What does E. D. T. A. stand for? Pekruhn in 1986 showed what of successful one visit rcts?



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What does E.D.T.A. stand for?

Pekruhn in 1986 showed what % of successful one visit RCTs?


According to Baumgartner (1984) what % of sinus tracts have epithelium from the oral mucosa to the PARL?
In the early 1900’s golf balls contained what dental material in their cores?
What theory says that pain is a sensation resulting from activation of specialized sensory neurons (nociceptors)?
Hebling (1999) discredited the use of what as a direct pulp capping agent?

Who introduced the perforated irrigating needle in 1981?

According to Lipton’s 1993 survey of 45,711 US households, 22% reported at least one type of what in the last 6 months?
According to Torabinejad (1988) interappointment emergencies are associated most commonly with what teeth?

The classic study by whom, showed that bacteremias only develop if instrumentation extends beyond the apex and even then only lasts for ten minutes?

Matusow still believes that what microorganisms are predominant in endodontic flare-ups (1988, OOO)?
The statistical measure of central tendency which is described by the most frequent sample value is called what?

Naidorf suggests the use of what medication to treat some flare-ups?


According to Zeldow & Ingle (1963), what % of nonvital teeth with + cultures before obturation were reported successful?
Who coined the term ‘Bay Cyst’?

Magura rec the re-tx of obturated root canals exposed to the oral cavity for at least how long?


Stashenko (1993, JOE) showed that most bone resorbing activity is from what 2 cytokines?
In the 1960’s who popularized the technique using CaOH in apexification procedures?

In his 1971 study, who showed the limitations of NaOCl to reach the apical 3mm of the root canal?


According to Swanson & Madison’s 1987 article, after how many days did teeth show coronal microleakage over 79-85% of the root?

Seltzer & Bender say that overinstrumentation can do what to a cyst?


Who repeated Seltzer & Bender’s classic study, and confirmed that bacteremias are only produced in overinstrumentation (1977, JOE)?

According to Haugen (1975, JOE), what is the most characteristic pulpal response to attrition?


Name two classic authors who showed that periodontal dz does not affect the status of the pulp.

What property did Dunsky say makes Bupivicaine & Etidocaine long acting anesthetics?


According to Madison & Wilcox (1988), upon evaluation of coronal microleakage on average, how far did all groups leak after 1 week exposure to saliva?

Cvek (1983, JOE) discouraged the routine use of what procedure after accidental traumatic crown fracture?


In 1968, who described the terms elbow and zip in canal preparation, and who later coined these terms?
What is the term used to describe laboratory animals with microflora that are specifically known?
Who was the 1st to demonstrate 4 different types of apical closures during apexification procedures?

Who claims 100% success at gaining pulpal anesthesia when an IANB is followed by Stabident?


According to Torabinejad (1990), over 50% of the teeth were entirely contaminated with S. epidermidis after how long of a coronal exposure?

Who renamed Simon’s ‘Bay Cyst’ a ‘Pocket Cyst’?

Is the rake angle of Quantec files positive, neutral, or negative (according to Sybron’s claims)?
Shovelton showed that most microorganisms live in what part of the root canal: coronal or apical halves?
Name two classic authors who have shown that periodontal dz can have detrimental effects on the pulp.

What is the major disadvantage of a PDL injection according to Walton?


What classification did Weine give a root canal system that has two separate canals from chamber to apex?
Baumgartner suggests doing what to a sinus tract that does not heal?
Who (1968) rec the MAF size to be 3 sizes greater than the first file to bind?
Who proposed the gate control theory of pain?

Who was credited with the introduction of formocresol in 1906?


Spangberg suggests trying what test to evaluate pulpal anesthesia after signs of lip anesthesia are apparent from an IANB?

Pitts & Natkin describe the ‘halo-like’ radiolucency around the root tip in regards to what likely diagnosis?
Harrington & Natkin (1992, DCNA) suggest that the etiology of a flare-up in vital cases is most likely what?
Who said (1976) that white dentin shavings is not an indication of a clean canal preparation?
How do bacterial cells replicate?

Whose 1971 classic article suggests appropriate sequential tx for endo-perio lesions?

