Ways of Russian Theology



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94. In 1811 Shishkov organized his literary and linguistic disciples into the society Beseda liubitelei russkago slov [Gathering of Lovers of Russian Speech]. This group functioned until 1816 and issued its journal Chteniia, twenty times.

95. See chapter IV, note 116.

96. Metropolitan Mikhail Desnitskii, see above, note 84.

97. Jean-Philippe Dutoit (or Dutoit-Membrini, 1721-1793) was a fluent and successful French preacher and a great admirer of Guyon. His two principal works are Philosophie divine (3 vols., 1793) and Philosophie chretienne (4 vols., 1800-1819).

98. These two Catholic priests were representatives of a Bavarian mystical movement close to the ideals of the Herrnhutters called Erweckten. Ignatius Lindel, the leader of the Bavarian Bible Society, came to St. Petersburg in 1819. Some of his sermons were translated into Russian by V.M. Popov, but in less than a year Metropolitan Mikhail Desnitskii had him sent off to Odessa. Johann Evangelista Gossner (1773-1858) was a priest in Munich. Unfrocked by the local Catholic hierarchy in 1817, he moved first to Prussia and then in 1820 to St. Petersburg, at the invitation of the Bible Society. Installed as pastor of a Catholic parish, his sermons soon became well-known in Russian society. His book, Geist des Lebens und der Lehre Jesu, was translated into Russian in 1823-1824 (in its final form also by Popov), and the attempt to publish this book provided the opportunity for Golitsyn's enemies to bring formal accusations against him to the tsar. In the spring of 1824 Gossner was expelled from Russia and returned to Germany, where he converted to the Lutheran Church und served for many years as a pastor in Berlin. He was remembered in his native land for his philanthropical and missionary work, and a popular translation of the New Testament.

99. An ultra-secret and disciplined mystical society, the Illuminati were formed in 1776 by a professor of canon law at the University of Ingelstadt in Germany, Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830). They denied the value not only of established religion, but government and society as well. That, together with their secrecy and their bringing moral casuistry to its extreme limit, caused them severe persecution in Germany. They grew and spread, however, by infiltrating and taking over masonic lodges, where they established their own degrees as advanced ' degrees of freemasonry.

100. Cf. the translation and commentaries by Archbishop Mefodii Smirnov. [Author's note]. Tolkovanie na poslanie apostola Pavla k Rimlianam (first edition 1794, reprinted 1799 and 1814). Mefodii Smirnov (1761-1815) was rector of the Moscow Academy, bishop of Voronezh, then archbishop of Tver'. To him also belongs a history of the Church in the first century, Liber historicus Moscow, 1805).

101. In 1808 the British and Foreign Bible Society sent agents to Greece, where they planned a modern Greek translation of the Bible with Adamantios Koraes (1748-1833). The Patriarch of Constantinople Cyril VI blessed the undertaking, although his successors resisted it for many years.

102. Louis-Issac Lemaistre de Sacy (1613-1684) was imprisoned in the Bastille as a Jansenist from 1616 to 1618. While there he and some fellow educated inmates translated the Bible into French. Le Nouveau Testament traduit en Frangais (popularly known as Le Nouveau Testament de Mons 1667) caused a violent debate over Biblical translation in Paris. De Sacy's La Sainte Bible came out in 1672, and is still popular in France.

103. Filaret Drozdov, later metropolitan of Moscow. See note 7.

104. See above, note 77.

105. Polikarp Gaitannikov was rector of Moscow Academy and archimandrite of the Novospasskii Monastery from 1824-1835. He also translated Patristic works for Khristianskoe chtenie, published as Chrestomatia latina in usum scholarum ecclesiasticarum (Moscow, 1827), and left a Theologia dogmatica in manuscript on his death in 1837.

106. His dates are 1783-1834. Several editions of his sermons have been published.

107. Serafim (Stefan Vasil'evich Glagolevskii, 1757-1843) succeeded Mikhail Desnitskii as metropolitan of St. Petersburg and held that see during the turbulent years of the reaction against Golitsyn and the Bible Society and the Decembrist uprising. Serafim was educated at the Moscow Academy and Moscow Uruversity, where he was a member of Novikov's Freindly Learning Society. He was a professor and rector of Moscow Academy, and held the episcopal sees of Viatka, Smolensk and Minsk before becoming archbishop of Tver' in 1814. That same year he was named a member of the Commission on Ecclesiastical Schools and became a vice-president of the Bible Society, for which he helped translate the Gospels and the Psalins. In 1819 he was made metropolitan of Moscow and three years later transferred to St. Petersburg. Already 65 years old, his activity was limited and he could not exercise much initiative in the important affairs he was part of at that time. Still, he succeeded Golitsyn as president of the Bible Society in 1824 and persuaded the tsar to finally close it in 1826.

108. In his Notes on the Book of Genesis [Zapiski na knigu bytiia, St. Petersburg, 1816] Filaret provided throughout a Russian translation of the Hebrew text. [Author's note].

109. See above, pp. 157-159.

110. See above, note 93.

111. Innokentii Smirnov (1784-1819). See above, note 47.

112. The Kadetskii korpus, or military academy, was established in 1731 for sons of the nobility. By 1900 there were twenty such military schools with this name, the students usually being officers' sons.

113. Anna Alekseevna Orlova-Chesmenskaia (1785-1848), the granddaughter of Catherine II's one-time favorite Grigorii Orlov, was an extremely wealthy noblewoman. She took on Fotii as her “spiritual father” at the advice of Innokentii Smirnov, and remained close to Fotii the rest of his life. A pious devotee of the Orthodox Church, Orlova donated millions of rubles to various monasteries and churches, which assured her intluence with high-piaced ecclesiastics. She was also close to the tsar's family.

114. Cf. “Dva pis'ma kniazia A. N. Golitsyna k Iur'evskomu arkhimandritu Fotiiu,” Chteniia v Moskovskom obshchestve istorii i drevnosti rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom univ,ersitete, 1868, III, 237-239; “Kniaz' A.N. Golitsyn i arkhimandrit Fotii v 1822-1825 gg.,” Russkaia Starina, 1882, 275-296.

