Chapter 8. THE ENDLESS VARIETIES IN NATURE AND THE “PERSISTENCE OF SPECIES,” AND THE MANY STRANGE AND ODD SPECIMENS OF LIFE ARE WITNESSES TO THE FACT OF DIVINE CREATION
THE WORLD OF NATURE is most fascinating and intriguing, because of the great versatility in creation. The Supreme Architect apparently delighted in creating a well-nigh endless variety of life, including forms of life that are unbelievably odd and so defy explanation. These unusual creatures, and the vast numbers of varieties in life, are in the air, on the land, in the earth, and in the sea. And here is the miracle of this intricate and involved creation: every one of the myriads of forms of life on earth is “whole, complete and perfectly fitted to the environment in which it was made to live and function.” Moreover, each distinct genus is essentially static, breeding “after its kind” generation after generation, with absolutely no evidence of transmutation from one genus into another.
The record of prehistoric life in the rocks is the same:
“When a family appears it appears whole and complete and fitted for the environment for which it was made to live” (Did Man Just Happen? p. 68).
Endless Varieties of Life on Earth
More than a million different animal species have already been described, classified and named — “and it is probable that many thousands more are still to be discovered.” In the world of insects alone there are at least a million different kinds, * not all of which have been described and classified.
* Insects are as remarkable for their variety as for their numbers. There are tiny wasps less than one-onehundredth of an inch long. There are thin insects, fat insects, meek insects, fierce insects, flat insects, cylindrical insects, insects that seldom move and others as fleet as the wind. WHICH CAME FROM WHICH — or, did the Creator design and make them all?
The beetles alone include some 250,000 species! Butterflies and moths total over 110,000 species! Bees, wasps and ants number over 10,000 species! Here are the questions that arise; Since evolution demands such long periods of time for the development of species, by the slow processes of “fortuitous changes” and “natural mutations,” how can it possibly account for such a vast number of species, and why did such an incredible number of species evolve in the same environment? Why, if evolution did it, did not all beetles evolve into a few primary varieties? If it took millions of years to develop one type of beetle, how long did it take to evolve 250,000 species? Then think of the other thousands of species of life on earth. And remember, the 250,000 species of beetles are distinct species, each an interbreeding population, and NOT just “varieties.” Since science has set the age of our earth at from four to five billion years, ALL EVOLUTION MUST HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE LAST TWO TO THREE BILLION YEARS AT THE MOST. So the whole theory collapses in view of the vast variety of life on earth, and the tremendous time needed by evolutionists to account for even minor changes.
Wherever one looks in nature, he is confronted by innumerable varieties of life — especially in the lower echelons.
There are over 100,000 known species of fungi; 5,000 species of green algae; 3,000 species of sponges; 5,000 species of corals and their kin; 25,000 species of crustacea (barnacles, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc,); 80,000 species of mollusks or shellfish; and there are over 300,000 species of plant life!
Many of these multiplied forms of life exist in great profusion.
“Two hundred million insects may inhabit a single acre of pasture” — and the same acre will harbor trillions upon trillions of bacteria.
Many insects multiply with unbelievable rapidity. Consider the aphids.
“If all the progeny of a pair of aphids survived for ONE SEASON they would number 1,560,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.” Thanks to the Creator’s marvelous provisions of maintaining “balance in nature” their natural enemies do not permit a run-away development of aphids, fleas, or any other prolific insect.
Most amazing of all — EACH OF THESE MYRIADS OF SPECIES IN NATURE HAS ITS OWN DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS. For instance:
“Each of the giant silkworm moths of North America makes its own distinctive cocoon, and many of them have a distinctive leaf for food. the cocoons of the Luna and Lo moths are merely spun in a leaf, with which they fall to the ground. On the other hand, those of the Promethea moth (which feeds on spicebush, sassafras and other trees), are spun in a leaf which is securely bound to its twig.”
