanisms. The blood halts its own escape from the body by a self starting series of reactions, still imperfectly understood, which involves calcium, the platelets and a number of plasma proteins, all in trace amounts. The process leads to the formation of THROMBIN, which in turn converts the protein fibrinogen to the blood-clot material FIBRIN. The internal composition and viscosity of the blood are controlled mainly by osmosis, which regulates water content. This is no simple matter, for parts of the circulatory network, notably the capillaries, are permeable to water. The control of the water balance between the blood and the tissues with which it is in contrast is exerted to a large extent by the concentrations of the large protein molecules on the two sides of the capillary wall.” (“BLOOD,” by Douglas M. Surgenor, in The Scientific American Magazine).
And so, when the body is cut and its life-blood would ooze out or flow away, THE BLOOD ITSELF TAKES IMMEDIATE STEPS TO STOP THAT FLOW BY CLOTTING. Truly the blood is a wonderful fluid — THE STREAM OF LIFE. The Divine Designer made it as it is.
THE HUMAN EYE: “The Wonder of Wonders”
The phenomenon of vision was a great enigma to the ancients — and modern man is still wondering about the marvels of it.
Aristotle cried out in wonder: “Who would believe that so small a space (as the eye) could contain the images of all the universe? What skill can penetrate such a wonderful process? This is it that leads human discourse to the consideration of divine things!” (Quoted in the 1954 Smithsonian Report).
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, famous English physiologist, was one of the most highly honored scientists of our day. (He died a few years ago, at the age of 95). On writing a classic essay on THE EYE, he said, “Behind the intricate mechanism of the human eye lie breathtaking glimpses of a Master Plan.”
Of the eye we read”
“No scientific instrument is as sensitive to light as your eye. In the dark, its sensitivity increases 100,000 times, and you can detect a faint glow, less than a thousandth as bright as a candle’s flame. You can see in brilliant, blazing light, too’ in light brighter than the radiance of a billion candles. You can see light from the stars, and the nearest of all the stars is 24 trillion miles away.
“The human eye responds to light waves, which are very short — 40,000 to 60,000 of them per inch. (There are many kinds of energy waves: heat, light, radio, X rays).
“The image focused by the lens of the eye falls on the ‘screen’ at the back of the eyeball, the retina. The retina is a kind of carpet, made up of tiny light sensitive cells. Each retina has about 130,000,000 cells. There are two types of cells in the retina — ‘rods’ and ‘cones’ so-called because they look something like rods and cones under a microscope. The ‘rods’ are used for general perception of light; the ‘cones’ are used to see color and fine detail.” (Our Amazing Eyes, by John Perry).
It is unbelievable with what rapidity the eye works. It has been estimated that from the vast panorama presented by your eyes, each eye can send a thousand million impulses per second to the brain — and then your mind chooses significant details. You can stare at a sign without becoming aware of its message, while on the other hand a fragmentary glimpse of some familiar object attracts your immediate attention. (Your Remarkable Eyes,” Science Digest).
To bring before us the fact that the human eye is indeed “THE WONDER OF WONDERS” we quote again from Sir Charles Scott Sherrington’s classic essay on The Eye.
How does a pinhead-sized ball of cells (the tiny human embryo) in the course of so many weeks become a child? Consider the story of just one part: THE EYE.
The many cells which make the human eye have first executed correctly a (process). . . engaging millions of performers in hundreds of sequences. . . . To picture the complexity and the precision of this performance beggars any imagery I have. It suggests PURPOSIVE BEHAVIOR — not only by individual cells, but also by colonies of cells.
The eyeball is a little camera. Its smallness is part of its perfection. But this is a SPHERIOD camera which focuses itself AUTOMATICALLY, according to the distance of the picture interesting it. It turns itself in the direction of the view required. Indeed our eyes are TWO CAMERAS finished to one standard so that the mind can read their two pictures as one. And the eye is contrived as though WITH FORETHOUGHT OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Should danger threaten it, in a trice its skin shutters close, protecting its transparent window. Working only with albumin, salt and water, the starting embryo proceeds, though it is only a little pins-head bud of multiplying cells, NOT ONE-TEN-THOUSANDTH PART the size of the eyeball it makes. The whole structure, with its prescience and all its efficiency, is produced by and out of specks of granular skin cells arranging themselves as of their own accord in sheets and layers, and acting seemingly on an agreed plan! The magic juices that make the eye, go by the chemical names protein, sugar, fat, salts, water. It all sounds like a tale that challenges belief; but so it is. There is more yet.