115. Aleksei Andreevich Arakcheev (1769-1834) was one of Alexander's closest, most trusted, and constant advisors. Alexander first met him when Arakcheev was serving in Paul's private army at Gatchina. When Paul became emperor he was named quartermaster-general and was responsible for developing the artillery and reforming the administration and training of the army. Under Alexander he served as Minister of War and administrator of the military colonies, and the more Alexander turned to mystical interests and travel the more the day-today administration of the empire fell into the hands of this hard-working, efficient, but often ruthlessly brutal assistant. By the 1820's Arakcheev's only rival for the tsar's favor was Golitsyn, and after his fall Arakcheev was unquestionably the second most powerful man in Russia. When Alexander died, however, he retired from government service.

116. Vozzvanie k chelovekam o posledovanii vnutrennemu vlecheniiu Dukha Khristova, a French pietist work, translated into Russian in 1829 and published in St. Petersburg. The translator, I.I. Iastrebtsov, served as executive secretary on the Commission for Ecclesiastical Schools. [Author's note].

117. See above, note 12.

118. Ignatius-Aurelius Fessler (1756-1839), the Lvov professor who came to the chair of eastern languages and philosophy at the St. Petersburg Academy in 1809, had been exiled to Saratov for atheism in 1810. There he worked as superintendent of the Protestant consistories of South Russia until he returned to St. Petersburg in 1820. After his second exile in 1824, he returned in 1833 as head of the Lutheran consistories of all Russia. Fessler left numerous works, including linguistic treatises, plays, novels, and his mystical and theological works.

119. Russian writers frequently referred to all who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ as Socinians, or followers of the anti-trinitarian movement founded by Laelius and Faustus Socinus in Italy in the 16th century. This sect was especially strong in Poland and West Russia.

120. Dmitrii Nikolaevich Sverbeev (1799-1876), a nobleman from the Novgorod region, left interesting memoirs on this period, Zapiski Dmitriia Nikolaevicha Sverbeeva (Moscow, 1899).

121. For example, the Decembrist Baron Ivan Shteingel, referring to the Russian Bible, wrote that “confidence in one of the sacred books read in Church is undermined.” [Author'snote].

122. Filaret Amt3teatrov (1779-1857) was head of the Volokalamsk Monastery in St. Petersburg and inspector and rector of the St. Petersburg Academy from 1813. In these years he participated in the activities of the Russian Bible Society. In 1817 he went to the Moscow Academy as rector, and was named to various bishoprics until he became metropolitan of Kiev in 1837. See below, pp. 256-258.

123. Incidentally, the Orthodox Confession underwent a new translation just at that moment. Prince S.A. Shirinskii-Shikhmatov (shortly thereafter Hieromonk Anikita and a close personat friend of Fotii) supervised the work. However, the translation was held up in the religious censorship committee at the recommendation of Fr. Gerasim Pavskii.

124. Kochetov later became the superior at the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral. Cf. his essay On the Disastrous effects of partiality for foreign languages [O pagubnykh sledstviiakh pristrastiia k inostrannym iazykam ] ,written in the spirit of Shishkov, who obtained membership for Kochetov in the Russian Academy. [Author'snote].

125. Evgenii Bolkhovitinov. See chapter IV, note 103.

126. Simeon Krylov-Platonov (1777-1824) taught French and poetics at the Moscow Trinity Seminary and rhetoric at the Moscow Academy, where he was later rector. In 1816 he was consecrated bishop of Tula and succeeded to Chernigov (1818), Tver' (1820) and Iaroslavl (1821). He also taught at the St. Petersburg Academy.

127. Mikhail Leont'evich Magnitskii (1778-1855) was an opportunistic government official who came to the forefront of an obscurantist attack on the educational system in Russia. Early in Alexander's reign he served in the Preobrazhenskoi Guards and in the Ministry of Foreign affairs. Active in masonry and in the liberal circle around Speranskii, he shared Speranskii's disgrace and was exiled in 1812 to Vologda. There he worked his way up in the provincial administration and in 1818 became governor of Simbirsk. He then began writing letters attacking the school system and the masonic lodges. In 1819 he was appointed to investigate the University of Kazan', and became famous overnight with a sensational expose of the revolutionary philosophy and illuminism he claimed was being taught there by the professors of the “Hellish alliance.” The next year he was named head of Kazan' University and reformed it according to the principles of the “Holy Alliance,” with philosophy his main target. He came back to St. Petersburg and allied himself with Arakcheev, Shishkov and Fotii against Golitsyn and the Bible Society. However, in 1826 Magnitskii was himself accused of belonging to the Illuminati and was exiled to Estonia.

128. Pavlov was an opportunistic former cavalry officer who held and lost several government jobs. In 1823 he ingratiated himself with the Over Procurator Prince Meshcherskii, and after receiving an appointment in his office quickly joined forces with Arakcheev and Fotii. The next year he was also given a place in theCommission on Ecclesiastical Schools. In 1827 however, Nicholas I ordered him into retirement.

129. During the Napoleonic wars many young noble officers received a first hand look at western Europe. They returned with new political and social ideas and a desire to bring Russia to the fore of European civilization by the implementation of these ideas. Encouraged by the early liberalism of Alexander's reign several young Guards officers in 1816 formed the Union of Salvation (Soiuz spaseniia ] , whose general aim was to brihg about, by revolutionary means if necessary, constitutional government and an end to serfdom in Russia. This society was reorganized in 1817 into the Union of Welfare [Soiuz blagodenstviia] , but was dissolved in 1820 for fear of government reprisals. The members of this group, for the most part Imperial Guards officers of high social standing, trained in secret organization and conspiratorial techniques by the association of many of them with masonic lodges, then formed two underground societies. In St. Petersburg they were led by Nikita Murav'ev, Prince E. Obolenskii, Prince Sergei Trubetskoi, and later the poet K. Ryleev; the southern organization gathered around Pavel Pestel. The movement gained sympathizers and plans were discussed for a revolutionary takeover of the government. When Alexander I suddenly died on November 19, 1825, the conspirators decided to act. At that time the government was in a state of confusion. The next in line for the throne was presumably Alexander's brother Constantine. However, he had married a Polish countess and secretly renounced his rights to the succession, and in an unpublished manifesto of 1823 the next brother, Nicholas, was named heir apparent. In the confusing weeks after Alexander's death, however, Nicholas was unsure of his support, and for fear of appearing as a usurper he bade all his associates to proclaim their loyalty to the new emperor Constantine. Meanwhile in Warsaw Constantine was swearing allegiance to Nicholas. The latter finally accepted the throne on December 14 and the populace was duly ordered to take the traditional oath to the new sovereign. That day around 3,000 soldiers, led by the St. Petersburg conspirators, gathered on the Senate square and refused to take the oath, shouting out their demands for “Constantine . . .” who had an unfounded reputation of benevolency and liberalism, “ . . . and a Constitution.” They expected the rest of the military to join them, but instead after pleas from Metropolitan Serafim and the Grand Duke Michael to disperse, were fired on by troops loyal to Nicholas and quickly arrested. Within three weeks the southern members of the conspiracy were rounded up. A special commission was established to try the “Decembrists,” and five were hanged 31 exiled permanently to Siberia, and another 85 were given lesser terms of exile.

