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In 331 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedon began one of the greatest conquests in human history. After conquering Egypt and defeating the Persian Empire Alexander had pushed his army to the very limits of the world as the Greeks knew it. But he wanted more; he saw that the world extended further. By conquering the ancient lands of the Mesopotamians, he came into contact with cultures to the east, such as Pakistan and India. ... Alexander only made it as far as the region of Gandhara [northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan - Wiki.com], the plain which lies directly west of the Indus River [Pakistan]. Alexander himself seems to have had literally no effect on Indian history, for he left as soon as he reached the Indus. Two important results, however, arose because of Alexander's conquests: first, from this point onwards Greek and Indian culture would intermix. But most importantly, the conquest of Alexander may have set the stage for the first great conqueror of Indian history, Chandragupta Maurya (reigned 321-297 BC), who, shortly after Alexander left, united all the kingdoms of northern India into a single empire. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - ufo.whipnet.org: The first recorded incident regarding Alexander the Great and UFO's was recorded in 329 B.C. - "gleaming silver shields" swooped down and made several passes over the battle - These "gleaming silver shields" had the effect of startling his cavalry horses, causing them to stampede - They also had a similar effect on the enemies' horses and elephants so it was difficult to ascertain whose side these "gleaming silver shields" were on {Note: UFOs, space aliens, extraterrestrial life, etc. exhibit the exact same tendencies, behavioral patterns, customs and doctrines and are indistinguishable from known demonic or fallen angelic beings [doctrines of demons]. Generally if the often reported sightings and encounters of advanced extraterrestrial life forms or alien beings were genuinely from advanced and separate societies then conduct and openness would dictate that they would reveal and conduct themselves in the openness of an advanced civilized society yet the very reasons that UFO phenomenon engages in deceit and secrecy leads to valid concerns that UFO phenomenon is an elaborately staged hoax of the [superior] demonic realm and is a hoax that has been in existence for several millennium, a hoax that is drawing to a designed, grand finally in some predetermined and intended master exposure the resulting conclusion staged primarily for exhibit to mankind.}

The first recorded incident regarding Alexander the Great and UFO's was recorded in 329BC. Alexander decided to invade India and was attempting to cross the river Indus to engage the Indian army when "gleaming silver shields" swooped down and made several passes over the battle. These "gleaming silver shields" had the effect of startling his cavalry horses, causing them to stampede. They also had a similar effect on the enemies' horses and elephants so it was difficult to ascertain whose side these "gleaming silver shields" were on. Nevertheless, after exiting the battle victoriously Alexander decided to not proceed any further into India. ... [Seven years later - the destruction of Tyre] The historical account, recorded by Alexander's chief historian, states that, during an attack of the island city, one of two 'gleaming silver shields' attacked a section of the wall with a 'beam of light' which subsequently caused that section of the wall to fall! Alexander's' men poured through the opening and captured the city. What is so noteworthy about this encounter is the fact that the historians for the defeated people of Tyre reported the exact same reason for the loss of their city! Usually, the reason given by a defeated people is different than that given by the victors, but in this instance their accounts read the same. Before he started his major offensive against Persia Alexander sought the advice of an oracle in a temple located in the desert. He set off, with a small party of men, but miscalculated the logistics and found himself hopelessly out of water and dying of thirst. Almost miraculously, a rare, but unusually strong rain cloud burst overhead and gave him and his men sufficient water to safely complete their journey. No one reported seeing any 'gleaming silver shields' but here again is a case of a wondrous "cloud" that we see so many occurrences of in the Bible. Written by: SC Russ. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - Empedocles [Acragas (an ancient Greek city - Wiki.com), 490 - 430 BC] - The Pythagorean influence dominated Greek thought for a long time - Many of Pythagoras' ideas can be found in the work of Empedocles - He [Empedocles] was the first philosopher who stated that there are four primordial elements: earth, air, fire and water - Empedocles conceived of a fanciful version of the theory of evolution which included the idea of survival of the fittest - He stated that in prehistoric times strange creatures had populated the world of which only certain forms had survived - Though, it must be granted that Empedocles' vision is somewhat crude and bizarre, compared to the painstaking investigation that led Darwin [Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) was an English naturalist - Wiki.com] to the same conclusion two thousand three hundred years later