The biconvex lens is made from cells like those of the skin but modified to be glass-clear, and FREE FROM BLOOD VESSELS which would throw shadows within the eye. It is delicately slung with accurate centering across the path of the light which will some months later enter the eye. IT IS BEING PREPARED IN DARKNESS FOR USE IN LIGHT. In front of it a circular screen controls, like the iris-stop of a camera, the width of the beam and is adjustable so that in poor light more is taken in for the image. In a camera this adjustment is made by the observer; in the eye this adjustment is automatic, triggered by the image itself!
Not only must the lens be glass-clear, but also its shape must be optically right. Its two curved surfaces, back and front, MUST BE TRULY CENTERED ON ONE AXIS, AND EACH OF THE CURVATURES MUST BE CURVED TO THE RIGHT DEGREE, so that light is brought to a focus on the retina and gives there an accurately shaped image. The optician skillfully grinds his glass curvatures in accordance with mathematical formulae. In the formation of the lens of the eye a batch of granular skin cells are told to travel from the skin, to which they strictly belong, and to settle down in the mouth of the optic cup and arrange themselves in a compact and suitable ball. NEXT THEY ARE TOLD TO TURN INTO TRANSPARENT FIBERS, and to make themselves into a subsphere — a lens of the RIGHT size, set at the RIGHT distance between the transparent window of the eye in front and the sensitive seeing screen of the retina behind. In short, they behave as if fairly possessed!
Furthermore, the lens of the eye, compassing what no glass lens can, CHANGES ITS CURVATURE to focus near objects as well as distant, when wanted; and not merely the lens, but the pupil — the camera stop — is self-adjusting. ALL THIS HAPPENS WITHOUT OUR HAVING EVEN TO WISH IT, without our even knowing anything about it, beyond that we are seeing satisfactorily.
The skin shutter outside, above and below this window, grows into moveable flaps, dry outside like ordinary skin, but MOIST INSIDE, which wipe the window clean every minute or so by painting fresh tear water over it.
The eye’s key structure is the light-sensitive screen at the back. It receives, takes and records a CONTINUALLY CHANGING MOVING PICTURE, lifelong, without change of “plate,” through every waking day. And it signals its shifting exposures to the brain. It (the retina) is a nine-fold layer of great complexity. It is, strictly speaking, A PIECE OF THE BRAIN lying within the eyeball.
The cells that are at the bottom of the cup become a photosensitive layer — the sensitive film of the camera. The nerve lines connecting the photosensitive layer with the brain are not simple. The human eye has about 137 million separate “seeing” elements spread out in the sheet of the retina. The number of nerve lines leading from them to the brain gradually condenses down to little over a million. They are in series of relays, each resembling a little brain, and each so shaped and connected as to transmit duly to the right points of the brain each light picture momentarily formed and “taken.” On the sense-cell layer the image has, picture-like, two dimensions, BUT THE STEP FROM THIS TO THE MENTAL EXPERIENCE IS A MYSTERY. For it is the MIND which adds the third dimension when interpreting the two-dimensional picture. AND IT IS THE MIND WHICH ADDS COLOR.
The chief wonder of all we have not touched on yet. The eye sends into the cell-and-fiber forest of the brain throughout the waking day continual rhythmic streams of tiny, individually evanescent electrical potentials. This throbbing, streaming crowd of electrified shifting points in the spongework of the brain bears no obvious semblance in space pattern to the tiny two-dimensional upside down picture of the outside world which the eyeball paints on the beginnings of its nerve fibers to the brain. BUT THAT LITTLE PICTURE SETS UP AN ELECTRICAL STORM. And that electrical storm affects a whole population of brain cells. Electrical charges have in themselves not THE FAINTEST ELEMENTS OF THE VISUAL — they have nothing of “distance,” nor “vertical,” nor “horizontal,” nor “color,” nor “brightness,” nor “shadow,” nor contour,” nor “near,” nor “far,” nor visual anything — YET THEY CONJURE UP ALL THESE! A shower of little electrical leaks conjures up for me, when I look, the landscape, the castle on the height or my friend’s face, and how distant he is from me!
