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Notes by James Montgomery Boice on *Nimrod and Babel THE FIRST WORLD EMPIRE There is an interesting feature of Moses' treatments of these descendants of Ham that is at once recognizable to one who reads this chapter. It is the parenthesis that fills verses 8-12. It comes in the middle of the table of nations and, in a sense, interrupts it. These verses deal, not with the general movements of peoples and nations, but with one particular descendant of Cush, Nimrod, who is said to have been the founder of the first world empire. **Here is the first place in the Bible where the word "kingdom" occurs. Significantly, it is used, not of God's kingdom (as it is later), but of this first rival kingdom of Nimrod. This matter was obviously of great importance to Moses, for a related parenthesis occurs in the first nine verses of chapter 11, in the story of the tower of Babel. What is so significant about Nimrod? The fact that he established cities and built a kingdom is important, of course. But there is much more that can be said. Nimrod was the first person to become a "mighty" man. Our text calls attention to this by using the adjective "mighty" three times in describing him: "Nimrod ... grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD'" (vv. 8, 9). The adjective also occurs in a similar way in 1 Chronicles 1:10. Why is this emphasized? Is it good or bad? A little thought will show that it is bad. The empire of Babylon under Nimrod was an affront both to God and man, an affront to God in that it sought to do without God (Gen. 11:1-9) and an affront to man in that it sought to rule over other people tyrannically. Martin Luther was on the right track when he suggested that this is the way the word "hunter" should be interpreted. This is not talking about Nimrod's ability to hunt wild game. He was not a hunter of animals. He was a hunter of men--a warrior. It was through his ability to fight and kill and rule ruthlessly that his kingdom of Euphrates valley city states was consolidated. -- The Tower of Babel by Ray C. Stedman - The fact that this was a religious tower-and yet built to make a name for man-reveals the master motive behind religion. It is a means by which man attempts to share the glory of God. We must understand this, otherwise we will never understand the power of religion as it has pervaded the earth and permeated our culture ever since. It is a way by which man seeks to share what is rightfully God's alone. This tower was a grandiose structure, and undoubtedly it was intended to be a means by which man would glorify God. Unquestionably there was a plaque somewhere attached to it that carried the pious words, "Erected in the year ___, to the greater glory of God." But it was not really for the glory of God; it was a way of controlling God, a way of channeling God by using him for man's glory. That is what man's religion has always sought to do. It is a way of making God available to us. Man does not really want to eliminate God. It is only sporadically and then only for a relatively brief time, that men cry out for the elimination of God. Atheism is too barren, too pessimistic and too morally bankrupt to live with very long. The communists are finding this out. No, we need "dear old God," but let's keep him under control. Do not let him get out of his place. "Don't call us, God; we'll call you." This is the fundamental philosophy of society. It is the tower of Babel all over again. (from The Beginnings, by Ray C. Stedman, Waco Books, 1978.) [article link]

Tower of Babel May Have Been Located Near the Black Sea [West and North of the traditional location for Noah's Ark] in a remote region of eastern Turkey - He believes he has found a possible location near a place whose name means "Gate of God," the same literal meaning as Babel - In the Tower of Babel story in the book of Genesis, Noah's descendants [journeyed from east (the Ark) to Shinar] led by Nimrod arrived at Babel in the land of Shinar - Sanders' work is a challenge to conventional beliefs - Traditionally, biblical scholars and archaeologists have placed the dawn of [after Noah] civilization in Mesopotamia [directly South of what is considered to be the site of the Ark of Noah], the area bounded by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, now mostly located in Iraq -- "Genesis 11:1-5 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, *as they journeyed from the east, **that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded."