Empedocles was remarkably ahead of his time. He made several noteworthy statements, such as that the moon would shine by reflected light and that solar eclipses are caused by the interposition of the moon. He held that light takes time to travel, but so little time that we cannot observe it. He also discovered at least one example of the centrifugal force: if a cup of water is whirled round at the end of a string, the water does not flow out. In addition, Empedocles conceived of a fanciful version of the theory of evolution which included the idea of survival of the fittest. He stated that in prehistoric times strange creatures had populated the world of which only certain forms had survived. Though, it must be granted that Empedocles' vision is somewhat crude and bizarre, compared to the painstaking investigation that led Darwin to the same conclusion two thousand three hundred years later. The following are excerpts from the book "On Nature", in which Empedocles describes the fantastic creatures that preceded mankind: "Come now, hear how the shoots of men and pitiable women were raised at night by fire, as it separated, thus - for my story does not miss the mark, nor is it ill-informed. First, whole-natured forms sprang up from the earth, having a portion of both water and heat. Fire sent them up, wishing to come to its like, and they showed as yet no desirable form in their limbs, nor any voice, nor member native to man." (Simplicius, Commentary on Physics 381.29) "Here many neckless heads sprang up. Naked arms strayed about, devoid of shoulders, and eyes wandered alone, begging for foreheads. But when they mingled, these things came together as each happened and many others in addition were continuously born." (Simplicius, Commentary on the Heavens, 586.6) "Many grew double headed, double-chested - man-faced oxen arose, and again ox-headed men - creatures mixed partly from male partly from female form, fitted with dark limbs." (Aelian, The Nature of Animals XVI 29). [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - Evolution and Paleontology in the Ancient World - Even "primitive" peoples may have extremely detailed knowledge of the living organisms around them, knowledge on which their survival or well-being often depends - When such knowledge is arranged systematically and used to make general statements and predictions about the world, one may speak of a scientific tradition - Such traditions were developed among the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians; the Egyptians, in particular, developed a scientific tradition in medicine, one based on careful observations - It was the Greeks, however, who led the way in developing a general scientific worldview -- one in which natural, non-miraculous explanations for the causes of phenomena were sought. The earliest Greek philosophers lived and worked, not in Greece itself, but in the Greek colonies of Ionia (the Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor -- now Turkey -- and the nearby islands) - Because it was favorably located for trade among Greece, Egypt, and the Near East, Ionia was not only wealthy, but well placed for the dispersal of ideas; thus Greek thought drew on the knowledge of the Near East, Egypt, and even India at various times in history - Later, the thinkers of the Roman Republic and Empire carried on the Greek tradition, although relatively less original scientific thought was developed among the Romans