Variety Among Beetles
Nowhere in nature can one see such vast variety as exists in the 25,000 species of beetles. Some beetles are as small as a pinhead, and others, like the elephant beetles (the Goliath and the Titan) are a full six inches in length! Some, like the weevils, destroy our foods and crops, and others eat vast quantities of destructive insects.
The so-called “death-watch beetle” (Anobium) will bang his horny head upon the wood where he has made his home, making a noise to attract his lady-love. Because of this strange ticking sound, the superstitious call it the “death-watch beetle.”
We already have spoken of the bombardier beetle that, when apprehensive of attack, “will audibly eject with explosive force a fluid which volatizes, upon emission, into smoke.” *
* The Guiana termites have an equally strange ability. Members of a “soldier caste” among them have a sort of squirt gun on their heads, through which they squirt a sticky liquid over raiding ants that have invaded their colonies. How long would it take “evolution” to develop that “squirt gun”? Who gave them the chemical formula for this “sticky liquid” so well suited to their defense needs?
Blind evolution is helpless to produce such endless intricacies of design and adaptation. Why — how — could chance evolution, by “random changes,” produce an intricate, living, workable mechanism like a bombardier beetle — then suddenly and radically change the pattern and produce, let us say, a “water beetle” (adapted to aquatic life,) and then repeat this process 250,000 times!
Other distinctive beetles are the “violin” beetle (so named because of its peculiar shape), the “dung” beetle that rolls up dung into a ball several times bigger than itself, “water” beetles, the so-called “drug-room” beetle — so named because “it waxes fat on chemicals strong enough to poison an army.” Another strange beetle (the Sitodrepa panicla) thrives on cigars.
And now, more questions for evolutionists to answer: How many generations or ages did it take unguided evolution gradually to make the change in eating habits from cotton or corn to tobacco and poisonous chemicals? And why do these beetles persistently refuse, generation after generation, to change their eating habits, whether their diet is cotton, corn, cigars or poisonous chemicals? The truly logical and satisfying answer is, GOD MADE THEM SO IN THE BEGINNING.
Why is it that the larvae of the “stag beetle” passes years in timber oak trees before it attains its adult form? whereas the larvae of the so-called “oil beetles” have the “incomparable instinct” of gaining a living in bee hives! And note well the complicated procedure these larvae go through to get their daily rations:
“When hatched they climb without difficulty the stems of flowers where they calmly await the arrival of a bee. As soon as a bee comes along the oil beetle larva takes a firm hold of the bee’s hair and rides along to the hive where if first diets on the eggs of the queen bee, and later (it undergoes two distinct stages of development) it subsists on the honey of the hive.” This phenomenon is so utterly unaccountable that evolution is at a complete loss to explain this mystery.
There is Great Variety Everywhere
Whenever one looks in nature there is great and pleasing variety. The cheerful songs of birds are as varied as their colored plumages and their nests. The intriguing subjects of sound and color in nature disclose variety without end.
We have the chirp of the cricket, the babbling of the brook, the swish of the wind, the crackling of the fire, the melody of the songbird, the bark of the dog, the mooing of cows, the neighing of horses, the bleating of sheep, the gentle purring of the cat, the roar of the lion, and a thousand and one other sounds we are all familiar with and that help make life pleasant, interesting and adventurous.
In the realm of color we have the same phenomenon: endless, pleasing variety. Who has not been charmed by the subtle colors of the rainbow, the ever-changing color schemes of the sky at the time of the setting of the sun? What is more fascinating than the gorgeous display of colors in a flower garden or the richly colored plumage to be seen in the aviary?
Who gave the sea shells their delicate colorings and symmetrical and attractively colored? Who created the “Glory of the Sea,” an exquisite sea shell from the West Indies? The Fingers of Omnipotence can also be seen in the pinkish shells of the “Angel’s Wings” bivalves, that live about a foot below the surface of the mud. Why such ornate beauty covered by mud — unless the Great Designer loves the beautiful and made this shell so that man too might enjoy its loveliness with Him? Who first put on the drawing board the intricate designs of such shells as the limpet, whelk, moon shell, the fascinating helix, and the charming periwinkle? Who tinted the “Queen conch” with delicate pastel shades of pinks and yellows and light browns? It would take volumes even to begin adequately to describe all the marvelous, symmetrical and beautiful sea shells that are subjects of study and admiration to students of conchology. But Whoever made them left evidence in His handiwork that He is an Engineer par excellence and an Artist without a peer!