Who said, in 1997, that it is the volume of anesthetic present and not the concentration of epi that increases the anesthesia in IA blocks?

The Ratner bone cavity is frequently associated with what two non-odontogenic facial pain syndromes?


According to Simon (1980), what is the incidence of Bay Cysts?
Heuer’s 1963 article describes what type of instrumentation?

Name 2 authors that have reported on a correlation of pain & smell to the presence of B. melanogenicus in root canals.


In the 1920’s who showed that CaOH could stimulate a dentin bridge following a direct pulp capping procedure?

In 1993 (JOE) who showed that 3% mepivicaine gives equal anesthesia to 2% lidocaine w/ 1:100k epi?


According to Trope (IEJ 1995), what may be even more important than a good RCT to achieve a successful prognosis?

An acute exacerbation of chronic periapical pathosis is termed what?


What classic author invented RC Prep?

Who were the coauthors of Kakehashi’s classic germ free rat study?


In what year was the first endodontic board exam administered?

What antiobiotic is recommended in conjunction with penicillin to increase the anaerobic spectrum?


Kvist (JOE 1999 Dec) showed that surgical or nonsurgical retreatment showed faster healing?
Acute osteomyelitis of the jaws results most frequently from what?
Schilder in 1974 said what canal preparation shape is ideal?

Whose study in 1971 suggested that bacterial contamination plays more of a role than an intracanal material at forming a barrier in apexification procedures?

What year was the AAE formed?

Is penicillin recommended to be taken with or without food?

In regards to pulpal/periodontal interactions, who showed that complete pulpal necrosis only develops if the apical blood supply is compromised?

Lalonde & Leubke believe that what % of PA lesions are cysts?


Thermafil uses what form of gutta percha?

What type of dye was used in Goldman & Pearson’s classic study that discredited the hollow tube theory?


Who first described a root extrusion?

What is added to Amoxicillin to form Augmentin?

According to Slowey, what is the most important x-ray for determining missed canals?
Who is best known for publishing one of the first articles that differentiated between internal & external resorption?
The first article regarding NiTi instruments for root canal instrumentation was written by whom and in what year?
In 1964, who suggested that culturing is unnecessary because repair occurs even when filling with microorganisms present?

Lemon rec 1 month stabilization for every ___ mm moved.


According to a study by Walker (1996), which antibiotic shows the least bacterial resistance?
Who introduced the term “stressed pulp”?

Referred pain was extensively studied by whom in the 1960’s?


In 1977, who introduced the concept of injecting GP?

Whose classic study on germ free rats showed that microorganisms are the major determinant in damage to the pulp?

Who claimed that endodontically treated teeth could be moved orthodontically without increased risk of resorption?

What property of Clindamycin makes it a good antibiotic choice for endodontic infections?


According to Kulild, what percentage of mesio-buccal roots of maxillary molars possess a mesio-palatal canal microscopically?

Bhaskar’s 1966 study showed what % of PARLs are granulomas?


In a 1980 article (JADA) Abou-Rass, Glick & Frank described what type of filing method?
In 1974, who used a strict anaerobic nitrogen spray (VPI technique) to find that anaerobes are the most prominent type of microorganisms in the root canal?

Hu suggests the use of what material as a direct pulp capping agent?


What is the maximum daily adult dose of Ibuprofen?

Glick suggested that location & previous history of acute symptoms is helpful in diagnosing cases of what type?
What is the term used to describe canal obliteration caused by trauma?
According to Harvey (JOE 1981), what is the range of the average vertical force used during lateral compaction?
What is believed to be the most often quoted study in endodontic literature?

Zander suggests that CaOH releases what in direct pulp capping?


What is the intestinal concern of patients taking extended doses of clindamycin (or sometimes other antibiotics)?


What is the term used to describe pulps subjected to repeated damage with a diminished response to pulpal tests?

According to Trowbridge, what are the four zones of a carious lesion?


What is the shape of the blank used to make K-flex files?

Robinson & Boling (JADA 1941 Feb) suggested what as a possible way for bacteria to enter the pulp (Gier & Mitchell agree)?