How are we to explain the building and shaping of the eyeball, and the establishing of its nerve connections with the right points of the brain — and all starting from the tiny pinhead-sized embryo? And how can one explain not only the eye but also the “seeing” by the brain behind the eye? THIS IS THE WONDER OF WONDERS. (Caps ours).
No evolutionist on earth can adequately explain such miracles by his theory. The only possible explanation is, GOD MADE IT!
Can anyone, who gives careful thought to the problem of HOW TO EXPLAIN THE HUMAN EYE, believe that it all started ages ago with a freckle or “pigment spot” that gradually developed through countless ages, by random mutations, into the marvelous human eye? And by the way, if one eye should develop that way, why is it that there are two eyes, well spaced? And why is it that a third eye did not develop on the side of the head — and a fourth in the back of the head? In these days of auto-driving it would be so practical to have an eye in the back of your head!
Many years ago, Dr. William Paley, in his book, Natural Theology, said,
“Were there no example in the world of contrivance except that of the eye, it would be alone sufficient to support the conclusion which we draw from it, as to the necessity of an intelligent Creator.’
The Miracle ENZYMES
Shall we take a look at our mysterious TONSILS, once considered by evolutionists to be “vestigial organs,” having no practical value to the welfare of the body? Learned doctors now assure us that tonsils are important — very important — to the welfare of the body, particularly in the first five years of life.
Assuring us that “in the overwhelming majority of cases tonsil-ectomy is useless,” Dr. Barry Bawkin, of the New York University and Bellvue Medical Center, says, “Tonsils act as a ‘trap’ to catch certain germs before they become widely spread through the bloodstream. In addition, tonsils appear to play a vital role in the formation of antibodies against bacterial and virus diseases.”
Or, shall we spend some time in a minute examination of the TONGUE, with its many muscles “twining and intertwining,” bound together in marvelous complexity, in a most astonishing way, which arrangement makes possible the many and varied motions that the agile tongue is capable of? Shall we look into the mysteries of its 3000 taste buds with their complicated structure — and each with a nerve connection to the brain? Shall we wonder WHY we taste “bitter” at the back of the tongue, “sweet” at the tip, and “salt” and “sour” tastes at the sides of the tongue?
Someone will say, we must spend some time with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM, rightly called “one of the supreme wonders of the body.” (“Your Body’s Wizardry with Food,” by J. D. Ratcliff). Quoting more from this article we learn,
“Your digestive system is rugged and durable, completely automatic, and so complex that its workings are still not fully understood. . . .
“Digestion starts in the mouth, with the chemical action of one of the body’s 20-odd ENZYMES — master chemists which promote reactions without themselves taking part in the reactions! . . . .
The stomach is also a secretary organ, having the incredible total of 35 million glands!. . . .
“The small intestine is one of the true wonders of the human body. It is absolutely essential to life. It performs the ultimate task of the digestive process. It has an elaborate muscular system. . . .The inside of the intestines is rough, folded, and contains approximately five million ‘villi,’ minute, hairlike protuberances — necessary in the digestive process.” (Condensed from the Readers Digest, 1953).
Another reader will say; “Don’t forget the TEETH. Wouldn’t it be fascinating to trace the work of the tiny cellular ‘teeth carpenters’ who start before birth on their complex task?”
These “teeth carpenters” must find their chemicals for their job in the blood stream, “so the root of the tooth has a hole bored into it to carry blood vessels which enter from the deeper parts of the mouth. How do these expert “carpenters” KNOW HOW TO MAKE ENAMEL, DENTINE and CEMENT, laying the materials down bit by bit, shaping the teeth, placing the enamel over the chewing portion where it is needed, and performing all the intricate operations, right on time, EVEN HOLDING BACK THE TEETH UNTIL BABY HAS ALMOST FINISHED HIS NURSING?” (Dr. A. L. Brown, in “GOD”S MASTERPIECE: MAN’S BODY”).