The Ionian Philosophers: Evolutionary theory begins with the Ionian philosopher Anaximander (ca. 611 - 546 B. C. E.). Very little is known about his life, but it is known that he wrote a long poem, On Nature, summarizing his researches. This poem is now lost, and has survived only in extracts quoted in other works. Enough survives, however, that Anaximander's thought can be reconstructed with some confidence. For Anaximander, the world had arisen from an undifferentiated, indeterminate substance, the apeiron. The Earth, which had coalesced out of the apeiron, had been covered in water at one stage, with plants and animals arising from mud. Humans were not present at the earliest stages; they arose from fish. This poem was quite influential on later thinkers, including Aristotle. Had Anaximander looked at fossils? Did he study comparative fish and human anatomy? Unfortunately, we have no way of knowing what evidence Anaximander used to support his ideas. His theory bears some resemblance to evolutionary theory, but also seems to have been derived from various Greek myths, such as the story of Deucalion and Pyrrha, in which peoples or tribes are born from the Earth or from stones. His concept of the apeiron seems similar to the Tao of Chinese philosophy and religion, and to the "formless and void" Earth of the Hebrew creation account and other creation myths. However, even though Anaximander's ideas drew on the religious and mythical ideas of his time, he was still one of the first to attempt an explanation of the origin and evolution of the cosmos based on natural laws. -- In the 6th century B.C. Xenophanes of Colophon (died ca. 490 B.C.E.), who was a disciple of Anaximander, developed Anaximander's theories further. He observed fossil fishes and shells, and concluded that the land where they were found had been underwater at some time. Xenophanes taught that the world formed from the condensation of water and "primordial mud;" he was the first person known to have used fossils as evidence for a theory of the history of the Earth. -- The Greek historian Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) also observed fossil shells in Egypt, and cited them as evidence that Egypt had once been underwater. He also described a valley in Arabia, in the Mokattam mountains, where he saw "the backbones and ribs of such serpents as it is impossible to describe: of the ribs there were a multitude of heaps. . . " He ascribed these bones to winged serpents that had been killed by ibises. We now know that these are the bones of fossil mammals that wash out of the rocks every rainy season. Several other ancient historians briefly mentioned fossils in their writings. Finally, the famous Greek physician Hippocrates of Cos (460-357 B.C.E.) is known to have collected fossils; in fact, modern excavations at Asklepion, the famous medical school of Hippocrates's day, unearthed a fragment of a fossil elephant molar. ... Empedocles of Acragas: Another Greek philosopher, the fifth-century materialist Empedocles of Acragas (in Sicily), postulated that the universe was composed of four basic elements -- earth, air, fire, and water. These elements were stirred by two fundamental forces, which Empedocles called Love and Strife. ("Attraction" and "repulsion" might be better modern terms for what Empedocles actually meant.) The constant interplay of these elements, alternately attracting and repelling each other, had formed the universe. Empedocles claimed that the Earth had given birth to living creatures, but that the first creatures had been disembodied organs. These organs finally joined into whole organisms, through the force of Love, but some of these organisms, being monstrous and unfit for life, had died out. The theory seems a bit bizarre today, but Empedocles had come up with a sort of evolutionary theory: past natural selection is responsible for the forms we see today. Empedocles also ascribed the origin of the life of today to the interplay of impersonal forces, in which chance, not the gods, played the major role. There are, however, major differences between Empedocles's ideas and natural selection in the modern sense: Empedocles conceived of his "natural selection" as a past event, not as an ongoing process. Once again, we do not know whether Empedocles had actually found supporting evidence for his theories. **He may have been influenced by existing accounts of mythological creatures that seemed to be "put together" out of the parts of different animals, such as centaurs, sphinxes, and chimeras. But perhaps he had also seen deformed animals, or examined "monstrous-looking" fossil bones. ... Lucretius: Much later, the Roman poet and philosopher Titus Lucretius Carus (99-55 B.C.E.) wrote his long philosophical poem De Rerum Natura ("On the Nature of Things"). In this poem Lucretius proposed, among other things, an "evolutionary" theory similar to that of Empedocles (which is ironic, because he attacks Empedocles rather vehemently in other parts of the poem). [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - 6th Kingdom - Rome, Julius Caesar - Greek and Roman Gods: Here are the twelve Olympian gods and a brief description of each - *The Greeks and Romans shared the same [god] stories, but used different names - Greek (Zeus), Roman (Jupiter) Description: Lord of the sky and supreme ruler of the gods - Known for throwing lightening bolts -- Greek (Aphrodite), Roman (Venus) Description: Daughter of Zeus - Goddess of Love and Beauty -- Other Gods: Mother earth, Greek (Gaea - Gaia), Roman (Terra - 'Terra firma' is a Latin phrase meaning "solid earth" Wiki.com)

Greek and Roman Gods: Here are the twelve Olympian gods and a brief description of each. The Greeks and Romans shared the same stories, but used different names. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - Mythology of Greece and the Greek Islands: The Olympian [Mt. Olympus] Gods - One thing to notice is that the ancient Greek gods were gods because of their supernatural powers and eternity, not their character - They were far different from the modern notion of gods - The Olympian Gods were weak in nature and had faults, while they frequently merged with mortals and interfered with their lives - Actually, the ancient Greek gods were copies of human characters and society