130. Nicholas (1796-1855), the third son of Paul, became tsar in 1825 during the Decembrist revolt. A lover of barracks discipline and a believer in strong autocratic authoritarianism, he took personal direction over the governmerit to a degree not seen in Russia since Peter the Great. His reign witnessed a great expansion of the government bureaucracy, repression of dissenters and increased censorship, and the growth of the Imperial Chancellery, formerly a relatively insignificant department, into a huge structure with four comprehensive sections. Important matters of state were transferred from the various ministeries to this chancellery, increasing Nicholas' personal supervision over his empire. The thira section of the chancellery, the political police, became a famous instrument of repression. Both the schools and the Church were used to foster the ideal of “Official Nationality,” summed up in Uvarov's phrase “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality.” In foreign affairs Russian interests toward the south continued, and Nicholas reversed Alexander's policy of non-intervention in the Greek revolution by going to war with Turkey and forcing the Sultan, in the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople, to recognize self-government in Greece. Russia's expansionist policy, however, placed it on a collision course with the interests of England and France, resulting in the Crimean War, still raging when Nicholas died in 1855.

131. See chapter IV, note 48.

132. David Hollatius (or Hollaz 1648-1713) was a Lutheran minister and theologian. His Examen theologicum acroamaticum (Rostock and Leipzig, 1717) was the last gteat textbook of Lutheran otthodoxy before the coming of pietism. Hollatius also wrote Scrutinium veritatis in mysticorum dogmata (Wittenberg, 1711).

133. Anastasii Bratanovskii-Romanenko (1761-1806) was bishop of Mogilev and from 1805 archbishop of Astrakhan. He was a member of the Russian Academy and worked on the 1808 reorganization of the ecclesiastical schools.

134. Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742), French pedagogue and bishop, was known as “the Racine of the pulpit.” Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704), the “king of orators and the orator of kings,” was a Jesuit theologian whose sermons were considered models of classical homiletics. Both preached at the court of Louis XIV. On Fenelon see chapter IV, note 112.

135. Grigorii Postnikov (d. 1860) succeeded Filaret as rector of the St. Peters- E burg Academy in 1819, and two years later founded the journal Khristianskoe 1 chtenie there. He was also known as the author of Istinno-drevniaia i istinno- pravoslavnaia Khristova tserkov (1855) written against the Old Believers. In 1855 he became metropolitan of St. Petersburg. See below, pp. 220-222.

136. Herzen's Byloe i Dumy (English translation My Past and TPvoughts: Memoirs, 6 volumes, New York, 1924-1928) contains many valuable comments on events and personalities of this time.

137. On Johann Franz Buddeus see chapter IV, note 9.

138. Die Seherin von Prevorst (1829). This novel was centered on themes of hypnotism and somnambulance. Its author, Justinus Kerner (1786-1862), was a German lyrical poet of the Romantic Swabian school. Besides his deeply melancholic poems he authored Reiseschatten (1811) and Bilderbuch aus meiner “ knabenzeit (1849).

139. This committee was formed by Nicholas I to investigate the causes of the recent Decembrist uprising and possible reforms of the government in the light of them. It was chaired by Prince V.P. Kochubei and included Golitsyn and Count P.A. Tolstoi. Its recommendations on provincial administration were adopted in 1837.

140. Evgenii Bolkhovitinov. See chapter IV, note 103.

141. Karl Karlovich Merder (1788-1834), known as a humane and sensitive man, transmitted these qualities to Alexander Nikolaevich while tutoring him from 1824 until his death.

142. Feofilakt Gorskil, Doctrina (first published in Leipzig in 1784). See chaptet IV, note 61.

143. Kirill Bogoslovskii-Platonov (1788-1840) studied at the St. Petersburg s Academy, was a professor and rector of the Moscow Academy, and bishop, of Viatka and later Podolia. See below, pp. 222-223.

144. Moisei Antipov-Platonov (1783-1834) had earlier taught in the St. Petersburg Academy, and eventually became exarch of Georgia. He translated the Gospel of Luke into contemporary Russian for the Bible Society.

 145. Meletii Leontovich (d. 1840), a graduate of the St. Petersburg Academy, was named a professor and inspector of the Kiev Academy in 1817. Two years later he succeeded Moisei as rector, and subsequently became archbishop of Khar'kov.