Tower of Babel May Have Been Located Near the Black Sea - Sent in by Elias Dangoor - A British archaeologist claims he has discovered the site of one of the most famous buildings in history, the biblical Tower of Babel, in a remote region of eastern Turkey. Michael Sanders, a classical publisher, believes new satellite photographs from Nasa, the American space agency, and a reinterpretation of ancient biblical text suggest that mythical tower actually existed - in the Pontus region of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Most archaeologists believe Babel was located in Mesopotamian Babylon, the ruins of which lie South-west of Baghdad in Iraq. Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi leader, has even attempted to rebuild ancient Babylon, erecting badly constructed brick walls at the site. The remains of several huge ziggurats, or stepped towers, near Babylon have given further credence to the theory that the tower was in Mesopotamia. But there has never been any physical proof. "A location in Pontus makes much more sense in terms of the Biblical story," said Sanders last week. He believes he has found a possible location near a place whose name means "Gate of God," the same literal meaning as Babel. In the Tower of Babel story in the book of Genesis, Noah's descendants led by Nimrod arrived at Babel in the land of Shinar. On his arrival Nimrod, known as the mighty hunter, decided to build a tower up to heaven. But God punished the people for their arrogance in trying to build such a folly. To cause confusion among the builders and make their job impossible, God made them all speak different languages rather than their common tongue. Sanders has reviewed a number of old texts, including the Targum Yonathan an Aramaic version of the Bible. It reports the tower was located in the "Land of Shinar" and that this was found in the ancient territory of Pontus. "I was amazed to find after I decided that Pontus was the most likely location that several modern academics make this place the origin of all the modern languages of the West. Not Africa, not Mesopotamia, but right there, where I believe the Tower of Babel was." Other researchers who believe the origins of the Bible lie in the Black Sea region include Robert Ballard, the discoverer of the Titanic, who is currently working on a three-year research programme on the Black Sea, which he believes could be the location of the biblical flood. David Rohl, a Manchester classicist, claims that many of the events of Genesis, such as the flood, took place in eastern turkey but places the Tower of Babel in Mesopotamia. Other academics have suggested the tower could have been an observatory. Another theory is that it was an altar to the all-powerful Mesopotamian god Marduk and his consort Zupinatu. One text went so far as to claim it was topped with a "cedar-made bed and gold-engraved throne." But Sanders is dubious. "We just don't know what the function was. In ancient times, there was a compulsion to build high to get closer to God." Sanders' work is a challenge to conventional beliefs. Traditionally, biblical scholars and archaeologists have placed the dawn of civilisation in Mesopotamia, the area bounded by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, now mostly located in Iraq. The main historical event linking Babylon with the Tower of Babel story is the fall of the temple tower built by King Etemenanki, which was rebuilt by Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar II. The name Babel in Genesis is thought to be a play on the words for Babylon, gate of God, and "confuse." The English word babble is derived from the story. Sanders is planning an expedition to the "Turkish Babel" in the spring of next year. "This theory might appear unconventional to some people but to many early scholars it would have made sense. A lot of the belief that Babylon is Babel stems simply from the similarity of the two names," he said. From The Sunday Times. [article link]

THE TOWER OF BABEL AND THE CONFUSION OF LANGUAGES by Lambert Dolphin - Nimrod's name is from the verb "let us revolt" - He is said to be a mighty hunter (gibbor tsayidh) in the sight of the Lord, but the language has a dark meaning - He becomes a tyrant or despot leading an organized rebellion against the rule of Yahweh (God) - He hunts not animals, but rather the souls of men - Cain, a condemned murderer had started the first cities before the Flood - Nimrod builds the first post-Flood cities - The region he settles in is now mostly modern Iraq


Notes by James Montgomery Boice on Nimrod and Babel THE FIRST WORLD EMPIRE There is an interesting feature of Moses' treatments of these descendants of Ham that is at once recognizable to one who reads this chapter. It is the parenthesis that fills verses 8-12. It comes in the middle of the table of nations and, in a sense, interrupts it. These verses deal, not with the general movements of peoples and nations, but with one particular descendant of Cush, Nimrod, who is said to have been the founder of the first world empire. **Here is the first place in the Bible where the word "kingdom" occurs. Significantly, it is used, not of God's kingdom (as it is later), but of this first rival kingdom of Nimrod. This matter was obviously of great importance to Moses, for a related parenthesis occurs in the first nine verses of chapter 11, in the story of the tower of Babel. What is so significant about Nimrod? The fact that he established cities and built a kingdom is important, of course. But there is much more that can be said. Nimrod was the first person to become a "mighty" man. Our text calls attention to this by using the adjective "mighty" three times in describing him: "Nimrod ... grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD'" (vv. 8, 9). The adjective also occurs in a similar way in 1 Chronicles 1:10. Why is this emphasized? Is it good or bad? A little thought will show that it is bad. The empire of Babylon under Nimrod was an affront both to God and man, an affront to God in that it sought to do without God (Gen. 11:1-9) and an affront to man in that it sought to rule over other people tyrannically. Martin Luther was on the right track when he suggested that this is the way the word "hunter" should be interpreted. This is not talking about Nimrod's ability to hunt wild game. He was not a hunter of animals. He was a hunter of men--a warrior. It was through his ability to fight and kill and rule ruthlessly that his kingdom of Euphrates valley city states was consolidated. -- The Tower of Babel by Ray C. Stedman - The fact that this was a religious tower-and yet built to make a name for man-reveals the master motive behind religion. It is a means by which man attempts to share the glory of God. We must understand this, otherwise we will never understand the power of religion as it has pervaded the earth and permeated our culture ever since. It is a way by which man seeks to share what is rightfully God's alone. This tower was a grandiose structure, and undoubtedly it was intended to be a means by which man would glorify God. Unquestionably there was a plaque somewhere attached to it that carried the pious words, "Erected in the year ___, to the greater glory of God." But it was not really for the glory of God; it was a way of controlling God, a way of channeling God by using him for man's glory. That is what man's religion has always sought to do. It is a way of making God available to us. Man does not really want to eliminate God. It is only sporadically and then only for a relatively brief time, that men cry out for the elimination of God. Atheism is too barren, too pessimistic and too morally bankrupt to live with very long. The communists are finding this out. No, we need "dear old God," but let's keep him under control. Do not let him get out of his place. "Don't call us, God; we'll call you." This is the fundamental philosophy of society. It is the tower of Babel all over again. (from The Beginnings, by Ray C. Stedman, Waco Books, 1978.) [article link]