True or False. Mjor & Cox showed that a necrotic tissue layer forms under CaOH as a direct pulp capping agent.

Which of the isoforms of cyclooxygenase is induced by inflammatory mediators?


In 1974, whose classic study suggested that radiographs are valuable in determining extra roots or strange canal configurations?

What is a lesion adjacent to a tooth with pulpal pathosis that is characterized by inflammatory cells?


Who introduced balanced-force technique, and in what year?

What specific type of bacteria did Sundqvist say were associated with acute inflammation (1976)?


According to Stanley, at what rate does dentin form after a direct pulp cap?

What ribosomal subunit do clindamycin and erythromycin bind to, to cause their bacteriostatic properties?


According to Seltzer & Bender, percussion is an important diagnostic test for what pulpal condition?
What is an odontogenic cyst assd. with a tooth w/ necrotic pulp that develops w/in a periradicular inflammatory lesion & derives its epithelium from the cell rests of Malassez?

In what form is most commercial GP?

Whose classic article (JADA 1964) demonstrated the factors that influence the spread of infection including: virulence of organism, host resistance, musc & fascial arrangements?

Schroeder suggests that what initially forms beneath CaOH after a direct pulp cap?


What is the maximum adult daily dose of aspirin?

According to Torabinejad (1993), on average, how long did complete canal contamination take in obturated canals exposed to saliva?

What is another name for a Bay Cyst?

The rake angle of U-Shaped files is what?

Who showed that teeth w/ lrgr PA lesions tend to be assd. w/ root canals containing an inc in the dif species of bacteria vs. those w/ smaller lesions (fewer species present)?

According to Stanley, what are the 2 main pulpal concerns regarding direct pulp capping?

What is the maximum daily adult dose of acetaminophen?

What follow-up period do Bender & Seltzer recommend on teeth without PARLs to evaluate success?
What is the difference between a pocket cyst & a true cyst?

Pisano (JOE 1998 Oct) suggested doing what after obturation to decrease coronal leakage?


Who renamed the Bacteroides group Prevotella & Porphymonas (JOE 1992 Sep)?
Tagger, Tagger, & Wemes support the use of what medication for pulpotomies?

Yamada showed that a final rinse with what two irrigants produced the cleanest canal walls?


Which nerve fibers in the pulp are most likely to respond to the EPT test?
What is a mixed, benign reactive fibro-osseous lesion of unknown etiology which appears as three different phases radiographically?

Kytridou & Gutmann (IEJ Nov 1999) showed that both Thermafil & System B demonstrated acceptable root canal fills but have a tendency to do what?

Hunter, Rosenow, & Billings are all known for popularizing what theory?
Who was the first to describe a CaOH pulpotomy in 1966?
What is the duration of pulpal anesthesia from an infiltration of 2% lidocaine without epinephrine?
Lim & Kirk suggest that what % of direct pulp caps are successful?
What is an inflammatory reaction to pulp infection & necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort, & intermittent discharge of pus?

In what form is GP found in nature?

What are Fish’s four zones, starting w/ the one that contains bacteria?
In 1972, who used CaOH to induce apexogenesis in incompletely formed apices?

What antibiotic does Hutter (JOE 1991) recommend as the second choice for penicillin allergic patients?


Kuttler’s 1955 study first described what two anatomic landmarks?
Clinically, what is the difference btwn chronic & acute periradicular periodontitis?
Wolcott (JOE 1997) suggested that what obturation technique shows fewer voids & fills lateral canals better than cold lateral?

In 1951, who cultured PA lesions by passing a wire through a hypodermic needle?


What is the term used to describe perm incisors which may be characteristic of congenital syphilis?

What antibiotic do Harrington and Natkin recommend for the penicillin allergic patient?


In Pineda & Kuttler’s 1972 study of root canal anatomy, what % of the canals were straight?
Who stated that necrotic teeth would be more likely to have flare-ups (1992)?
According to Lee & Van Cura (JOE 1998 Sep) which type of heat source has the most potential to damage bone?
What is the major GAG present in human dentin?

What is the first step in hemostasis?