Another will say, “You ought to discuss MAN’S MUSCLES — so complex in their action that “When you scratch your nose with your forefinger the muscular action involved dwarfs in complexity the workings of the hydrogen bomb.’ “ “THE MIRACLE OF MUSCLE,” By J. D. Ratcliff).
More than half the human body is muscle — “the most remarkable stuff in nature’s curiosity shop.” “We speak of ‘muscles of iron,’ yet the working or contractile element in muscle is soft as jelly. HOW THIS JELLY CONTRACTS TO LIFT 1000 TIMES ITS OWN WEIGHT IS ONE OF THE SUPREME MIRACLES OF THE UNIVERSE. An elaborate series of chemical and electrical events, which would require hours or days to duplicate in the laboratory, occurs almost instantaneously when a muscle contracts — the twitch of an eyelid for example.” (“The Miracle of Muscle;” condensed from “Today’s Health,” Jan., 1956).
Of course we should go on to write many pages more about these “Miracle Muscles” of ours — but space is limited.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A doctor among our readers says, “Do say something about Our NERVOUS SYSTEM: Our incredibly efficient and complex communications service that dwarfs any made by man.”
“We are awed by the complicated tangle of wires in a large telephone cable: wonder-struck by the efficiency of a communications system that completes a call halfway around the world in a few minutes. But we are inclined to take for granted a communications system that is far more extensive, infinitely more complex — our own nervous system. Day and night millions of messages pour through its billions of cells, telling the heart when to beat faster, limbs when to move, lungs when to suck air. But for the links which it provides, our bodies would be mere masses of chaotic individual cells. . . .
“The ears have 100,000 auditory cells. Minute nerve ends in the inner ear pick up a particular sound frequency and start vibrating — waving like wheat in the wind. A current is generated. It may be so feeble that IT MUST BE AMPLIFIED THOUSANDS OF TIMES before it can be detected. Fed into the brain, by the nervous system, it is identified as a musical note. . . .
“Each eye has 139 million light receptors which send group impressions to the brain. . . .
“The skin contains a vast network of nerve receptors. If a hot object is pressed against the skin, some of the 30,000 ‘heat spots’ will warn of the danger. It has 250,000 cold receptors and something like half a million tactile (touch) spots. . . .
“When we reach a complete understanding of the nervous system, we shall be close to understanding A SUPREME RIDDLE OF THE UNIVERSE: how that mass of cells known as man manages to behave like a human being.” (Condensed from, “Hoe Your Nervous System Works,” in the May, 1956, “Today’s Health”).
Another eager inquirer then raises the question as to why the heart muscle beats a lifetime without tiring excessively.
Bruno Kisch, research associate in cardiology at New York’s Mount Sinai Hospital, believes he has the answer.
“Heart muscle, like other striated muscle, is made of slender fibers. These in turn are composed of tiny fibrils. At regular intervals the fibrils are crossed by bands. . . .
“Micrographs show that heart muscle differs from other muscle in two important respects. The first is that the capillaries that carry blood to the heart muscle actually PENETRATE the muscle fibers; In other muscle the capillaries have only been observed on the surface of the fibers. The second is that among the fibrils of heart muscle are an unusually large number of granules called SARCOSOMES, which in other cells are known to contain enzymes.”
Dr. Kisch believes that these sarcosomes give special feelings of rich enzymes to the heart muscle, and that, together with the deep-seated capillaries, is the SECRET of the untiring work of the heart! (See, “HEART MUSCLE,” Scientific American Magazine).
The heart is the most efficient PUMP in all the world.
To satisfy the curiosity of one questioner, we should take a peek at human hair — under the microscope.
“Hair surface consists of overlapping scales resembling shingles on a roof. Underneath the scale is the cortex — overlapping spindle shaped cells that contain pigment. In or near the center of every hair is usually a medulla made up of cube-like cells which may contain pigment cells and air spaces.” In each individual in the world his HAIR FOLLOWS A DISTINCTIVE PATTERN, set by the scales, the cortex and the medulla! One’s hair is as distinctive as one’s fingerprints! (See, “Detective by a Hair,” telling of the work of Dr. Milton W. Eddy, who has perfected a system of identification by one’s hair).
