Which types of joints move not at all, move a little, move freely?
Be familiar with general architecture of a synovial joint, including cartilage, joint cavity, joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, tendons, ligaments, bursae, tendon sheaths, periosteum.
Be able to identify examples of types of joints: plane (gliding), hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, ball & socket. Example: if a diagram points to an intervertebral joint, you should know that it is a plane joint (gliding).
Recognize ab/adduction, flexion/extension, lateral/medial rotation (also known as external/internal rotation).
Recognize varus and valgus at joints such as elbow, knee, hallux.
Recognize inversion/eversion, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion at ankle, pronation/supination of forearm and ankle.
Specific joints: Be familiar with details about the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle joints, as discussed in class. This includes major ligaments crossing each joint and functions thereof, labrums where applicable, etc.
Shoulder: Glenohumeral joint. Ball & socket. Humeral head, glenoid fossa, labrum. Ligaments. Bursae, tendon sheath.
Elbow: Humero-ulnar joint=hinge; proximal radio-ulnar=pivot. Ligaments: LCL=RCL; MCL=UCL; annular ligament. Which ligament opposes valgus stress and is fixed in Tommy John surgery? Proximal radioulnar joint = pivot for pronate/supinate, which you should be able to distinguish.
Hip: Ball & socket. Femoral head, acetabulum, labrum. Easier or harder to dislocate than shoulder? Why? Ligaments from ischium, pubic bone, & ilium to femur, each with corresponding name; ligamentum teres.
Knee: Mainly a hinge joint between femur & tibia, with limited internal/external rotation also possible. 4,3,2,1: Four major ligaments (ACL, PCL, LCL, MCL) and their functions. Three joints within the knee joint. Two menisci. One patellar ligament. Injury from lateral blow – what is often damaged?
Ankle: Talocrural & subtalar joints; distal tibiofibular joint. High and low ankle sprains – what structures or joints are damaged? Which type of low ankle sprain (inversion or eversion) is more common, and what ligaments are damaged in each type? (Deltoid? Talofibular? Calcaneofibular?)
Know what bursitis, tendonitis are.
Know the essential differences between osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).