Zeus was the god of the earth and the sky. His symbols were the thunderbolt, the eagle, the bull and the oak. Although he was married to Hera, his elder sister, he would frequently cheat on her with many mortal women. other goddesses and nymphs. He is depicted in statues and paintings as a middle-aged man seating on his throne or throwing a thunderbolt. ... Aphrodite was the goddess of beauty. She was forever beautiful and young. Shallow in nature, Aphrodite has a lot of affairs with mortals. Her son was Cupid, the familiar young boy with wings who played with his arrows and made people fall in love. Aphrodite was no directly connected to Zeus. She was probably a generation older than the other Olympian Gods. The myth says that she was born out of the foam of the sea either near Paphos Cyrpus or near Kythira island. ... Ares, the god of warfare and violence, was son of Zeus and Hera. He was not a likable god in ancient Greece, which is why there are no many temples of Ares. However, people were afraid of his anger and included him in their offerings. ... *Athena was also a goddess of war, but more of strategic war, not violence like Ares. She was also the goddess of wisdom and justice. The daughter of Zeus and a mortal woman, Athena was born out of the head of Zeus when her pregnant mother was killed out of Hera's jealousy. Noble in nature, Athena didn't match with men and would mostly deal with warfare. ... One thing to notice is that the ancient Greek gods were gods because of their supernatural powers and eternity, not their character. They were far different from the modern notion of gods. The Olympian Gods were weak in nature and had faults, while they frequently merged with mortals and interfered with their lives. Actually, the ancient Greek gods were copies of human characters and society. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - Hanukkah The Historical Background - Hanukkah [established 165 B.C.] does not appear among the [8] Feasts of the Lord in Leviticus 23 {Note: Hanukkah is not one of the Levitical Holy Feasts of Israel it is a Festival of Israel (and was attended by Jesus - John 10:22-23) but Hanukkah is not at the level of any of the eight Levitical Holy Feasts of Leviticus chapter 23.}