THE “DUCTLESS” GLANDS
Each of us has in his body two kinds of GLANDS: Duct glands, such as the liver, that pour out their secretions through a duct to a designated place. We also have in our bodies pieces of highly specialized tissue that secrete chemicals that are poured DIRECTLY INTO THE BLOODSTREAM. They are called the Endocrine or ductless, glands. The most important ones are the Pituitary, the Thyroid, the Parathyroids, the Islet cells of the Pancreas, the Adrenals and the Gonads. These endocrine glands, which together weigh only about two ounces, pour out some of the most powerful drugs known!
The Pituitary Gland
The PITUITARY is “the most remarkable gland in the human body.”
“Because of its influence on other glands, it has been compared to the conductor of a great symphony. About the size of a large pea, it resides in a bony cavern on the underside of the brain, approximately in the center of the head. Something like 50,000 never fibers enter this fragment of tissue. Some of its hormones act as stimulants on specific targets. Thus one jolts the thyroid into activity, while other activate the adrenals, pancreas and sex glands. One helps to govern salt balance in the body. Another acts as a brake on the kidneys. One of the most fascinating of pituitary chemicals is the growth hormone: the circus midget has too little, the giant too much. Etc. etc..” (See, “Your Amazing Glands,” in Your Family Doctor, 11-58’).
Can anyone believe that this astonishing gland, no larger than a pea, “just happened” or was formed by “chance mutations?”
“The thyroid gland in your neck produces no more than a teaspoonful of hormone in a year. But if the teaspoon is only partially filled, a newborn baby can develop into a cretin — a malformed idiot. “The adrenal glands produce only a teaspoonful of hormone in a lifetime. But let the hairline balance be upset and we are prey to a host of crippling and disabling diseases.” (Ibid).
THE HUMAN HAND
Some artist or musician raises the question, “How about discussing the HAND?” Gladly, dear friend, for the hand is one of the most marvelous of God’s gifts to man. The hand is unique with man.
“Nowhere in the animal kingdom is there anything comparable with the human hand. . . .the organ that has specialized in remaining specialized. It is an almost perfect tool-holder.” “The HAND, the BRAIN, and human SPEECH are the three features that distinguish man from the animals.”
“The wrist has 8 pieces of bone, all wonderfully jointed. Our fingers have 19 bones, and are webbed part way up on the palm side, making a big hand that prevents things slipping through the fingers. . . . The human hand is a very wonderful thing and one of the greatest of all its wonders is that the thumb is ‘opposable’ and CAN TOUCH ALL THE FINGERS — and so the hand can grasp tools, a pen, etc.”
The hand has strength, lightness and dexterity. With the hands one can play the piano, write, paint and perform a thousand and one other actions.
W. BELL DAWSON, M. A., F. R. S. C., Canadian scientist, wrote this instructive statement about the hand:
“The design of the hand is remarkable; for the large and strong muscles which bend the fingers are NOT IN THE FINGERS THEMSELVES, but in the forearm near the elbow; and the fingers are bent by tendons or cords attached to these muscles, which pass through the wrist and across the palm of the hand to the fingers. What a remarkable plan it is on which our hands are constructed. How dreadful it would be if our fingers were like thick sausages, as they would be IF their powerful bending muscles had been placed in the fingers themselves! As it is, the hand, though so wonderfully strong, is able to do the most delicate work.
“Those who wish us to believe that man has descended from some animal, are MORE PUZZLED ABOUT THE HAND than almost anything else in the human body. For the evolutionist, who tries to prove his theory, cannot imagine, nor explain, HOW THE HAND WITH ALL ITS SKILL, could have developed from the PAW OF A BEAST. For it is only a highly intelligent being that can make use of an appliance which is so remarkably made as the hand. How then did its skill begin? the animals had no need of it whatever because their paws were already thoroughly fitted for every purpose in their animal life.”