Why is it that all things in nature are not a dull slate color, or a listless gray? Such infinite variety and pleasantness as exists in the color schemes of the world — in sky, earth and seas — witness to the fact of purposeful design, by One who loves the beautiful, and shows His desire that mankind too enjoy the lovely and the beutiful things He has made.
Let us now discuss the fact of
The “Fixity” and “Constancy” of each Genus
If ever the evolutionist had an opportunity to demonstrate his theories, it would be in the realm of some lower forms of life, such as bacteria or aphids, or flies, that multiply so rapidly and with but brief periods of time from one generation to the next. And yet, THERE NEVER HAS BEEN ANY DEMONSTRABLE CHANGE OF ANY GENUS INTO ANOTHER, NO MATTER HOW BRIEF THE TIME FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER, IN ANY OF THE INNUMERABLE GENERA ON EARTH. *
* Some bacteria and protozoa, under favorable conditions, can mature and reproduce a new generation in 30 minutes or less. Thus over 17,500 generations could appear in one year! Yet we have proof that many kinds of these minute creatures have persisted without perceptible change for many thousands of years. Ancient Greeks and Egyptians suffered from the same bacterial diseases we do. Moreover, paleontologists have found numerous examples of diseased conditions among fossils of ancient rocks, proving that certain pathological conditions of the bones, caused by the same disease producing microbes that are active today, have persisted without perceptible change for countless generations.
On the other hand, each genus demonstrates a most stubborn “fixity” and absolute refusal to change, even through long ages. And this well-known fact can be proven abundantly from the writings of evolutionists themselves! Consider well the force of the facts presented in these quotations.
“Mollusks are one of the oldest and largest groups of animals. For over a half a billion years species of mollusks have been common in the seas.”
“Some of the oldest known fossils are corals that lived about 500,000,000 years ago.”
“At the base of the family tree of animal life are single-celled animals (Protozoa) WHICH STILL LIVE in warm shallow seas as they did many millions of years ago.” (Caps ours).
“As long as 200 million years ago, roaches and other insects were common. . . .Most of the 12,000 kinds of fossil insects identified are similar to living species.” (This reminds us of the statement by Huxley, “The only difference between the fossil and the animal of today is that one is older than the other.”)
“Gastropoda (shellfish, limpets, winkles, whelks, etc.), are very old inhabitants of the sea and have lived there without undergoing much change for from three to four hundred million years.” (The Living Sea, p. 202).
“One hundred twenty million years ago, oysters lay in quantities in the shallow seas.” (Ibid) p. 211).
“Chitons (amphineurans) first appeared nearly 500 million years ago, yet they have remained unchanged to this very day.” (National Audubon Society Nature Program).
“Scorpions can boast of the longest family line of any land animals. They have changed hardly at all during a span of 400,000,000 years” (W. J. Gertsch).
As far as the earliest geological records of the existence of algae (sea weeds) allow us to see, THEY HAVE NOT CHANGED MUCH IN EITHER FORM OR LIFE ACTIVITIES; some species of today may well be identical with ancestors that lived in the Archeozoic sea about 1.2 billion years ago.” (Francis Joseph Weiss, in “The Useful Algae,” Scientific American, 12-’52).
“Sharks appeared on earth 300,000,000 to 350,000,000 years ago” (T. H. Eaton, Junior).
“In the rocks of the earliest period for which we have good fossils (The Cambrian Period), all of the important invertebrate phyla are already represented. So that . . . the fossil records have nothing to say about the order in which the phyla arose” (“Animals Without Backbones”). (What a confession, coming from an evolutionist).
