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Bronze Griffin from Susa [Shushan (Daniel 8:2) 2nd palace of Babylon - later Persia], the other capital of the Persian kings now in the Louvre [Museum at Paris, France] (6-4th century B.C.) (Photo)


Griffin Pedestal: The griffin (also spelt gryphon, griffon or gryphin) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head of an eagle with the addition of prominent ears. The female has the wings of an eagle. The male (known as a keythong) has projecting spikes instead of wings and is less frequently depicted. In the artwork of ancient Persia, as well as in the artwork of other parts of the ancient world from Scythia to Macedonia and Greece, the Griffin has special place (see below two sculptures of griffins from Persepolis and Susa). [article link]

5 The Kingdom of Greece

The History of the World Mega-Pack Curriculum 10 DVDs, 5 Audio Albums [52 CDs], and 1 Study Guide - *Jerusalem and Athens: Antithesis Between Hebrew and Greek Cultures by Douglas W. Phillips {Highly Recommended} - The Message of the Mayas by Douglas W. Phillips {Also Highly Recommended} - ($171.00)
Vision Forum is pleased to introduce its most comprehensive collection of world history resources ever made available online. Featuring six separate titles on 10 DVDs and 52 CDs, and totaling more than sixty-three hours of combined audio and video resources, the History of the World MegaPack provides teachers, students, and those who love the study of history with a superior understanding of world history from a distinctly Christian perspective. History is meaningless unless it is interpreted through the lens of biblical Christianity, God's revealed Word, that speaks to every subject and academic discipline. Through this lens, a student of history can accurately evaluate art, warfare, music, literature, and theology as he strives to learn from the past and apply this knowledge now in the real world. Accordingly, Vision Forum's History of the World MegaPack contains far more than just abstract dates and data. Rather, it teaches of the relationships between biblical chronology, weather, warfare, technology, art, theology, law, the sociology of the family, and much more - all within the context of a providential understanding of earth history. Featuring engaging and accessible lectures from some of the most outstanding Christian historians and scholars of our day, the History of the World MegaPack is a powerful tool for anyone seeking to understand and/or teach a biblical perspective on world history. Perfect for teachers, students, and all who desire to learn from the lessons of His Story. [article link]

wikipedia.org: Alexander the Great [5th Global Gentile Kingdom] - Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 - 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece - By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas - He was undefeated in battle, and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time - Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was **tutored by Aristotle [Greek philosopher] until the age of 16 - Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II of Macedon, to the throne in 336 BC after Philip was assassinated - Philip had brought together most of the city-states of mainland Greece under a Macedonian hegemony, using both military and diplomatic means


Upon Philip's death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He was awarded the generalship of Greece, and used this authority to launch military plans of expansion drawn up by his father. In 334 BC he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. At that point the Macedonian Empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. -- Seeking to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea", he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, without realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following Alexander's death a series of civil wars tore his empire apart which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by the Diadochi - Alexander's surviving generals. -- Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, Alexandria in Egypt being the most important. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He has become the measure against which generals, to this day, compare themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. [article link]

Wikipedia.org: Themistocles - an Athenian politician and a general [before Alexander the Great] - Elected archon in 493 BC, he took steps to increase the naval power of Athens, which would be a recurring theme in his political career - During the **first Persian invasion of Greece, he fought at the Battle of Marathon, and was possibly one of the 10 Athenian strategoi (generals) in that battle {Note: Themistocles oversaw the construction of one of the world's largest technologically advanced Navies of his day. Themistocles did not first seek technology to help defeat Persia instead Themistocles first sought Greek Philosophy and through his philosophy then determined that an advanced Navy and naval technology, along with other strategies (i.e. evacuating Athens before the battle) would be a key part in defending Greece from the very technologically advanced Persians of the day. -- The Egyptians would first seek their dead ancestors, the Babylonians would first seek a religious priest (astrologer), the Persians would do more to seek technology, the Greeks would seek philosophical knowledge, and the Romans would [sort of] seek the will of the people in each Kingdom as they attempted to solve problems, move forward and shape their society.}