MAN’S INCREDIBLE LIVER
Consider a few facts about “Man’s Incredible Liver.” Take a look at a shapeless glob of liver in a butcher shop; transfer your thoughts to your own liver, the largest internal organ in your body. It may weigh almost four pounds.
“The liver is becoming recognized as one of the greatest mysteries of the scientific world. It does 19 different jobs!” *
* This was written in 1958. Today, “more than 500 liver functions have been catalogued and new ones are constantly being discovered. This is chemical magic almost beyond imagination.”
More about “Man’s Incredible Liver” in the ADDENDUM.
“Your liver,” says Herbert D. Benjamin, M. D., is probably the most efficient and complicated device on the face of the earth.”
“This mysterious gland is the master laboratory of the body. . . .The liver’s cells brew a vast and varied chemistry essential to the smooth functioning of all our organs. Some examples: our kidneys couldn’t dispose of waste nitrogen if the liver didn’t turn it into urea for excretion. The liver stores vitamins necessary to the birth of blood in the marrow of our bones. The liver builds amino acids into the albumin that regulates the balance of salt and water without which we could not live. And the liver manufactures bile which influences intestinal activity, so we’re not poisoned by products of our own digestion.” (“Your Liver is Your Life,” by Paul deKruif, in Reader’s digest).
“the liver is the most fantastically complex and efficient organ in the human body. Among other things, the liver regulates the exact consistency of the bloodstream. It does this by producing three different substances and delivering them to the blood in just the right proportions needed. HOW it does this nobody can even begin to guess. . . .One of these substances is FIBRINOGEN, which causes clotting when the blood is exposed to the air. This substance is so complicated that scientists have been unable to duplicate it in the laboratory.
“the second is PROTHROMBIN; it keeps the bloodstream thick enough so that internal hemorrhages through the walls of the blood vessels and organs cannot develop.
“And the third is HEPARIN that counteracts any tendency of the other two to thicken the blood too much.”
Yes, “the liver is a combination factory, laboratory and refinery that forms dozens of fantastically complicated chemical operations that no man-made factory in the world can duplicate.” (Dr. Glen R. Shepherd).
The liver does all of these amazing feats through two types of cells. “Reddish-brown in color, the liver contains millions of minute cells arranged into working units known as LOBULES. Each lobule is a chemical factory or storehouse.” (See “Man’s Incredible Liver,” by Leroy Thorpe).
Think a moment: Could this reddish-brown, shapeless mass of cells do all these miracles, without being activated and made to perform so by the Supreme Intelligence? That the human liver could evolve through random mutations is as farfetched as to believe that a modern jet plane could make itself.
The specialist suggests that we consider the EAR: AUDITORY MARVEL.
“Even in our era of technological wonders, the performances of our most amazing machines are still put in the shade by the sense organs of the human body. Consider the accomplishments of the ear. It is so sensitive that it can almost hear the random rain of air molecules bouncing against the eardrum; yet in spite of its extraordinary sensitivity the ear can withstand the pounding of sound waves strong enough to set the body vibrating. The ear is equipped, moreover, with a truly impressive SELECTIVITY. In a room crowded with people talking, it can suppress most of the noise and concentrate on one speaker. . . .At some sound frequencies the vibrations of the eardrum are as small as one billionth of a centimeter — about one-tenth the diameter of the hydrogen atom! AND THE VIBRATIONS OF THE VERY FINE MEMBRANE IN THE INNER EAR WHICH TRANSMITS THIS STIMULATION TO THE AUDITORY NERVE ARE NEARLY 100 TIMES SMALLER IN AMPLITUDE. This fact alone is enough to explain why hearing has so long been one of the MYSTERIES OF PHYSIOLOGY. Even today WE DO NOT KNOW HOW THESE MINUTE VIBRATIONS STIMULATE THE NERVE ENDINGS.” (See article on “THE EAR,” By Georg von Bekesy, in the Scientific American).
Let us consider briefly part of the marvelous structure of the ear. “To understand how the ear achieves its sensitivity, we must take a look at the anatomy of the middle and the inner ear. When sound waves start the ear drum (tympanic membrane) vibrating, the vibrations are transmitted via certain small bones (ossicles) to the fluid of the inner ear. One of the ossicles, the tiny stirrup (weighing only about 1.2 milligrams), acts on the fluid like a piston, driving it back and forth in the rhythm of the sound pressure. These movements of the fluid force into vibration a thin membrane called the basilar membrane. The latter in turn finally transmits the stimulus to the organ if Corti, a complex structure * which contains the endings of the auditory nerves.