146. Fedor Bukharev (1824-1871) was a student at Moscow Academy and from 1846 a fiery and passionate lecturer on Holy Scripture there. He quickly gained note for his letters to the author Nikolai Gogol, with whom he became acquainted and supported in his sudden turn to conservative, traditional Orthodoxy. The Tri pis'ma k N. V. Gogoliu were written in 1848 but met with Metropolitan Filaret's disapproval and were not published until 1861. An archimandrite by 1854, he was sent that year to the Kazan' Academy because of his controversial views on religion in society, expressed in his pravoslavii v otnoshenii k sovremennosti (first published in St. Petersburg, 1861). Bukharev possessed the idealist philosophical tendencies that gained current in Russia in the 1820's, but interpreted them in terms of Christianity and with the basic optimism of the mystics of the beginning of the century. He remained only a year in Kazan', being called to St. Petersburg to serve on a newly organized censorship committee. Here he soon became involved in a tragic controversy. One of the works that came to him as a censor was the first issue of V. I. Askochenskii's Domashniaia Beseda (see below, note 262). Because of its gloomy and skeptical character, particularly in relation to the institutions of the Church, Bukharev denied the publication. This infuriated Askochenskii, who launched violent protests at the St. Petersburg Academy, and when the journal was fmally allowed in print in 1858 it included a denunciatory review of Bukharev's O pravoslavii in which he was accused of vile heresy. He defended himself in an article in Syn otechestva, but Askochenskii pressed on with protests against his commentaries on Revelations then being prepared for publication. This brought an investigation into the commentaries, which Bukharev, who had retired to the monastery of St. Nikitin in 1862, considered the fundamental work of his life. When the authorities in 1863 decided not to publish it he abandoned his vows and married. The rest of his life was spent in poverty, but Bukharev continued to publish works on Old Testament exegesis and add to his treatise on Revelations.

147. The Jacobins were a faction in the French revolution particularly influenced by the Enlightenment. To accuse someone of “Jacobinism” was to derogate their learning by associating it with excessive rationalism and revolutionary ideas.

148. As Over Procurator of the Holy Synod for twenty years, Count Nikolai Aleksandrovich Pratasov (1799-1855) brought government control over the Church to its height. Pratasov was a retired cavalty officer who went to work for the Ministry of Education and the chief censorship commission in 1834. He quickly acquired great influence over secular education and in 1836 obtained his power in the Church as well, transforming it into an actual department of the state. See below, pp. 239 ff.

149. Nikanor Brovkovich (1827-1890) was a distinguished ecclesiastic and philosopher of a later generation. Educated at the St. Petersburg Academy he taught there and served as rector of several seminaries, in addition to the Kazan' Academy. Later in life he became archbishop of Kherson and Odessa. He is known for several polemical articles written against the views of the novelist Tolstoi, and his main philosophical work, influenced by Plato and Leibniz, Pozitivnaia filosof:ia i sverkhchuvstvennoe bytie [St. Petersburg, 1875-1888).

150. Dmitrii Ivanovich Rostislavov (1809-1877), a son of a priest, taught mathematics and physics for many years at the St. Petersburg Academy and participated in the free public lecture series organized by Russian professors in Riazan' in the 1850's and 1860's. He wrote several articles on the contemporary state of Church affairs, especially religious education which caused a sensation becauseof their Protestant bias and sharply critical tone. Among them are O dukhovnykh uchilishchakh, written on official commission but so controversial it could only be published in Leipzig in 1860, Chernoe i beloe dukhovenstvo v Rossii (1865-1866), and Opyt izsledovaniia ob imushchestvakh i dokhodakh nashykh monastyrei (St. Petersburg, 1876), an attack on the wealth of monasteries. He also contributed to various journals and left interesting Zapiski [Notes], published after his death in Russkaia Starina from 1880 to 1895.

151. The famous historian Sergei Mikhailovich Solov'ev (1820-1879) taught Russian history at the University of Moscow for the last 23 years of Filaret's life, when he was already permanently settled in Moscow. The title of his autobiography is Moi zapiskii dlia detei moikh, a, esli mozhno, i dlia drugikh (St. Petersburg, no date).

152. It seems that Dostoevskii had Eliseev in mind when he created the remarkable character Rakitin. [Author's note]. Grigorii Zakharovich Eliseev (1821-1891) taught Russian Church history and other subjects at the Kazan' Academy until 1854. That year he left the faculty and went to live in Siberia, working for the provincial government. In 1858 he moved to St. Petersburg and began his journalistic activity, at first in association with Chernyshevskii and Dobroliubov, and in his own right he became a leader of the Populist movement [Narodnichestvo ] .

153. Aleksei Stepanovich Khomiakov (1804-1860) is the best known of the Slavophile leaders to the West. Solov'ev, on the other hand, was a moderate “Westernizer.” Khomiakov lived most of his life in Moscow with no official responsibilities, devoting his time to writing and discussion groups. He is regarded by many Orthodox as a great lay theologian. See A. Gratieux's A.S. Khomiakov and the Slavophile Movement, translated from the French by Elizabeth Meyendorff (two volumes, Nordland).

154. The expounder of “pectoral theology” Johann August Wilhelm Neander (1789-1850) was born David Mendel, a Jew. He converted to Protestant Christianity while a student in Halle, and taught at the University of Heidelberg and Berlin. A theologian of the pietist tradition, he also gained renown as a Church historian, publishing a six volume Church history (1826-1852) and works on Julian the Apostate and John Chrysostom, among others.

155. See above, note 118.

156. See above, note 143.

157. The followers of Paisii Velichkovskii (1722-1794); see above, chapter IV, section VII, “The Reawakening of Russian Monasticism.”

158. See above, note 24.

159. Moisei Antipov-Platonov, see note 106; Meletii Leontovich, see note 145.

160. William Palmer (1811-1879), an Anglican High Churchman, had taught Notes to Chapter V 367 at Oxford. He became interested in the Orthodox Church and was particularly active in promoting inter-communion with it, and for that reason made two journeys to Russia, in 1840 and 1842. Subsequently he turned severely critical of the Anglican Church and in 1855 converted to Roman Catholicism and moved to Rome to study and write on archeology. Among his written works are Harmony of Anglican Doctrine with the Doctrine of the Eastern Church (1846), Notes on a Visit to the Russian Church (first published in 1882), and the six volume The Patriarch and the Tsar (1871-1876), a collection of materials on Nikon and Aleksei Mikhailovich.

161. On Mme. Tatarinova's “Spiritual alliance” see above, note 90.

162. For Johann Arndt see chapter IV, note 80.

163. Iov (1750-1823), a second cousin of Catherine the Great's favorite Grigorii Potemkin, lived for several years after his tonsure in Iasi and was abbot of the Assumption Monastery in Bessarabia. In 1793 he was consecrated a vicar to the bishop of Ekaterinoslavl, became archbishop of Minsk and Volynia (where he is remembered for extensive church construction and efficient administration of the diocese) in 1796, and in 1812 returned to Ekaterinoslavl as archbishop.