To fully understand this holy [festival] day, go back to a tumultuous time in the history of Israel: the Hellenistic (Greek - 5th Kingdom of the globe) period around 167 B.C. As was so often the case, the Jewish people were living under the oppression of a foreign power. **A few generations earlier, the Greeks had come to world power under the remarkable leadership of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C. (at the aged of 32)). With the ascension of this kingdom, Alexander seemed to have unified the ancient world into one common government and *culture called Hellenism. After Alexander's untimely death, there was a political scramble among four of his generals, **resulting in the division of the Hellenistic empire [into four parts]. The Ptolemies took control of the South, which included Egypt [centered in Alexandria Egypt and concluding with Queen Cleopatra (69 BC - August 12, 30 B.C. died in a suicide accompanied with Roman Triumvirate (three part) ruler Mark Antony) Cleopatra was a descendant (about eight generations later) of [General] Ptolemy I and Queen Bernice I]. The Seleucids [Seleucus I (given the surname by later generations of Nicator, Greek i.e. Seleucus the Victor) 358-281 B.C. was a Macedonian [northern Greece] officer of Alexander the Great - Wiki.com] took charge of the northern area around Syria. This left Judea [Israel] caught in the middle of a tug-of-war, wondering what the outcome would be. Eventually, the Seleucid/Syrians, under the leadership of Antiochus IV, gained power and sought control of the new provinces. -- Seeking to unify his holdings, Antiochus enforced a policy of assimilation into the prevailing Hellenistic culture. Irrespective of the culture and beliefs of the captured peoples, the Seleucids required submission to the Greek way of life. The Greeks thought that to be truly effective this assimilation must apply to all aspects of life, including language, the arts, and even religion. Everything was to conform to the "superior" Greek way of life and values. Not surprisingly, this Hellenization policy did not present a major problem for many people under the Seleucids. Indeed, the Greeks were highly respected for their culture. Even many Jews in Judea had converted to the Hellenistic way and openly advocated adherence to it. However, there were a significant number of traditional Jews who were appalled at the changes in their society. -- Antiochus and the Seleucids continued growing more hostile towards these stubborn Jews who did not convert to Hellenism. Steps were taken to enforce their policy. An ultimatum was given: either the Jewish community must give up its distinctive customs (Shabbat, kosher laws, circumcision, etc.) or die. To prove his point, Antiochus marched his troops into Jerusalem and desecrated the holy Temple. The altars, the utensils, even the golden menorah (lampstand) were all defiled or torn down. But that was just the start! Antiochus also ordered that a pig be sacrificed on the holy altar and erected an image of the Greek god Zeus as the new point of worship in the Temple! Antiochus insisted on being called "epiphanes" (God manifest), enough to repulse any religious Jew. The Jewish community soon came up with an appropriate reflection of their feelings. Instead of calling him Antiochus Epiphanes they made a play on words, and called him "epimanes" (crazyman)! This brutal attack on the Jewish people and their faith would not go unanswered for long. The murmurings of revolt were heard in Judea and were crystallized in a small village called Modi'in. [In 167 B.C.] Syrian troops entered this town to enforce their assimilation policy. The soldiers planned to erect a temporary altar to the false gods and force the populace to participate in their religious ceremony-the highlight of which was eating the flesh of the swine! -- Living in this village was an old, godly priest named Mattathias and his five sons. When the Seleucid soldiers chose him to lead the pagan ceremony, Mattathias and his sons reacted with holy indignation. Enough was enough! They killed the soldiers and started a revolt against the oppressors. One of the sons, Judah, rose to leadership and was nicknamed "Maccabee" (the hammer). Overwhelmingly outnumbered and under-supplied, the armies of the Maccabees turned to more creative devices. Relying on their knowledge of the hill country and employing guerrilla warfare, the Jewish forces met with surprising success. Spurred on by their firm conviction that the God of Israel was true and faithful, the Maccabees proved that the impossible could happen. -- In the Hebrew month Kislev [Kislev 25, 165 B.C.] (around December) they drove out the Syrians and recaptured the Temple in Jerusalem. They faced the sober task of restoring the Temple to the true worship of God. The Temple compound was in shambles, desecrated by the idolatry of the Syrians. The Maccabees and their followers quickly cleansed the altars and restored the holy furnishings. Of particular importance to them was the broken menorah, symbolizing the light of God. They restored it and attempted to light it, but there was a problem. Jewish tradition recounts that as they searched for some specially prepared oil, they found only enough to burn for one day. The priests knew it would take at least eight days for new oil to be produced. What to do? They decided it was better to light the menorah anyway; at least the light of God would shine forth immediately. To their amazement, the oil burned not only for one day, but for eight days until additional oil was available! The Temple was restored and rededicated to the glory of the God of Israel and an eight-day festival was established. It is called Hanukkah (Hebrew for Dedication). Every year, starting on the twenty-fifth of Kislev, the Jewish community recalls the two-fold miracle: the miracle of the oil as well as the miraculous military victory. [article link]

6 The Kingdom of Rome

wikipedia: Julius Caesar [6th Global Gentile Kingdom] - Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose - He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire -- sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world {Note: Julius Caesar gained his throne [Dictatorship] not just by conquering foreign enemies of Italy but also by conquering his detractors, fellow Romans, as well.}
In 60 BC, Caesar formed a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's standing. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a standoff between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. Ordered by the Senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges, Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions, crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC. This sparked a **civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. -- After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. However, the result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. ... Dictatorship: Shortly before his assassination, the Senate [unable to directly name him Rex (King)] named him censor for life and Father of the Fatherland, and the month of Quintilis was renamed July in his honor. He was granted further honors, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch; coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult, with Mark Antony as his high priest. ... Assassination: On the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of Theatre of Pompey, where the session was to be held, and detain him outside. (Plutarch, however, assigns this action to delay Antony to Brutus Albinus.) When he heard the commotion from the senate chamber, [Mark] Antony fled. -- According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic. Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!". At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said *in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted, "Help, brother!" *in Greek. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "You too, child?". However, Suetonius says Caesar said nothing. Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?"); this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." [article link]

Amazon: Empires Collection - The Dynasties (Egypt's Golden Empire / The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance / Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire / The Roman Empire in the First Century / The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization) - Empires Collection: The Dynasties (5 Disc Gift Set) - Empires Collection: The Dynasties is a compilation of five outstanding stories of some of histories greatest dynasties (2000 - DVDs)

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