* The organ of Corti is so complex, its workings are almost beyond human comprehension. “The cochlea has developed within itself the extraordinary structure known as the ORGAN OF CORTI. The cochlea consists of two and a half spiral turns around a central supporting pillar. But this spiral canal is subdivided by plates of bone and membrane into three staircases. Upon this membranous partition is the special structure called the organ of Corti. THIS IS A VERY COMPLICATED ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS, placed upon a vast number of parallel fibers rather like piano wires; . . . .
It has been supposed that these fibers act like the wires of a piano, responding to various vibrations that reach them. . . .In this organ itself the essential elements are the hair-cells of Corti, many thousands in number, having fibers of the auditory nerve encircling their bases, while the upper ends are provided with several short stiff hairs, bathed in the fluid that fills the cochlea. These are undoubtedly the all-important cells of the inner ear.” (Book of Popular Science). The workings of the INNER EAR are so complicated no one fully understands them.
The question immediately comes up: WHY IS THE LONG AND COMPLICATED CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION NECESSARY?
“The reason is that we have a formidable mechanical problem if we are to extract the utmost energy from the sound waves striking the ear drum. Usually when a sound hits a solid surface, most of its energy is reflected away. THE PROBLEM THE EAR HAS TO SOLVE is to absorb this energy. To do so, it has to act as a kind of mechanical transformer, converting the large amplitude of the sound pressure waves in the air into more forceful vibrations of smaller amplitude.” (Ibid). (Caps ours).
You may have to read the above paragraphs at least THREE TIMES to follow the description; but note well what we capitalized: “WHY IS THIS LONG AND COMPLICATED CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION NECESSARY?” And the author tells us why — “to extract the utmost efficiency from the sound waves.” Note that the author suggests that the EAR had a problem to solve. Now the EAR is utterly unable to solve ANY problem. To suggest that the “ear” had a problem to solve is like suggesting that the propeller of an airplane, not yet properly designed, had a problem to solve. It is not the MECHANISM that solves the problems, but the MECHANIC. GOD, the Creator, had a problem to solve, when He constructed the ear — and He did a magnificent job of it! Why not give HIM the credit for what He did?
The author of the article in “THE BOOK OF POPULAR SCIENCE” who wrote on THE EAR, had this significant thing to sat (P. 2762):
“From the external ear a canal leads inwards until it is closed by a definite and unmistakable drum-head. The drum of the ear, or tympan, is no more figuratively so named than the lens of the eye. It is what it is named, AND THOSE WHO CAN CREDIT ITS ORIGIN BY THE NATURAL SELECTION OF CHANCE VARIATIONS CAN CREDIT ANYTHING.” (Caps ours). This author, whoever he is, is saying exactly what we say: It is IMPOSSIBLE to believe that such an intricate and involved mechanism as the ear came into being by “chance variations” in the theoretical workings of “evolution.” Since the “chance variations” of evolution are ruled out by all reason and logic, we MUST account for such miracles of construction by acknowledging that GOD MADE THEM.
“OUR LIVING BONES”
We would like to enlarge on the structure and workings of the KIDNEYS that “are among the most miraculous organs in the body.” * but we are forced to stop, by reason of limitations of space. * (The kidneys contain a total of approximately 280 MILES of tiny tubules whose function is to filter impurities from the blood. In the course of a day they filter something like 185 quarts of water from the blood, purify it, and return it to circulation: THE MOST AMAZING PURIFYING SYSTEM IN THE WORLD. Who designed this system?) But we do want to speak of yet one more marvel of the body: “OUR LIVING BONES.”
“Actually, our bones are not ‘dead’ but they contain thousands of small blood vessels and are quite as much ALIVE as one’s stomach. Active little cells called osteoblasts work night and day creating new bone, while house-wrecking cells known as osteoclasts labor just as hard tearing down material tagged for the scrap heap. In addition, the red marrow acts as a blood-cell factory, and the bones themselves as calcium storage vaults.” (See “Our Living Bones,” in the May, ‘48 “Hygeia”).