164. Filaret (1773-1841) was hegumen of the Glinskii-Bogorodichnyi pustyn in the Ural region, and was largely responsible for its spiritual rejuvenation. He composed rules for convents and published in 1824 a Prostrannoe pouchenie k novopostrizhennomu monakhu. There is a biography of him, Zhitie blazhennoi pamiati startsa, vozobnovitelia Clinskoi pustyni, igumena Pilareta (St. Petersburg, 1860).

165. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) began his career as a mathematician and physical scientist, and made lasting contributions to those fields. Later in life, however, he concentrated on religious-philosophical writing, particularly in defense of the Jansenists, whose harsh and ascetical doctrine resembled Calvinism to a degree (they were condemned in the papal bull Unigenitus in 1705). Pascal's Lettres provinciales and Pensees were influential on such later western thinkers as Rousseau, Henri Bergson, and the Existentialists.

166. Grellet and Allen were on a missionary journey for the Society of Friends that took them in 1818-1820 to Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Constantinople, and the Greek Islands. William Allen (1770-1843) was a chemist by pro fession and participated in the philanthropical societies popular in England in his time. When Alexander came to London in 1814 Allen was introduced to him as a “model Quaker.” He met Alexander during this trip as well, and again in Vienna in 1822. Stephen Grellet, born Etienne de Grellet du Mabillier in France in 1773, had an adventurous youth. He was arrested and condemned to death following the French revolution but managed to escape and sail to South America. In 1795 he moved to New York and started a business, joined the Society of Frends, then moved to Philadelphia and became a Quaker minister. He made several missionary trips through North America and Europe, and also met Alexander in 1814 in England. Grellet died in 1855 in New Jersey.

167. The flood of 1824 is immortalized in Pushkin's The Bronze Horseman. The cholera epidemic began in the Caucasus in the 1820's, by 1830 raged in central Russia, and spread to St. Petersburg and Poland in 1831. Over 100,000 lives were claimed, largely due to administrative incompetence in dealing with the epidemic. See Roderick E. McGrew, Russia and the Cholera, 1823-1832 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1965).

168. Filaret Gumilevskii, archbishop of Chernigov. See above, note 68.

169. This cave was in a monastery in Bethlehem where St. Jerome (c. 340-420) produced the Vulgate.

170. Smaragd (Aleksandr Kryzhanovskii, d. 1863) was archbishop of Riazan'. He carried on an extensive and detailed correspondence with, among others, Innokentii Borisov and I.F. Glushkov. These letters contain many valuable observations on his contemporaxies and his times.

171. Ernst-Friedrich Karl Rosenmueller (1768-1835) was a German Lutheran Hebraist and professor of Oriental languages at the University of Leipzig. His main works are Scholia in Vetus Testamentum (Leipzig, 1788-1835), Handbuch der biblishchen Altertumskunde (Leipzig, 1823-1831) and Analecta arabica (Leipzig, 1825-1828).

172. See above, note 150.

173. For de Sacy see above, note 102; for Fenelon see chapter IV, note 112; for St. Francis de Sales see this chapter, note 15; on John Mason see chapter IV, note 122.

174. On Johann Arndt, see chapter IV, note 80. On Thomas a Kempis see above, note 17. Anthony Hornbeck (1641-1697) was a German who moved to England and became an Anglican pastos, and left popular devotional writings.

175. See chapter IV, note 72.

176. Fedor Aleksandrovich Golubinskii (1797-1854) studied at the Kostroma Seminary and Moscow Academy, where he became a highly popular professor of philosophy for many years. He stood at the center of a circle devoted to theistic philosophical discussions. Although he published almost nothing himself, his students printed his Lectures from their notes beginning in 1868.

177. On Mikhail Desnitskii see above, note 84; for Evgraf see p. 202; for Innokentii Smirnov see note 47.

178. Ioakim Semenovich Kochetov (1789-1854) was a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy from 1814 to 1851, dean of the Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul and also taught at the Alexandrian lycee. In 1823 he published the first work on moral theology in Russian, Cherty deiatel nago ucheniia very, which went through five editions, and later published the textbook Nachertanie khristianskikh obiazannostei. A member of the Academy of Sciences since 1841, he contributed greatly to its Church Slavonic-Russian dictionary, serving as final editor of several volumes.

179. Christian Weismann (1677-1747) was a pietist professor at Stuttgart and Tubingen. His principal history was Introductio in memorabilia ecclesiastica historiae sacrae Novi Testamenti, maxime vero saeclorum primorum et novissimorum (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1718-1719). Friedrich Spanheim (1632-1701) taughf theology at Heidelberg and Leiden. His Summa historiae ecclesiasticae appeared in 1689. Caesar Baronius (1538-1607) was a Catholic Church historian and casdinal. His Annale.s ecclesiastici (1588-1607) was a response to the Magdeburg Centuries. The Centuriae Magdeburgenses, printed between 1559 and 1574, was the first gieat Protestant Church history. Chiefly the work of Matthias Flacius Illyricus, it contained a sharp Lutheran bias, but was important for the introduction of advanced methods of scholarship.

180. For biographical data on Filaret Amfiteatrov see above, note 122.

181. See chapter IV, note 61.

182. Campegius .Vitringa (1659-1722) was a Dutch Reformed Old Testament scholar and Church historian. His chief work is a two-volume commentary on Isaiah (1714-1720), which was highly influential among later Protestant commentators.

183. See above, chapter IV, note 147.

184. On Filaret, see above, note 68. Aleksandr Vasil'evich Gorskii (1812-1875) was an archpriest and rector of Moscow Academy. Although he never became a monk he lived in a monastic style and was known as much for his piety as for his erudition. His course at the academy, Istoriia evangel'skaia i tserkvi aposto1'skoi, as well as his other learned works, he did not publish out of modesty. Gorskii also compiled, at the suggestion of Filaret, an Opisanie slavianskikh rukopisei Moskovskoi Sinodal'noi Biblioteki, which served as an important guide for historians.