Revelation 18 - The sins of Mystery Babylon will result in the plagues of God upon Mystery Babylon -- 'Revelation 18:1-5 And after these things I saw another Angel [messenger] come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with His Glory [Jesus Christ]. And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. For all Nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication [unfaithfulness], and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies. **And I heard another voice from Heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. For her sins (Genesis 11:4) [The Tower of Babel] have reached unto Heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities [intentional sins].'


Mystery Babylon is to be judged and destroyed all in a single day: Revelation 18:6-10 Reward her [Mystery Babylon] even as she rewarded [betrayed] you [humans], and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow. *Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her. And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning, Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come. ... Revelation 18:20-24 Rejoice over her [Mystery Babylon], thou Heaven, and ye Holy Apostles and Prophets; for God hath avenged you on her. And a mighty Angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down (Jeremiah 51:63), and shall be found no more at all. And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived. **And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth. [article link]

An artist's depiction of...... the Tower of Babel? "Treasure of Nimrod" - This stone carving was found in Iraq [1988] near the ancient city of Babylon - There are clearly two suns [Christ, Antichrist] in the sky and everyone is looking up at them - The tallest figure (wearing the horns of the bull... Nimrod's old crown) appears to be a giant [carrying a bow and holding an arrow - Revelation 6:2 rider of the white horse, the arrow now hidden (false peace) in Revelation - End Times] {Note: The 'cone shaped' Tower and all the helmets (head coverings) look Egyptian - seemingly or clearly the Egyptian pharaohs were carrying on the tradition and spirit (Mystery fallen angelic Babylon) as revealed to Nimrod.} (Photo)


This stone carving (above) was found in Iraq [1988] near the ancient city of Babylon (Bagdad) [the ancient city of Babylon, located 85 kilometers (53 miles) south of Baghdad - wiki.com]. Historians falsely interpret this illustration so I invite you to look at it carefully. There are clearly two suns in the sky and everyone is looking up at them. The tallest figure (wearing the horns of the bull... Nimrod's old crown) appears to be a giant. Giants in the Bible were roughly 18 feet tall. The dome-shaped object is too perfect to be a mountain peak. Instead, imagine that it's the "top" of the Tower of Babel. [article link]

Treasure of Nimrud [Nimrod] Is Found (1988) In Iraq, and It's Spectacular (Article Updated: June 6, 2003)


