Which of the following conditions can occur in diabetic patients



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  1. Which of the following conditions can occur in diabetic patients:

  1. osmotic diuresis

  2. nephrotic syndrome

  3. trophic big toe ulcer

  4. retinal hemorrhage

  5. all of the listed

  1. Which of the following lesions may be detected in diabetes mellitus:

  1. pancreatic amyloid deposits

  2. renal tubular vacuolization

  3. glomerulosclerosis

  4. arteriolosclerosis

  5. all of the listed

  1. Which one of the following is not included in the manifestation of Grave’s

disease:

  1. thyroiditis

  2. thyroitoxicosis

  3. infiltrative ophthalmopathy

  4. tachycardia

  5. localized infiltrative dermopathy

  1. A complex syndrome resulting from the absence or deficiency of the pituitary hormones is:

  1. hypopituitarism

  2. dwarfism

  3. acromegaly

  4. gigantism

  5. nanism

  1. A proportional overgrowth of the body's tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty is:

  1. hypopituitarism

  2. gigantism

  3. acromegaly

  4. dwarfism

  5. hyperparathyroidism

6. Under-secretion of thyroxine hormone in children with asociation of mental and physical retardation, is called:

a. cretinism

b. dwarfism

c. gigantism

d. tetany

e. acromegaly



7. Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, is called:

  1. tetany

  2. exophthalmos

  3. gigantism

  4. myxoedema

  5. e`ndophtalmos

8. Identify etiology of primary hyperparathyroidism:

a. adenoma of parathyroid gland

b. chronic renal failure

c. hypercalcemia

d. hypocalcemia

e. paraneoplastic syndrome



  1. .Excessive releasing of adrenal cortex hormones lead to:

  1. cretinism

  2. Cushing's syndrome

  3. Malignant goiter

  4. Addison's disease

  5. Kuhn syndrome

  1. . Identify symptoms of Grave's ophthalmopathy:

  1. bulging eyeballs

  2. dry, irritated eyes and puffy eyelids

  3. cataracts

  4. light sensitivity

  5. glaucoma

11. An ACTH stimulation test is commonly used to diagnose:

  1. Grave's disease

  2. adrenal insufficiency and Addison's disease

  3. cystic fibrosis

  4. hashimoto's disease

  5. Kohn disease

12. Identify symptoms of Cushing's syndrome:

  1. severe fatigue and weakness

  2. vitamin B12 insufficiency

  3. hypertension and elevated blood glucose

  4. a protruding hump between the shoulders

  5. hair loss

13. The most common benign tumor of the pituitary gland is:

  1. glioma

  2. prolactinoma

  3. carcinoid tumor

  4. thyrotropic adenoma

  5. astrocytoma

14. Identify etiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism:

a. adenoma of parathyroid gland

b. chronic renal failure

c. hypercalcemia

d. hypocalcemia

e. paraneoplastic syndrome



15. Identify etiology of tertiary hyperparathyroidism:

a. adenoma of parathyroid gland

b. long-term secondary hyperparathyroidism

c. hypercalcemia

d. hypocalcemia

e. paraneoplastic syndrome


16. Untreated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may result in all of the following:

  1. premature birth and miscarriage

  2. low birth weight

  3. autism

  4. preeclampsia

  5. hypotension

17. Endocrine disorders may be triggered by:

  1. stress

  2. infection

  3. vegetables abuse

  4. chemicals in the food chain and environment

  5. cell phone use

18 What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide:

  1. autoimmune disease

  2. graves’ disease

  3. iatrogenic causes

  4. iodine deficiency

  5. medication side effects

19. Identify risk factors for the development of osteoporotic fractures:

  1. african-american race

  2. current cigarette smoking

  3. female gender

  4. low body weight

  5. male gender

20. The hormones regulating blood calcium levels are:

  1. insulin and glucagon

  2. glycogen and PTH

  3. inhibiting hormones

  4. PTH and calcitonin

  5. calcitonin and ACTH

21. A hormone that under certain circumstances is regulated by positive feedback is:

  1. calcitonin

  2. histamine

  3. oxytocin

  4. melatonin

  5. insulin

22. The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the:

  1. epithalamus

  2. infundibulum

  3. parafollicular cells

  4. intermediate mass

  5. corpus callosum


23. Which of the following hormones stimulates testosterone production by the testis:

  1. TSH

  2. FSH

  3. ACTH

  4. LH

  5. GH

24. Which of the following hormones is released in response to a nerve impulse:

  1. epinephrine

  2. cortisol

  3. testosterone

  4. insulin

  5. glucagon

25. All of the following are hormones of the anterior hypophysis EXCEPT:

    1. vasopressin

    2. follicle-stimulating hormone

    3. adrenocorticotropic hormone

    4. prolactin

    5. oxytocin


26. All of the following are hormones of the posterior hypophysis EXCEPT:

  1. vasopressin

  2. follicle-stimulating hormone

  3. adrenocorticotropic hormone

  4. prolactin

  5. oxytocin


27. Identify the hormones which are released in response to releasing hormones:

  1. adrenalin

  2. human growth hormone

  3. follicle stimulating hormone

  4. prolactin

  5. oxytocin

28. Which of the following hormones control the production and release of glucocorticoids:

    1. ADH

    2. ACTH

    3. GH

    4. FSH

    5. LH

29. Identify mineralocorticoids characteristics:

    1. are produced in the adrenal cortex

    2. are steroid hormones

    3. help regulate the homeostasis of sodium and potassium

    4. are produced by adrenal medulla

    5. are produced by ovarian cortex

30. Identify the stress hormones:

    1. epinephrine

    2. norepinephrine

    3. acetylcholine

    4. calcitonin

    5. testosterone

31. The gland which can be classified as an endocrine and an exocrine gland is the:

    1. thyroid

    2. thymus

    3. pancreas

    4. pituitary

    5. hypothalamus

32. The development and maintenance of the female sex characteristics is the responsibility of:

    1. estrogen and androgen

    2. progesterone and testosterone

    3. relaxin and inhibin

    4. progesterone and relaxin

    5. progesterone and estrogen

33. Which hormone stimulates cells to grow and divide:

    1. thyroid stimulating hormone

    2. luteinizing hormone

    3. growth hormone

    4. glucocorticoids

    5. insulin

34. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas after a meal in order to:

    1. decrease the concentration of blood glucose

    2. decrease the permeability of the cell membranes to glucose

    3. increase the production of glucose from glycogen

    4. increase the concentration of blood glucose

    5. increase the amount of thyroid hormones in the blood

35. For Addison's disease is characteristic:

  1. suprarenalism

  2. bronze color of the skin

  3. obesity

  4. hypertension

  5. hypoglycemia

36. Diabetes in young people has its own characteristics, highlight them:

  1. leads to obesity

  2. leads to the exhaustion

  3. evaluates benign

  4. evaluates malignant

  5. prone to ketoacidosis

37. Diabetes in old people has its own characteristics, highlight them:

  1. leads to obesity

  2. leads to the exhaustion

  3. evaluates benign

  4. evaluates malignant

  5. prone to ketoacidosis


38. Patients with diabetes mellitus die from the following reasons:

  1. diabetic coma

  2. hyperosmolar coma

  3. uremia

  4. myocardial infarction

  5. limb gangrene

39. Patients with Graves' disease can develop:

  1. liver cirrhosis

  2. obesity

  3. left ventricular hypertrophy

  4. exophthalmos

  5. melanoderma

40. Identify types of colloidal goiter:

  1. proliferating

  2. tubular

  3. trabecular

  4. macrofollicular

  5. microfollicular

41. The heart in Graves' disease is characterized by:

  1. cardiosclerosis

  2. hypertrophy of the left ventricle

  3. stenosis of the mitral orifice

  4. parietal thrombosis

  5. obliteration of the pericardial cavity

42. Diabetic macro-angiopathy outcomes are:

  1. cardiosclerosis

  2. diabetic nephropathy

  3. myocardial infarction

  4. limb gangrene

  5. diabetic polyneuritis

43. The disorder of which gland is the cause of Simmonds disease:

a. thyroid

  1. pancreas

  2. adrenal

  3. pituitary

  4. epiphysis

44. Identify cause of Addison's disease:

  1. hyperthyroidism

  2. hypothyroidism

  3. adrenal hyperfunction

  4. adrenal hypofunction

  5. parathyroid gland hyperfunction

45. Primary adrenal lesions include:

  1. hashimoto's disease

  2. panhypopituitarism

  3. Graves' disease

  4. Addison's disease

  5. Conn's syndrome


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