What two authors are credited for showing that pressure produces anesthesia in intrapulpal injections?
Who concluded that all types of crown margins leak (he also disproved the ‘Hollow tube theory’)?
In 1988, Torabinejad listed 6 predictors for a higher incidence of flare-ups. Name 3 of them.
Who invented Thermafil in 1978?

According to Avery, what are the first elements to develop in the human pulp?


Where do erythrocytes primarily develop in adults?
What medicine should not be used in children because of the risk of Reye’s disease?
What is the typical patient profile for periapical cemental dysplasia?
Name 3 authors who stated that it was better to close a tooth after treatment (versus leaving it open).
What is the temperature range (and for what duration) for heating bone, that can cause injury & decrease regeneration ability?

Who first developed the hydrodynamic theory of pain that was later popularized by Brannstrom?


Which clotting factor is deficient in hemophilia A & Von Willebrand’s disease?

Who is best known for suggesting the use of prophylactic antibiotics in teeth with necrotic pulps to prevent flare-ups and pain?

What is another name for a “Pulp Polyp”?

Who stated that leaving a tooth open after treatment was better than closing it?


Who popularized the warm vertical obturation technique in 1967?
What are the 4 main types of GAGs in the human dental pulp?
What is the last event in hemostasis?

Walton & Fouad, or Chiapinelli showed that what pre-operative treatment does not reduce post-op pain or flare-ups following treatment of necrotic pulps?

True or False. Kim showed that a PDL injection is effective at anesthetizing only one tooth for diagnostic purposes.
Moos (1996) stated that trephination was not justified. Why?

Johnson (JOE 1999 Sep) showed that it may be acceptable to backfill canals with the Obtura II in a single increment up to what length?

According to Avery, what are the last elements to develop in the human dental pulp?
Which clotting factor is activated eventually in the extrinsic, intrinsic, & common pathways?

According to a 1990 survey by Gatewood, what % of Diplomates of the ABE prescribe Ab’s to pts with swelling where drainage is not obtained?

What did Kerekes & Tronstad (1979) say the effects of a flare-up would be on the overall prognosis for success?
Name 2 authors who claimed that the amount of post-op pain is directly related to pre-op pain.
Who introduced warm vertical obturation in 1953?

According to Orlowski, the collagen turnover in the human pulp is faster or slower than in the gingival or PDL?


What test can be used instead of the PT & PTT tests to evaluate anticoagulated patients?

According to a 1990 survey by Gatewood, what % of Diplomates of the ABE prescribe Ab’s to patients with vital pulps and AAP?

In his 1960 study, D. Green found which teeth had the highest % of accessory foramina?
What % of flare-ups did Walton & Fouad find in their 1992 study?
What type of sealer is said to be acceptable w/ a single cone gutta percha technique?
What cells synthesize GAGs in the human dental pulp?

Clot stabilization is mediated by which activated clotting factor?

What is the common name for bis-dequalinium acetate?

Who first used dye-penetration to evaluate leakage in 1939?

What is an “acute exacerbation of a periradicular pathosis after the initiation or continuation of an RCT”?
Who is credited for developing cold lateral condensation for the obturation of the root canal space in 1914?
According to Van Amerongen, what % of pulpal collagen is type 3?
How many RADS equals one grey?

Whitten (JADA 1996) showed that what % of dentists Rx Abs to patients w/ draining sinus tracts?


Who conducted (and in what year) the first study about the incidence of MP canals in maxillary molars?
In 1985, Naidorf listed 10 things that are likely to cause flare-ups. Name 4 of them.
Lares & El Deeb (JOE 1990 Oct) showed that what obturation technique showed significantly more leakage than cold lateral?

Stanley showed that ___mm is the critical remaining dentin thickness to avoid irreversible pulpal damage.


In what year was endodontics declared a specialty?
Yagiela showed that what vasoconstrictor besides epinephrine also increases BP?
Taylor, Jeansonne, & Lemon (JOE 1997) suggest that the combination of what three variables decreased coronal leakage?

What virus is associated with infectious mononucleosis, hairy leukoplakia, & Burkitt’s Lymphoma?