185. See above, note 146.

186. Alexander II (1818-1881) took over the throne during the Crimean War in 1855. After extricating Russia from that disaster he proceeded to promulgate the “Great Reforms” (see note 253). Alexander sponsored these reforms more because he recognized the necessity for them than because he was any less autocratic in spirit than his father Nicholas I. After 1866 he was decidedly more conservative, especially in his nominations to important government posts, while at the same time the views of the dissenting groups in Russia, increasingly more radical, hardened. Finally Alexander was assisinated by a member of the terrorist organization The People's Will.

187. The Hebraische Grammatik of Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842) was first printed in Halle in 1813 and went through 13 editions in the author's lifetime. A long-time professor of Oriental languages at Halle University, he also published a Hebraisches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch (Leipzig, 1810-1812) and Thesaurus philologico-criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti (Leipzig, 1829-1858).

188. Dmitrii Pavlovich Runich (1780-1860) was curator of the St. Petersburg school district from 1821 to 1826. A collaborator in Magnitskii's obscurantist designs on education (see above, note 127) he conducted a purge of western oriented professors at the University of St. Petersburg. On ascending the throne Nicholas quickly replaced him. Runich was also a mason and held an interesting correspondence with Novikov, Lopukhin, V.M. Popov, and others, published in Russkii Arkhiv, 1870-1871.

189. Glaube, Liebe und Hoffnung was a catechetical work published in 1813 by Johann Heinrich Bernard Draeseke (1774-1849). He was bishop of Saxony from 1832 and particularly noted as a preacher espousing a humanistic Christianity and attempting to reconcile rationalism and pietism. 190. Peter Bartenev (1829-1873) was a student at Moscow University and a member of its faculty in the historical-philological division. He made a great contribution to Russian historical scholarship through a number of collections of historical documents, and was the founder in 1863 of the journal Russkii Arkhiv.

191. On Zhukovskii see chapter IV, note 114; for General MerdeI see above, note 141.

192. Marianus Dobmayer was a Bavarian theologian, particularly influenced by the ideas of Schelling. His dates are 1753-1805.

193. Johann Ernst Schubert (1717-1774) was a German theologian. Among uis many doctrinal works are Compendium theologiae dogmaticae (Helmstedt and Halle, 1760) and Institutiones theologiae dogmaticae (Leipzig, 1749). He also wrote a textbook on moral theology that was translated into Russian by Iakov Arsen'ev (see below).

194. See above, note 138.

195. See chapter IV, note 43.

196. By the 1860's Makarii (1816-1882) was one of the most respected and influential ecclesiastical figures and theologians in Russia. Born Mikhail Petrovich Bulgakov, he attended the Kiev Academy, became a monk there and taught Russian Church and civil history. In 1842 he transferred to the St. Petersburg r'scademy as a professor of theology and later became rector. During this period his main historical and theological works appeared: the first volume of his massive Istoriia russkoi tserkvi came out in 1846-1847, his doctoral dissertation vvedenie v bogoslovie was published in 1847, the first part of the five volume Dogoslovie dogmaticheskoe was issued in 1849, and in 1854 Makarii published his Istorila russkago raskola staroobriadstva. Besides these he wrote a large number of lesser works, was a regular contributor to several journals and from 1854 a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1857 he became bishop of Tambov and succeeded to Khar'kov and Litovsk, finally becoming metropolitan of Moscow in 1879. See F. Titov, Makarii Bulgakov, mitropolit moskovskii (Kiev, 18:5). Makarii's theological work is discussed below, pp. 255-261.

197. Ivan Mikhailovich Skvortsov (1795-1863) taught at the St. Petersburg Academy, and later was professor of philosophy at the Kiev Academy and piofessor of theology at Moscow University. He published two well-known works on canon law, Zapiski po tserkwnomu zakonovedeniiu (4th ed., Kiev, 1871-1874) and O vidakh i stepeniakh rodstva (Kiev, 1864), as well as the popular Katekhizicheskiia poucheniia (Kiev, 1854). His correspondence with Innokentii Borisov was published by N.I. Barsov in Trudy Kievskoi Akademii, 1882-1883.

198. See note 134.

199. Amvrosii Podobedov (1742-1818), at one time a preacher and prefect at the Moscow Academy and head of the Novospasskii Monastery, rose through the episcopal ranks during Catherine II's reign, becoming metropolitan of Novgorod and St. Petersburg in 1791. He is also the compiler of Sobranie pouchitel'nykh slov (Moscow, 1810) and did important work with Russian Church music.

200. Carl Gottlieb Hofmann (1703-1777) was a German preacher and professor of theology at Wittenberg. His basic exegetical works are Introductio in lectionem Novi Testamenti and Institutiones theologiae exegeticae in usum academicarum praelectionum adornatae.

201. A student of Michaelis and Buddeus, John Jacob Rambach (1693-1735) taught at the University of Halle. In his theology' he combined the premises of pietism with the methods of Wolffian philosophy. His best known work is his Betrachtungen on the life and death of Christ, published in the collection Betrachtungen uber das ganze Leiden Christi und die sieben letzen Worte des gekreuzigten Jesu (Basel, 1865). Rambach was also a popular poet and hymnographer.

202. Ioann Dobrozrakov (1790-1872) taught oratory and theology in St. Petersburg, and also served as the academy's librarian. A member of the censorship committee since 1824, he became rector of the academy two years later. In 1830 he began his episcopal career in Penza, was moved to Nizhnii-Novgorod in 1835, and in 1847 succeeded to archbishop of the Don and Novocherkassk.

203. See note 192.

204. Bruno Franz Leopold Liebermann (1759-1844), a Jesuit, was head of the theological school at Mainz. His Institutiones theologiae is an anti-rationalist approach to Roman Catholic theology.

205. A student of Rambach's, Heinrich Klee (1800-1840) taught Church history, philosophy and theology. He is remembered for Die Beichte (Mainz, 1827), Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (2 vols., Mainz, 1837-1838) and Katholische Dogmatik (3 vols, Mainz, 1835).

206. Friedrich Brenner (1784-1848) was a German Catholic theologian and apologist. His chief dogmatic works are Katholische Dogmatik (1828-1829) and Generelle dogmatik oder; Fundamentirung der katholischen speculativen theologie (1844).