BAGHDAD, Iraq -- The treasure of Nimrud survived 2,800 years buried near a dusty town in northern Iraq. It then spent 12 years tucked away in a vault. Until Thursday, it was uncertain whether it had survived Saddam Hussein's son, a U.S. missile strike, looters, a flood and a grenade attack. But it has been found intact in the dark, damp basement of a bombed out central bank building. Thursday, directors of Iraq's National Museum and a team of U.S. Customs agents and officials from the Office of the Coalition Provisional Authority -- the Pentagon-run agency managing postwar Iraq -- cracked open five waterlogged wooden crates, peered inside and breathed a collective sigh of relief. There, in dozens of smaller boxes was the entire collection -- 613 pieces of gold jewelry, precious stones and ornaments from the height of the Assyrian civilization in 800 B.C. Together, the pieces weigh well over 100 pounds. The recovery of the artifacts, which hasn't been made public, is a great boost for the museum, which gained the world's attention in the days after the war when U.S. forces failed to prevent looters from hauling away thousands of artifacts from ancient civilizations that sprang up in the Tigris-Euphrates valley. Experts said it was the worst ransacking of Iraq since Genghis Khan tore into Baghdad in the 13th century. While initial reports talked of some 170,000 pieces stolen, it is now clear that perhaps only a few thousand artifacts were taken, experts say. Many priceless objects from the museum are still missing, such as the sacred Vase of Warka, a Sumerian piece from about 3000 B.C. But museum officials moved hundreds of the most valuable items into storage rooms and secret locations only weeks before the war, including some 40,000 ancient books, Islamic manuscripts and scrolls spirited away in a bomb shelter. More than a thousand other pieces have been recovered by U.S. officials. -- Unearthed in 1988 by Iraqi archaeologists and never seen outside Iraq, the Nimrud treasure had been on public display at Baghdad's National Museum for just a few months before Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990. Days after the invasion, the treasure was yanked from public view. Its whereabouts remained secret. -- One man who long wondered about the treasure was Jason Williams, a British anthropologist and filmmaker, who had tried in vain to film the Nimrud treasure in recent years. The only existing film of the pieces was taken when Iraqi archeologists made the discovery, with grainy images of an archaeologist holding up rings and bracelets still attached to the bones of their former owners. "These are Iraq's crown jewels," Mr. Williams said recently as he stepped over several feet of smashed glass, twisted metal and heaps of charred Iraqi dinars in the hull of the bank building destroyed by a U.S. missile strike. Although the building was gutted, the missile didn't damage the basement or the vaults. But a burst water pipe soon flooded the area. [article link]

Wikipedia: Tower of Babel - The Tower of Babel, according to the Book of Genesis, was an enormous tower built in the plain of Shinar - The Tower of Babel has often been associated with known structures, notably the Etemenanki, a ziggurat [square tower] dedicated to Marduk (Satan - a late-generation god [name] from ancient Mesopotamia) by Nabopolassar (c.658 - 605 BC) [the first king of the [New] Neo-Babylonian Empire - he ruled over Babylon for 20 years (625 - 605 BC) - Nabopolassar was the father of Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:1) "Nebuchadnezzar (a later) king of Babylon"] - The Great Ziggurat [not the Tower of Babel] of Babylon base was square (not round), 91m in height, but was finally demolished by *Alexander the Great before his death in an attempt to rebuild it


The Tower of Babel, according to the Book of Genesis, was an enormous tower built in the plain of Shinar. According to the biblical account, a united humanity of the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating from the east, came to the land of Shinar, where they resolved to build a city with a tower "with its top in the heavens...lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the Earth." Yahweh came down to see what they did and said: "They are one people and have one language, and nothing will be withholden from them which they purpose to do." So Yahweh said, "Come, let us go down and confound their speech." And so Yahweh scattered them upon the face of the Earth, and confused their languages, and they left off building the city, which was called Babel "because Yahweh there confounded the language of all the Earth."(Genesis 11:5-8). The Tower of Babel has often been associated with known structures, notably the Etemenanki, a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk by Nabopolassar (c. 610 BC). The Great Ziggurat of Babylon base was square (not round), 91m in height, but was finally demolished by Alexander the Great before his death in an attempt to rebuild it. A Sumerian story with some similar elements is preserved in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. ... Narrative: The phrase "the Tower of Babel" does not actually appear in the Bible; it is always, "the city and its tower" or just "the city". Originally the city receives the name "Babel", from the word from ancient Hebrew, "balal", *meaning to jumble. Various English translations use different vocabulary sometimes with different meanings; usually this causes no important difference to the story: one speech/vocabulary/same words, plain/valley, asphalt/bitumen/slime, children/men, confound/confuse; and sometimes the difference is important to later interpretations of the meaning of the story: may reach unto heaven/in the sky/will be in the skies (examples from King James, Holman Christian, and R E Friedman versions). ... Destruction: The account in Genesis makes no mention of any destruction of the tower. The people whose languages are confounded simply stop building their city, and are scattered from there over the face of the Earth. However, in other sources such as the Book of Jubilees (chapter 10 v.18-27), Cornelius Alexander (frag. 10), Abydenus (frags. 5 and 6), Josephus (Antiquities 1.4.3), and the Sibylline Oracles (iii. 117-129), God overturns the tower with a great wind. In the Midrash, it said that the top of the tower was burnt, the bottom was swallowed, and the middle was left standing to erode over time. [article link]