In the years after Marathon, and in the run up to the second Persian invasion he became the most prominent politician in Athens. He continued to advocate a strong Athenian navy, and in 483 BC he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet of 100 triremes; these would prove crucial in the forthcoming conflict with Persia. During the second invasion, he was in effective command of the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis. Due to subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the Allies lured the Persian fleet into the Straits of Salamis, and the decisive Greek victory there was the turning point in the invasion, which was ended the following year by the defeat of the Persians at the Battle of Plataea. -- After the conflict ended, Themistocles continued to be pre-eminent amongst Athenian politicians. However, he aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering Athens to be re-fortified, and his perceived arrogance began to alienate him from the Athenians. In 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised, and went into exile in Argos. The Spartans now saw an opportunity to destroy Themistocles, and implicated him in the treasonous plot of their own general Pausanias. Themistocles thus fled from Greece, and travelled to Asia Minor, where he entered the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes I. He was made governor of Magnesia, and lived there for the rest of his life. -- Themistocles died in 459 BC, probably of natural causes. Themistocles's reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, and he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian (and indeed Greek) cause. Themistocles can still reasonably be thought of as "the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Greece" from the Persian threat, as Plutarch describes him. His naval policies would have a lasting impact on Athens as well, since maritime power became the cornerstone of the Athenian Empire and golden age. It was Thucydides's judgement that Themistocles was "a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of genius; indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite extraordinary and unparalleled." [article link]

Amazon: Empires Collection - The Dynasties (Egypt's Golden Empire / The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance / Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire / The Roman Empire in the First Century / The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization - Empires Collection: The Dynasties (5 Disc Gift Set) - Empires Collection: The Dynasties is a compilation of five outstanding stories of some of histories greatest dynasties (2000 - DVDs)


Egypt's Golden Empire: In 1570 B.C., when Rome was still a marsh and the Acropolis was an empty rock, Egypt was already 1000 years old. Although the period of the pyramid-builders was long over, Egypt lay on the threshold of its greatest age. The New Kingdom would be an empire forged by conquest, maintained by intimidation and diplomacy, and remembered long after its demise. Led by a dynasty of rich personalities, whose dramatic lives changed the course of civilization, Egypt's Golden Empire presents the most extraordinary period in Egyptian history: from 1570 B.C. to 1070 B.C., when the Egyptian Empire reached its zenith. -- The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance - From a small Italian community in 15th century Florence, the Medici family would rise to rule Europe in many ways. Using charm, patronage, skill, duplicity and ruthlessness, they would amass unparalleled wealth and unprecedented power. They would also ignite the most important cultural and artistic revolution in Western history - the European Renaissance. But the forces of change the Medici helped unleash would one day topple their ordered world. An epic drama played out in the courts, cathedrals and palaces of Europe, this series is both the tale of one family's powerful ambition and of Europe's tortured struggle to emerge from the ravages of the Dark Ages. -- Japan: Memoirs Of A Secret Empire - Commanding shoguns and samurai warriors, exotic geisha and exquisite artisans -- all were part of the Japanese "renaissance" -- a period between the 16th and 19th centuries when Japan went from chaos and violence to a land of ritual refinement and peace. But stability came at a price: for nearly 250 years, Japan was a land closed to the Western world, ruled by the Shogun under his absolute power and control. Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire brings to life the unknown story of a mysterious empire, its relationship to the West, and the forging of a nation that would emerge as one of the most important countries in the world. -- The Roman Empire in the First Century: Two thousand years ago, at the dawn of the first century, the ancient world was ruled by Rome. Through the experiences, memories and writings of the people who lived it, this series tells the story of that time - the emperors and slaves, poets and plebeians, who wrested order from chaos, built the most cosmopolitan society the world had ever seen and shaped the Roman empire in the first century A.D. -- The Greeks: Crucible [melting pot] of Civilization - The Greeks - Classical Greece of the 4th and 5th centuries, B.C. was a magnificent civilization that laid the foundations for modern science, politics, warfare, and philosophy, and produced some of the most breathtaking art and architecture the world has ever known. Through the eyes and words of the great heroes of ancient Greece, this dazzling production charts the rise, triumph, and eventual decline of the world's first democracy. Now, through dramatic storytelling and state-of-the-art computer animation, you witness history, art, and government with giants like Pericles, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. [article link]

wikipedia.org: Archimedes - Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC - 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer - Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity - Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed - Cicero [Marcus Tullius Cicero - Roman Senator] describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder


Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi. He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. -- Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder. Archimedes had proven that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the cylinder (including the bases of the latter), and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements. -- Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria [Egypt] read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance, while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results. [article link]

wikipedia.org: Antiochus IV Epiphanes - 215 BC - 164 BC ruled the Seleucid (dynasty) Empire [General Seleucus - one of four main Generals that served under Alexander the Great] from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC - he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne - Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, which led to a confrontation that became an origin of the metaphorical phrase, "line in the sand", and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees - He assumed divine epithets, which no other Hellenistic [Greek] king had done, such as 'manifest god' - But his often eccentric behavior, capricious actions and even insanity led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes "The Mad One", a word play on his title Epiphanes - Antiochus died suddenly of disease [possibly an assasination] in 164 BC - Antiochus IV ruled the Jews [Judea] from 175 to 164 BC - He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees and the "Scroll of Antiochus" - Rabbinical sources refer to him as harasha "the wicked"


While Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. The deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. The High Priest appointed by Antiochus, Menelaus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. On the King's return from Egypt in 167 BC enraged by his defeat, he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews. "When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery." 2 Maccabees 5:11-14 -- To consolidate his empire and strengthen his hold over the region, Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews by outlawing Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and by ordering the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1-12). This was anathema to the Jews and when they refused, Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. Because of the resistance, the city was destroyed, many were slaughtered, and a military Greek citadel called the Acra was established. ... Final years: Taking advantage of Antiochus' western problems, King Mithridates I of Parthia attacked from the east and seized the city of Herat in 167 BC, disrupting the direct trade route to India and effectively splitting the Greek world in two. Recognizing the potential danger in the east, but unwilling to give up control of Judea, Antiochus sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. After initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, Antiochus died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. [article link]

wikipedia.org: Cleopatra - Cleopatra VII Philopator - She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty [General Ptolemy - one of four main Generals that served under Alexander the Great], a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the [Greek] Hellenistic period - The Ptolemies [as Greeks], throughout their dynasty, spoke Greek and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the **Rosetta Stone


Cleopatra - She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt [from Alexandria, Egypt] after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. The Ptolemies, throughout their dynasty, spoke Greek and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone. By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian goddess, Isis. -- Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. -- After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. -- To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty, and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken as proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends, evidently speaking ironically because a large nose has symbolized dominance in different periods of history, that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed." ... Death: The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her. The oldest source is Strabo, who was alive at the time of the event, and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories: that she applied a toxic ointment, or that she was bitten by an asp on her breast. Several Roman poets, writing within ten years of the event, all mention bites by two asps, as does Florus, a historian, some 150 years later. Velleius, sixty years after the event, also refers to an asp. Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus [Caesar Augustus - Luke 2:1] had her killed. ... Cassius Dio [a Roman consulor] also spoke of Cleopatra's allure: "For she was a woman of surpassing beauty, and at that time, when she was in the prime of her youth, she was most striking; she also possessed a most charming voice and knowledge of how to make herself agreeable to every one. Being brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate every one, even a love-sated man already past his prime, she thought that it would be in keeping with her role to meet Caesar, and she reposed in her beauty all her claims to the throne." These accounts influenced later cultural depictions of Cleopatra, which typically present her using her charms to influence the most powerful men in the Western world. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - 6th Kingdom - Rome, Julius Caesar - Hellenistic Period: The Hellenistic period describes the era which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great - During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia - It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decline or decadence, between the brilliance of the Greek Classical Era and the emergence of the Roman Empire - Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may either be seen to end with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in *146 BC - or the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexander's empire, the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt in 31/30 BC - The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of [Greek] colonists which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa [including in Israel - The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) of Jesus' day]


