Wfb 232 Ichthyology Taxonomy, Week 5 28 Feb 2005



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WFB 232 Ichthyology

Taxonomy, Week 5 28 Feb 2005



Superclass Gnathostomata

Class Actinopterygii

Subclass Neopterygii

Division Teleostei

Subdivision Euteleostei


Contains fishes with adipose fins and nuptial tubercles(but not all members of this group have adipose fins and nuptial tubercles) no “unique” characteristic common to all species in Euteleostei.

Superorder Ostariophysi



Most dominant group of freshwater fishes. 6,500 species (27% of known species)

alarm pheromone in most Ostariophysans, unculi (horny projections)

Series Anotophysi

Order Gonorhynchiformes (Milkfish)
Family Chanidae, Chanos chanos

slightly modified anterior vertebrae, large forked caudal fin, planktivorous.

popular in pond aquaculture, esp. in SE Asia. grows to 1.8 m in length.
No Weberian apparatus

Series Otophysi



Most dominant group of freshwater fishes (>6,000 species)

Weberian apparatus (bony connection between swim bladder & ear) for sound reception

variable body forms, sizes, habitats

Order Cypriniformes (Carps, minnows, loaches, suckers and allies)


No true teeth, pharyngeal teeth (for filtering plankton), no adipose fin

fully scaled, physostomus, lack true fin spines

Originated in SE Asia, naturally distributed to Africa, Europe, & North America
(introduced to South America & Australia)

~ 2,000 species, very important ecologically & economically

In Vermont: See page 3 for list of families and species

Order Characiformes (Characins)


have true teeth on jaw, opposing pharyngeal teeth, adipose fin

tropical species, found only in freshwater, Africa (200 spp.)

& Texas to South America (1,300 spp.)

piranhas, tetras, hatchetfishes

variable feeding methods: detritivory, herbivory, planktivory, predation, fin-eating, and

scale-eating, group-predation


Order Siluriformes (Catfishes)

very diverse group, distributed around the world, second to Cypriniformes in # species

no scales (some have armor), have barbels (whiskers) around mouth, adipose fin (in most)

teeth only on premaxillary (in most)

dorsal & pectoral fins have spines (modified soft rays), which have “venom” in some spp.

omnivorous, but some w/ specialized diets (parasites)

some species swim upside down (reverse countershading)

most can breathe air, some have strong electrosensory development, some are blind

candiru – parasitic in urogenital canals!



In Vermont: Family Ictaluridae

4 pairs of barbels around mouth, adipose fin, no scales or armor, stout spine at leading edge of dorsal and pectoral fins (in bullheads).





Ictalurus punctatus

channel catfish (introduced)

Noturus flavus

stonecat

Ameiurus natalis

yellow bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

brown bullhead

Order Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes)



similar to Siluriformes, occur in Central & South America

no dorsal fin, but long fleshy fin on back resembling adipose fin, usually no caudal/pelvic.

Anus & urogenital openings in front of pectorals

all members have some electric organs (some are stronger than others)

electric eel – up to 650 volts!

some are modified air-breathers


Order Cypriniformes, Representatives in Vermont:



Family Catostomidae







Carpiodes cyprinus, Quillback




Catostomus catostomus, Longnose sucker




Catostomus commersoni, White sucker




Moxostoma anisurum, Silver redhorse




Moxostoma macrolepidotum, Shorthead redhorse




Moxostoma valenciennesi, Greater redhorse

Family Cyprinidae







Carassius auratus, Goldfish (introduced)







Couesius plumbeus, Lake chub







Cyprinella spiloptera, Spotfin shiner







Cyprinus carpio, Carp (introduced)







Exoglossum maxillingua, Cutlips minnow







Hybognathus hankinsoni, Brassy minnow







Hybognathus regius, Eastern silvery minnow







Luxilus cornutus, Common shiner







Margariscus margarita subspecies margarita, Pearl dace







Notemigonus crysoleucas, Golden shiner







Notropis atherinoides, Emerald shiner







Notropis bifrenatus, Bridle shiner







Notropis heterodon, Blackchin shiner







Notropis heterolepis, Blacknose shiner







Notropis hudsonius, Spottail shiner







Notropis rubellus, Rosyface shiner







Notropis stramineus, Sand shiner







Notropis volucellus, Mimic shiner







Phoxinus eos, Northern redbelly dace







Phoxinus neogaeus, Finescale dace







Pimephales notatus, Bluntnose minnow







Pimephales promelas, Fathead minnow







Rhinichthys atratulus, Blacknose dace







Rhinichthys cataractae, Longnose dace







Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rudd







Semotilus atromaculatus, Creek chub







Semotilus corporalis, Fallfish







Tinca tinca, Tench (introduced)















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