Nimrod: He Was And Will Be Again [In Type] - How does [Sumerian] Gilgamesh [found in extra-Biblical literature] (2000 B.C.) compare with "Nimrod?" Josephus says of Nimrod, Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God - He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah -- a bold man, and of great strength of hand - He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness


In Genesis 10:8-11 we learn that "Nimrod" established a kingdom. Therefore, one would expect to find also, in the literature of the ancient Near East, a person who was a type, or example, for other people to follow. And there was. It is a well-known tale, common in Sumerian literature, of a man who fits the description. In addition to the Sumerians, the Babylonians wrote about this person; the Assyrians likewise; and the Hittites. Even in Palestine, tablets have been found with this man's name on them. He was obviously the most popular hero in the Ancient Near East. The person we are referring to, found in extra-Biblical literature, was Gilgamesh. The first clay tablets naming him were found among the ruins of the temple library of the god Nabu (Biblical Nebo) and the palace library of Ashurbanipal [Asnapper (Ezra 4:10)] Ashurbanipal "Ashur is creator of an heir"; 685 BCE - c. 627 BCE), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, [Asnapper, Osnapper] was the son of Esarhaddon and the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (668 BCE - c. 627 BCE) - He established the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East, the Library of Ashurbanipal, which survives in part today at Nineveh - Wiki.com] in Nineveh (Jonah 1:2) [the ancient capital city of Assyria]. Many others have been found since in a number of excavations. The author of the best treatise on the Gilgamesh Epic says, The date of the composition of the Gilgamesh Epic can therefore be fixed at about 2000 BC. Though the stories in it relate an older previous period. The Epic of Gilgamesh has some very indecent sections. Alexander Heidel, first translator of the epic, had the decency to translate the vilest parts into Latin. Spieser, however, gave it to us "straight" (Pritchard 1955: 72). With this kind of literature in the palace, who needs pornography? Gilgamesh was a vile, filthy, man. Yet the myth says of him that he was "2/3 god and 1/3 man." -- How does Gilgamesh compare with "Nimrod?" Josephus says of Nimrod, Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah -- a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny -- seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence upon his own power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers (Ant. 1: iv: 2). What Josephus says here is precisely what is found in the Gilgamesh epics. Gilgamesh set up tyranny, he opposed YHVH and did his utmost to get people to forsake Him. Two of the premiere commentators on the Bible in Hebrew has this to say about Genesis 10:9, Nimrod was mighty in hunting, and that in opposition to YHVH; not "before YHVH" in the sense of according to the will and purpose of YHVH, still less, . . . in a simply superlative sense . . . The name itself, "Nimrod" from marad, "we will revolt," points to some violent resistance to God . . . Nimrod as a mighty hunter founded a powerful kingdom; and the founding of this kingdom is shown by the verb with vav consecutive, to have been the consequence or result of his strength in hunting, so that hunting was intimately connected with the establishing of the kingdom. Hence, if the expression "a mighty hunter" relates primarily to hunting in the literal sense, we must add to the literal meaning the figurative signification of a "hunter of men" (a trapper of men by stratagem and force); Nimrod the hunter became a tyrant, a powerful hunter of men (Keil and Delitzsch 1975: 165). After the Flood there was, at some point, a breakaway from YHVH [YHWH]. Only eight people descended from the [Noah's] Ark. Those people worshipped YHVH [YHWH - God]. But at some point an influential person became opposed to YHVH and gathered others to his side. Nimrod is the one who did it. Cain had done similarly before the Flood, founding a new city and religious system. [article link]

The Lengend of the Stagg [Hunter] - The Hungarian Legend of the Wondrous Stag is one of the oldest legends of the nation - In the legends of Iran the ruler Feridun, a Scythian king who was a descendant of Takhma Urupi (Nimrod), has three sons Tura, Sin, and Iredj - The first two stick together against the third son who inherits Iran - Tura becomes the ancestor of the Turanians, that is Scythians and Huns - Nimrod was known by several names in the Near East and was also symbolized by the constellations Sagitarius and Orion amongst the Turanian/scythian nations

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