“Turtles . . . have come down almost unchanged in form and habits since the great Age of Reptiles, more than 160,000,000 years ago.” (Book of Popular Science, p. 2075).
“Modern species of Lingula (one genus of Brachiopods) are almost identical with species which we estimate, from the fossil record, to have lived almost 500,00,000 years ago. This is a record for conservatism among animals, and Lingula has the ‘honor’ of being the oldest-known animal genus.” (Animals Without Backbones, p. 178).
“The Ginkgo, or maiden-hair tree, flourished during the Jurassic period, and was the first broad-leaved tree. It still exists today in China and Japan, having undergone no change for more than a hundred million years” (Book of Knowledge, Vol. 5, p. 1545).
Speaking of the “King Crab” )Genus Limulus), one authority says, “These animals are often referred to as ‘living fossils’ because they have changed so little from the earliest fossil representatives of the group.” (Animals Without Backbones, p. 271).
Grasshoppers in Glaciers and Ants in Amber
Two most remarkable witnesses for the “persistence of Species” are GRASSHOPPERS IN GLACIERS AND ANTS IN AMBER.
There is a so-called “Grasshopper Glacier” of the “Pleistocene age” (one to two million years ago), in Montana. In the Glacial Period, these grasshoppers fell by the millions into a lake; they froze there and the lake became part of the glacier. “One can see those grasshoppers in the glacier today, and they are the same kind of grasshoppers we have now.” (Did Man Just Happen, p. 74).
Many scientists have written on “Insects in Amber.” (See “Insects in Amber,” by Charles T. Brues, Scientific American; “Evolution of Insects,” by Carpenter, in the 1953 Annual Report of The Smithsonian Institution; The Living Sea (chapter on Time Periods and Fossils). Here is the unbiased witness of Chas. T. Brues:
“There is a deposit vault where we can find ancient insects, more beautifully preserved than any fossil ever disinterred from the rocks. This reservoir is amber: an ancient tree-sap which trapped insects like fly-paper and then hardened to preserve the insect intact for millions of years. *
* It is difficult to date fossils. No one knows how old they are. But the ancient dates scientists quote become a most powerful argument for they themselves admit that they believe many species HAVE NOT CHANGED MATERIALLY FOR HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF YEARS!
It is now possible to compare the insect life of 70 million years ago with that of today. . . Among the earliest insects were some hardy types, such as the cockroaches, THAT STILL EXIST IN MUCH THE SAME FORM. . . .Some 70 million years ago (insects) WERE PRESENT IN NUMBERS AND VARIETY COMPARABLE TO THE PICTURE THEY PRESENT TODAY. The insects of that period, as preserved in the Baltic amber, were very similar to those that now inhabit the temperate regions of Europe and North America” (Insects in Amber).
“. . . .More remarkable still is the occurrence in the amber (Baltic amber) of certain species of insects, mostly ants, which are apparently identical with some species now living. The Baltic amber has also furnished proof of the existence of social habits among the insects of that time, for the ants that occur there include, in addition to males and females, major and minor workers. The extent to which the complex habits of living ants had already been acquired in the early Tertiary is shown by the presence of plant lice attended by ants in search for honey dew, and by the presence of mites attached to the ants in the same manner as is characteristic today.” (Annual Report, 1953, Smithsonian Institution).
And so there is proof that through the ages ants have not changed either their form or their social habits — not even their custom, still practised today by many ants, of using aphids as “cows” as a source of honey dew for their own use! There is overwhelming proof, from scores, even hundreds, of scientists, that GENERA ARE STATIC — they tend, for ages on end, to reproduce “after their kind,” showing no change in either form or habits for periods of time running into the millions of years — even hundreds of millions of years, according to evolutionists.
We feel constrained to quote the words of our friend, Prof. Leroy Victor Cleveland.