Every bone in the body and every combination of bones was especially DESIGNED to serve a certain purpose. The skull was designed to house and protect the brain. The spinal column was especially designed with three curves in it, instead of being straight.
“The curves protect the spine against fracture. The presence of the three curves divides the weight of the three masses of organs in the body. The upper sector carries the head, the middle one, the thoracic viscera, and the lower one the abdominal organs. In a straight backbone there would be entirely too much weight concentrated at the bottom. Remember also these other features about the spine: (1) The astonishing articulations by which the several bones of the spine touch one another in many places, but invariably FIT absolutely accurately; (2) the amazing system of LIGAMENTS which bind each pair of bones together; and (3) the wholly wonderful perforation of the individual bones, making a neatly fitting conduit to carry the spinal cord without injury of the slightest degree, although it (the spinal cord) is one of the most delicate structures of the body; (4) the strange curvature, perfectly engineered; and (5) the large number of bones and joints, giving FLEXIBILITY — all these reveal to us the wisdom of the Creator. (Adapted from Dr. Brown’s treatise on “GOD’S MASTERPIECE: MAN’S BODY”).
Merged into the skull is the facial portion of the head, with its 14 bones, so as to make the well-known contour for jaws, cheeks, eye-sockets and nostrils.
“The leg bones are hollow, in keeping with the engineering principle that a hollow column is stronger than an solid one of equal weight. On a weight-for-weight basis BONES ARE STRONGER THAN STEEL. Bone construction is comparable to reinforced concrete.” (See “Our Busy Bones.” Today’s Health, Nov., ‘55).
But the hollow space within the bones is NOT WASTED. In some bones it is filled with the blood-forming bone marrow. God is an Expert at conservation and efficiency.
“The human skeleton represents a MASTERPIECE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN, with each component part tailored to a specific job.” (Ibid).
All authorities on bones emphasize the fact that they are DESIGNED for a specific job — but few of them call attention to WHO DESIGNED THEM. Surely, the bones themselves could not do that; it is impossible for reasoning people to believe that such “marvels of engineering,” such obvious DESIGN for a desired end, just “happened” through the processes of “natural selection” and “chance variations.” Who or what then DESIGNED our living bones? The only possible answer is: GOD, THE CREATOR, DESIGNED THEM.
We ask further — Who DESIGNED the marvelous hinge joint in the knee? Who DESIGNED the amazingly efficient ball-and-socket joints at shoulders and hips, making movements of arms and legs possible in almost every direction! ALL joints in the body are “true wonders of mechanical art.” (Dr, Brown).
“BONE is a busy and in many ways quite amazing tissue. It houses the factory (the bone marrow) that produces most of the cells in the blood; it stores minerals and doles them out as needed to other parts of the body; it repairs itself after an injury; it grows, like any other living tissue, until the body reaches adulthood. Not the least of its wonderful properties is the fact that while it is growing and constantly building itself, it also serves as the rigid structural support for the body, like the steel framework of a building.” (“BONE,” By Franklin C. McLean, in Scientific American).
Consider now this fact: the world is astonished at the wonders of the human body — but they fail to give the Creator the credit due HIM. We list some of the titles of the articles in secular and scientific journals from which we have quoted. Note how all of them speak with amazement about the human body.
“Wonders of Conception” “Your Body’s Wizardry with Food”
“Secrets of the Human Cell” “Powerful Pinheads”
“The Miracle of Birth” “Your Amazing Glands”
“The Miracle of Growth” “Your Liver is Your Life”
“Your Remarkable Eyes” “Man’s Incredible Liver”
“BLOOD: The Stream of Life” “Our Living Bones”
To sum up: the human body is a MIRACLE in construction and function. We have not listed one-thousandth part of its wonders. It would take a million words — and then the subject would not be fully covered. From head to toes, from skin to bone marrow, ALL parts of the body give evidence of careful DESIGN — engineering perfection. Only God the Creator could achieve such a masterpiece of construction!