Schilder (OOO 1974) showed that GP goes through what three phases upon heating (in order)?
What nerve fibers found in the pulp are most likely to respond to light touch?
Brandywine shell teeth are characteristic of which type of dentinogenesis imperfecta?

Why did Kim (1986) state that PDL injections should only be used for endo therapy & extractions, and not on vital teeth?


Who suggested in their JOE 1997 article that removal of the smear layer will reduce coronal leakage?
What type of cyst is found in place of a tooth rather than directly associated with one?
Commercial GP is predominantly what material?

What is the earliest response of dentin to caries according to Stanley?


The cranial component which is analogous to the substancia gelatinosa of the peripheral gate control mechanism is what?

According to Ingle (1958), what property is most important in irrigating solutions?


Who developed the liquid pressure technique for testing dentinal permeability & obturation leakage assessment?
In which jaw is osteoradionecrosis more common, the mandible or the maxilla?
Schilder (OOO 1974 Jun) disputes Luks original claim that GP is what?
During conditions of anoxia, pulp tissue will metabolize via what process?
What are the 4 basic tissue types in the human body?

Any drug binding to _____ can displace coumadin & should be avoided.


Stein & Corcoran (1990) found the apical foramen to be how far short of the apex?
What is the Pasteur Effect?

Ibarola & Chapman (JOE 1999 Sep) showed that what procedure increases the accuracy of the apex locator?


What are dentinal tubules called that are no longer filled with living odontoblastic processes?
Dragoo, Bruce & Rudall rec the use of what root end filling material?

According to the AHA does the placement of the rubber dam require prophylactic Abs?


Who claimed that “The chamber is in the center of the crown”?
What condition of dentin formation is characterized by normal enamel, atypical dentin, pulpal obliteration, defective root formation, and multiple PARLs?

Which endodontic technique includes the use of a paraformaldehyde paste, no rubber dam, & no working radiographs?

In 1975, who authored the JOE article that first mentioned the smear layer in endodontic literature?
What type of collagen is present in the basal lamina?
According to Seng, what substances used as preservatives in LA are most likely to cause allergic reactions?
Who examined the apices of teeth & concluded that the avg distance of CDJ to apex was .5mm in younger people and .65mm in older people?

How long is it rec to soak an avulsed perm tooth in fluoride if the extraoral dry time is greater than one hour?


What is the symbol used for Sargenti paste?

Mader & Baumgartner showed that the smear layer is how thick and can be packed into the dentinal tubules how far?


What is the acceptable tolerance dose for those who work with radiation?

What type of anesthetic injection can cause bacteremia?

Which teeth have the highest number of lateral canals?

Replantation in an attempt to revitalize the pulp is suggested under what specific conditions in the treatment of an avulsed tooth?

Who first discredited the Sargenti technique in 1973?

Hargreaves showed that plasma levels of what enkalphin are inversely proportional to acute post-operative pain?


What is the most common junctional complex found btwn cells in the stratified squamos epithelium?

After what time period does heated NaOCl lose its effectiveness due to decreased chlorine levels?


Burger & Hutter (JOE 1999 Apr) showed that digital radiography & ____ speed film were comparable at evaluating length determination.

Who is known for suggesting the use of milk as a transport medium in the treatment of the avulsed perm tooth?


How does the new generation of apex locators work?

In 1965, what two authors discredited the hollow tube theory?


The neural syndrome which is characterized by paroxysmal unilateral pain in the soft palate & is precipitated by difficult swallowing is what?

What is the name of the hemostatic agent introduced by Horsley in 1982?


What did Gartner rec taking to determine the difference btwn external & internal resorption?
According to the AAE guidelines, avulsed perm teeth require a FU evaluation for a min of how many years to determine the outcome of therapy?

What is the constant electrical resistance of the PDL & oral mucosa reported by Suzuki in 1942?


What types of cells are present in acute inflammation?

What type of collagen makes up hyaline cartilage?


What is synergism?

What was the % range that Vertucci (1984) found in teeth with lateral canals?


According to Trope, what two entities exist in type three external root resorption?
Which classic study concluded it was best to fully instrument the teeth, but to obturate them slightly short?
From which part of the tooth bud does the PDL arise?

What two hormones regulate blood calcium levels?




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