207. The Russian title is Bogosloviia nravstvennaia ili khristianskiia nastavleniia, v kotorykh iasno i tverdo dokazany dolzhnosti khristianina, v obshchestvennom ili grazhdanskom, v domashnem i1i tserkovnom sostoianii nakhodiashchagosia (Moscow, 1804). Iakov Arsen'evich Arsen'ev (1768-1848) taught Latin, rhetoric and philosophy at the Kostroma Semiriary, and for many years was archpriest of the Usspenskii [Assumption] cathedral of Kostroma.

208. Parfenii Sopkovskii (1716-1795) taught rhetoric at the seminary in Novgorod and was later prefect and rector there. In 1759 he was named a vicar to the Novgorod bishop and from 1761 served as bishop of Smolensk and member of the Synod.

209. Leitfaden zu Vorlisungen uber die Pastoral-theologie (1782). Franz Giftschutz (1748-1788) was a professor of theology at the University of Vienna.

210. Primarily a linguist, Ivan Ivanovich Dmitrevskii was a student at the Moscow Academy and taught there until 1805. He also served as a translator for the Holy Synod, and published translations of St. Clement (1781) and the philsoopher Isocrates (17891.

211. Stepan Dmitrievich Nechaev (1792-1860) was formerly the director of the Tula school district and served in Nicholas I's Imperial Chancellery. Later he became a senator. He carried on a valuable correspondence with Filaret of Moscow, published as Perepiska mitropolita moskovskago Filareta s S.D. Nechaevym (St. Petersburg, 1895).

212. Jean Baptiste Henri Lacordaire (1802-1861) was a famous preacher in France and helped restore the Dominican Order there. As a young law student he possessed extreme liberal and atheistic views, but then abandoned a promising law career when he returned to the Catholic Church and became a priest. He was one of the main figures in Lamennais' movement to rebuild the influence of the Catholic Church in France by adopting liberal social and political views.

213. A revised statute for the universities was issued on July 26, 1835. According to it much of the power and responsibilities of the university councils was transfered to the district curator, an appointee of the Minister of Education. The year before that private schools and even tutors were drawn into the Ministry of Education's domain, thus establishing a firm, structured network of government supervised education.

214. Nikodim Kazantsev (1803-1874), a student at Moscow Academy, was a professor and inspector there and served as rector of several seminaries. Later he became bishop of Enisei. His memoirs of Filaret, O Filarete, mitropolite moskovskom, moia pamiat', were published in Chteniia v Moskovskom Obshchestve Istorii i Drevnostei Rossiiskikh, 1877.

215. Aleksandr Ivanovich Karasevskii (1796-1856) began his government career in the Ministry of War. He joined the Commission on Ecclesiastical Schools in 1832, an when it became a department of the Holy Synod in 1839 he was its first director. During the reign of Alexander II he continued to work in educational administration and was especially active in opening schools for women.

216. Count Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselev (1788-1872), a renowned general and statesman, was the chief administrator of the Russian forces occupying Moldavia and Wallachia from 1829 to 1834. From 1837 to 1856 he was Minister of State Properties, and introduced vast reforms concerning the state peasants that served as a prelude to the great reforms of Alexander II's reign. After 1856 Kiselev served as Russian ambassador in Paris.

217. It will be recalled that the Spiritual Regulation and other documents related to the establishment of the Synodal system under Peter the Great were written in a didactic style, at once justifying and explaining the new order while outlining the proper duties of the Christian citizen to his Church and to his statc. See above, chapter IV, section II.

218. The Orthodox Church believes that communicants partake of the real body and blood of Christ, but traditionally her theologians were never concerned as to how the transformation of the bread and wine is accomplished in the liturgy. The term “transubstantiation” and the distinction of “form” and “matter” it implies were borrowed by early Russian theologians from scholastic sources.

219. A graduate of the Jesuit Academy in Polotsk, Konstantin Stepanovich Serbinovich (1797-1874) for a long time was editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Education. He also headed Pratasov's chancellery from 1856-1859. Serbinovich was close to Karamzin, A.I. Turgenev and Shishkov and left interesting notes on them as well as correspondence.

220. The Zapovedi tserkovnyia are nine (sometimes ten) rules regarding the Church life of the believer. They deal with prayer, keeping the fasts, participation in the Sacraments, obedience to one's priest, avoiding the writings and company of heretics, etc.

221. Makarii Bulgakov. See note 196 and below.

222. The Kormchaia kniga was first published in 1650. See chapter III, note 23.

223. Aleksandr Petrovich Kunitsyn (1783-1841) was a professor at St. Petersburg University and worked on the Commission on Laws for Alexander and in Nicholas I's Imperial Chancellery. Influenced in his teaching by Kant and Rousseau, his Pravo estestvennoe (St. Petersburg, 1818) caused a controversy that forced him to leave the university. Kunitsyn was also the author of Istoricheskoe izobrazhenie drevniago sudoproizvodstva v Rossii (St. Petersburg, 1843).

224. Avgustin Sakharov (1768-1841) taught homiletics and Greek at the St. Petersburg Academy, and later was rector of seminaries in Iaroslavl and Riazan'. He became bishop of Orenburg in 1806, but retired to the Varrutskii Monastery in Iaroslavl in 1818. There he compiled his 15 volume Polnoe sobranie dukhovnykh zakonov.

225. The Dukhovnyi reglament was the' document by which Peter the Great's Church reform was executed. See above, chapter IV, section II.

226. In his long career Afanasii (1800-1876) taught at the Moscow Academy and served as rector of seminaries in Penza, Kostroma, Riazan', and Kherson before becoming rector of the St. Petersburg Academy in 1841. The next year he began his episcopal career as a vicar to the bishop of Podolia transferred to Saratov in 1847 and eventually became archbishop of Astrakhan, retiring in 1870.

227. Evsevii (1808-1883) was a well-known ecclesiastical writer who served as rector of both the Moscow and St. Petersburg Academies. He also served as bishop of Samara, Irkutsk and Mogilev. Among his works are Uteshenie v skorbi i bolezni (1879), Razmyshleniia na molitvu Gospodniu (1871), and Besedy na voskresnyia i prazdnichnyia Evangeliia (1876).