Rise of Rome [via - trade, goodwill, treaties, politics, policy and lastly overt military action]: Widespread Roman interference in the Greek World was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendency of the Roman Republic. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the Carthaginans in the First Punic War. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans. The independent cities of Magna Graecia did not form part of the Hellenistic domains and had, by this time, been eclipsed in power by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the east. They also remained independent at a time when the Mediterranean was increasingly dominated by 'great powers'. This, and their proximity to Rome, had made them easy and obvious targets. *Conversely, the major Hellenistic realms were not in the immediate Roman sphere of influence, and were powerful enough to deter Roman aggression. The events which, in retrospect, marked the beginning of the end for the Hellenistic kingdoms could have been avoided; even if it seems likely that a collision between them and Rome would have ultimately occurred. -- **Roman entanglement in the Balkans began, as so often, with trade. Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants twice led to a Roman task force invading Illyria (the First and, Second Illyrian Wars). Tension between Macedon and Rome increased when the young king of Macedon, Philip V harboured one of the chief pirates, Demetrius of Pharos (a former client of Rome). As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. Forcing the Romans to fight on another front when they were at a nadir of manpower gained Philip the lasting enmity of the Romans; the only real result from the somewhat insubstantial First Macedonian War (215-202 BC). -- Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. A pretext for war was provided by Philip's refusal to end his war with Attalid Pergamum, and Rhodes, both Roman allies. The Romans, also allied with the Aetolian League of Greek city-states (which resented Philip's power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the Second Macedonian War. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). **Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant 'Peace of Flaminius' [Proconsul Titus Quinctius Flaminius] was designed to utterly crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philip's fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean. -- As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. The Seleucid Antiochus III had allied with Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC, agreeing that they should jointly conquer the lands of the boy-king of Egypt, Ptolemy V. After defeating Ptolemy in the Fifth Syrian War, Antiochus concentrated on occupying the Ptolemaic possessions in Asia Minor. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a 'cold-war' between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court). Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and 'liberate' it from Roman influence, thus starting the Roman-Syrian War (192-188 BC). Another decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC) saw the defeat of Antiochus. Another crippling treaty followed, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked. -- Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. This was primarily a result of the over-ambition of the Macedonian kings, and their unintended provocation of Rome; though Rome was quick to exploit the situation. In another twenty years, the Macedonian kingdom was no more. Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip V's son Perseus incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC). Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC). -- The Attalid dynasty of Pergamum lasted little longer; a Roman ally until the end, its final King Attalus III died in 133 BC without an heir, and taking the alliance to its natural conclusion, willed Pergamum to the Roman Republic. Contrarily, having so firmly intricated themselves into Greek affairs, the Romans now completely ignored the rapidly disintegrating Seleucid empire (perhaps because it posed no threat); and left the Ptolemaic kingdom to decline quietly, whilst acting as a protector of sorts, in as much as to stop other powers taking Egypt over (including the famous line-in-the-sand incident when the Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes tried to invade Egypt). Eventually, instability in the near east resulting from the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Seleucid empire caused the Roman proconsul Pompey the Great to abolish the Seleucid rump state, absorbing much of Syria into the Roman republic. Famously, the end of Ptolemaic Egypt came as the final act in the republican civil war between the Roman triumvirs Mark Anthony and Augustus Caesar. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch, Cleopatra VII at the Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom. He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. [article link]

5th Kingdom - Greece, Alexander the Great - The Conquests of Alexander the Great - In 331 B.C. Alexander the Great of Macedon began one of the greatest conquests in human history - After conquering Egypt and defeating the Persian Empire Alexander had pushed his army to the very limits of the world as the Greeks knew it [Aristotle - Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a *student of Plato and **teacher of Alexander the Great - Wiki.com] - But he wanted more; he saw that the world extended further - By conquering the ancient lands of the Mesopotamians [Tigris-Euphrates river system - Wiki.com], he came into contact with cultures to the east, such as Pakistan and Indian {Note: Alexander the Great had been extensively schooled by notable teachers namely Aristotle. The original plan for Greece to conquer Persia was the plan and desires of Alexander's father but he was assassinated before he could attempt it. Alexander therefore had the plans of his father and a Greek map of the known world resulting in a substantial and complex plan to conquer the known world before Alexander even left Greek territory to go confront the armies of Persia.}

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