“Not a bacterium, nor alga, nor salp worm, nor anything else ever evolved higher. Check the facts and see. The Rhodesian alga are supposedly ‘three billion years old.’ WHEN, pray tell, are they going to evolve higher? Or when will ameba, stentor, volvox, ascidian larva, ant, moss, gnat, clam or bedbug ‘evolve higher’?”
Another Question for Evolutionists to Answer
Now, we believe, is the time for us to ask this question:
“How could it occur that one individual, or a few individuals, of a given genus, or population, should advance toward a higher type, WHILE ALL THE REST OF THE SAID SPECIES SHOULD REMAIN in status quo?” For example: Amebas we have still with us today, and they still multiply true to form. Yet the amebas are supposed by some evolutionists to be one of the earliest forms of animal life. IF ONE AMEBA “EVOLVED” WHY DIDN’T ALL OF THEM EVOLVE? HOW IS IT THAT THERE ARE ANY AMEBAS ON EARTH TODAY, IF THEIR TENDENCY IS TO EVOLVE TO HIGHER FORMS?
THE MANY STRANGE AND ODD SPECIMENS OF LIFE ARE WITNESSES TO THE FACT OF SPECIAL, DIVINE CREATION.
One of the strangest creatures God ever made is the Australian Platypus. We believe He purposely made it to confuse and confound the evolutionists. It is a squat, heavy-bodied animal about eighteen inches long. It weighs three to four pounds. It has a deep rich brown velvety fur (gray or white underneath) like the fur of a seal or a mole. It has a flat bill, like a duck, with no teeth after it reaches maturity. It has five toes on each foot, which is webbed — a cross between the feet of a duck and an animal adapted to scratch and dig. It is one of the only two mammals in the world that lays eggs. * Unlike other hatched animals, their young nurse. But instead of nursing from “conventional” nipples or breasts, the young simply lick the mother’s belly fur, and the milk follows the hair ends.
* The other mammals that lay eggs are the Echidnas, toothless, spiny anteaters, also of Australia. Echidnas do not in other respects resemble the Platypus. Instead of having a covering of fur, they are covered with sharp, hard spines. Their snouts are long and slender. They live on ants and termites.
The male platypus has a hollow spur on the inside of its heel, which connects with a gland as poisonous as most poisonous snakes. So it is the world’s ONLY venomous furred creature.
Unlike most mammals, its limbs are short and parallel to the ground — like the limbs of a lizard. Its eyes are small, while its external ear is only a hole, and not the customary ear-lobe such as mammals usually have. In habits it is nocturnal.
To help hold its food, which it catches under water (worms, snails, larvae, insects, etc.), it has large cheek pouches like those of a monkey or a squirrel.
It lives in burrows, which start from a point below water level, in rivers or ponds. The Platypus can dig well despite the fact that the web on its front feet extends out beyond the claws. The web folds back, like a small umbrella, into the palm, leaving the sharp claws exposed, ready for aggressive digging. The unique foot of the platypus is “an amazing contraption” and gives clear evidence of design and adaptation for an intended purpose — to dig and to swim.
What did the platypus evolve from? Let us imagine an Evolutionists’ Round Table Discussion of this problem.
“He must have got his bill from the duck,” suggested one. “That is obvious.”
“Think so?” asked the second. “But a duck has feathers, not fur. It seems to me his fur indicates direct descent from some animal like the beaver — but then a beaver doesn’t lay eggs.”
“Wait a minute,” interposed a third. “He’s toothless and has spurs: that could suggest an ancestry from the chicken — and remember a chicken lays eggs, too.” He caught his breath, thought for a moment, then changed his course. “But then, a chicken doesn’t have fur either. That pesky fur eliminates descent from either a duck or a chicken. Quite confusing,” he mumbled. But he started in again. “The female lays eggs, but she isn’t a bird. Then too, those poison spurs present a problem — no other furred animal is venemous.”
“Yes, and she suckles her young, but has no breasts,” interrupted the first speaker. “Whales suckle their young — but then they don’t lay eggs. Confound this problem, anyhow! Everywhere we turn we meet a roadblock. Let’s try another line. The male has poison-dealing spurs, something like a snake, but they are spurs and not fangs. And everyone knows it couldn’t come from a snake anyhow, for a snake doesn’t have webbed feet.”
Speaker number two had been engaged in deep thought. He was now ready to theorize again. “How in the name of common sense did it get its nipples — I mean its milk hairs, or what do I mean.” He was clearly confused. Presently he reassembled his wits and continued. “And from what did its webbed, clawed feet develop — from ducks or muskrats? We have already eliminated ducks, and I guess we’ll have to throw out muskrats, because they don’t lay eggs.” He started to scratch his head.
It may have been that unconscious gesture that caused another cogitating disciple of Darwin to suggest that “there might possibly be some distant relationship between the platypus and the monkey — for both have pockets in their jaws to carry food in.” But on second thought he opined that “that isn’t possible because the monkey is higher up the ladder of evolution than the platypus.”
“Then where will we place this evasive critter” asked one of the Discussion Group who up to this time had felt that silence was the better part of rushing in where angels fear to tread. Being a neo-Darwinian, he had mentally recoiled from their naive and hasty suppositions. “We’ll have to look into this matter from the viewpoint of heredity and genes,” he reminded them, with an evident air of superior knowledge.
“But his genes must be as mixed up as he is,” countered the first theorists. How could sensible genes and chromosomes come up with a conglomeration like this thing? He isn’t a duck, or other bird, or a beaver, or a snake, or a monkey, or a lizard, much less a whale — but he seems to have been assembled from parts of all of them!”
At this point a “theist evolutionist,” who usually keeps his opinions to himself, suggested somewhat shyly, “Well, maybe this is where God stepped in and helped evolution along.”
At this the rest of the group chuckled and the first speaker said in a superior tone — “certainly you don’t believe that an all-powerful and an all-wise God is going to waste time guiding evolution! If a ‘Supreme Being’ had any thing to do with it, it is much easier to believe in ‘special creation’ than what you suggest.”
The second speaker chimed in: “I agree; it seems to me that if a ‘Supreme Being’ had anything to do with it He wouldn’t follow such a devious route that requires such a waste of time; but my main objection is that no one yet has told us WHAT the platypus came from — or how it got along before its organs were fully evolved.”
“I’ll tell you what” said the neo-Darwinian, with a twinkle in his eye, “He probably was dropped down from Mars!”
They all laughed and were about to give up the discussion, when an even tempered professor, who had been listening up to this point, said: “Don’t give up; remember evolution does its work slowly — through millions of years. Just give us more time, perhaps a few millions years more — and we’ll come up with the right answer. After all, the platypus is HERE, and it HAD to evolve from something” — and then he suddenly recalled the animated discussion they had had — or shall I say, ‘from some things,’ didn’t it?” More laughter, and then they quit the discussion, this time for good.
Clearly, the conglomerate platypus defies all explanation, from the viewpoint of the theory of evolution. It is one of God’s road-blocks, warning the theorists of the blind alley ahead that they persist in going down. It is therefore a living Witness for God and Creation, shouting to all who will listen to facts and common sense:
“GOD designed my perfectly adapted feet for the niche in life He created me to fill; my webs are to swim with and my claws are to dig with, and they work, even if it is a novel arrangement. GOD gave me my bill so I could secure my food from the mud from under the water; and GOD put those pockets in my jaws so I could hold more food at each diving, and then come to the surface and enjoy my meal at leisure. GOD gave me my fur to keep me warm after my repeated immersions. GOD put claws and poison fangs on me so I could protect myself against my natural enemies. GOD gave me the knowledge to build my well-designed home underground, with an underwater entrance that helps keep my family from many dangers. And I rather suspect that God made me as He did, equipping me with ‘impossible’ combinations, in a most unusual departure from normal routine, to confuse and confound those who ignore HIM, I tell you GOD MADE ME AS I AM — and I want the world to know it!”