228. See above, note 149.

229. Photius was patriarch of Constantinople from 858-867 and 878-886. An important figure in the history of the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, he was the first to attack the ftlioque on theological grounds and was heavily involved in theological polemics as well as ecclesiastical-political intrigues. Photius was the most learned scholar of 9th century Byzantium, and in many ways represents the end of the great Patristic era. The most recent study of Photius is Richard S. Haugh's Photius and the Carolingians (Nordland, 1975).

230. Bruno Bauer (1809-1882) was a German Protestant Biblical critic and historian. In his two major works, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (1840) and Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker (2 vols., 1841- 1882) he denied the historicity of Jesus Christ and questioned the foundations of traditional Christian doatrine. Bauer's works were intluential on Nietzsche and Marx. David Strauss (1808-1874) was a theologian of the Tubingen school, which interepreted the Gospels in mythological terms and was strongly influenced by Hegel. His chief work is Das Geben Jesu kritisch bearbeitet (1835-1836). The works of these two scholars produced intense debates on the “historical Jesus “ ultimately leading to the “liberal” school represented by Adolph Harnack and the “eschatological” school of Albert Schweitzer.

231. The Essenes were members of a Jewish sect that flourished in Palestine from the second century B.C. to the end of the first century A.D. Although practices among different groups varied, they generally excluded women, scrupulously observed the Mosaic law and rejected worship in the temple in Jerusalem, resembling in their teaching the many dualistic mystery religions of the time. The Dead Sea Scrolls come from an Essene community at Qumran. The Therapeutae were a similar sect, but bred out of the Judaic Hellenistic movement in Egypt at the end of the first century B.C. They were strictly ascetic and contemplative. Philo Judaeus, or Philo of Alexandria (c. 13 B.C. — c. 50 A.D). was the greatest Jewish philosopher and theologian of the Greco-Roman period of Jewish history. He was deeply influenced by Plato and attempted to make Judaism comprehensible to the Greeks.

232. Marcion was a second century semi-gnostic heretic who believed in two gods, the Old Testament God of anger and retribution who created the world and evil, and the father of Jesus Christ, who was perfect goodness and completely aloof from the world. Condemned in Rome in 144, he produced a Gospel that was essentially the Pauline epistles and Luke minus whatever Marcion considered Jewish corruptions. The rest of Scripture he completely rejected. The Church's canon of books of Scripture was considerably hastened by Marcion's Gospel.

233. Vasilii Nikolaevich Karpov (1798-1867) was a philosopher of the Idealist tradition. He taught philosophy at the Kiev and St. Petersburg Academies, and among his many works is Vvedenie v filosofiiu (St. Petersburg, 1840). His chief renown, however, is as the Russian translator of Plato (the second, complete edition of Plato's works came out in St. Petersburg from 1863 to 1879).

234. Auguste Friedrich Winkler (1767-1838), a German, was a professor of philosophy at the University of Halle and later at Jena. His “textbook” was standard in many universities throughout Germany and Eastern Europe.

235. Vasilii Borisovich Bazhanov (1800-1883) graduated from the St. Petersburg Academy and taught German there. He served also as a catechist at the Second Military Academy before replacing Pavskii as religious tutor to the future Emperor Alexander II in 1835. In 1848 he became the confessor for the imperial family and chief priest at the court chapel. His lessons for Alexander were published in 1839 as Ob obiazannostiakh khristianina.

236. Seredinskii (1822-1897) later was a well-known chaplain at the Russian embassies in Naples and Berlin. He authored O bogosluzhenii zapadnoi tserkvi (St. Petersburg, 1849-1856) and numerous other works on Catholic and Protestant religious life.

237. Agafangel subsequently became archbishop of Volynia and in the 1860's he openly attacked the Over Procurator's domineering and arbitrariness. He died in 1876.

238. This was the corrected Slavonic version commissioned by the Holy Synod in 1723 but first issued in 1751, during the reign of Empress Elizabeth.

239. A professor of theology and Greek, Mikhail Ismailovich Bogoslovskii (1807-1884) later became the head chaplain of the armed forces and a venerable protopresbyter at the Usspenskii cathedral in Moscow. He published a Kurs obshchago tserkovnago prava (Moscow, 1885) and took an active part in translating the Old Testament into Russian.

240. The Uchilishcha Pravovedeniia [School of Jurisprudence] was established in St. Petersburg in 1835 through the efforts of Prince Petr G. Ol'denburg. It was administered under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice and was exclusively for noble youths. I.S. Aksakov and the composer Chaikovskii were among its famous students.

241. Dmitrii Muretov graduated from the Kiev Academy in 1834, and was a professor and rector there. Named bishop of Tula in 1850, he went to Kherson, or Odessa, first in 1857 and succeeded to archbishop of Iaroslavl in 1874, returning to the Crimea the next year as archbishop.

242. They had been published in Khristianskoe chtenie in 1842 as Dogmatic Teaching Selected from the Writings of our Holy Father Dimitrii of Rostov, Saint and Miracle Worker [Sviatago ottsa nashego Dimitriia Rostovskago, sviatitelia i chudotvortsa, dogmaticheskoe uchenie, vybrannoe iz ego sochinenii]. [ Author's note ] .

243. The Symbol of Faith, the Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed, is divided into four parts, on God the Father, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, and the Church, and each part contains several articles.

244. Innokentii Borisov. See above, note 66.

245. Makarii Bulgakov served as chairman of the committee to discuss the reform of church courts, formed in 1870. The issue which the committee addressed, the power and function of ecclesiastical courts, was greatly publicized. A history of abuses had led the public to distrust the asbitrariness of bishops and to push for an ecclesiastical judiciary which would be autonomous of the executive branch of the church. Count D.A. Tolstoi, a supporter of this liberal position, appointed Makarii chairman of the committee on the basis of his liberal position on the reform of the ecclesiastical system of education. After three years of internal disputes, the committee proposed a bill based on the separation of judicial and executive powers. This bill earned Makarii and the committee bitter criticism from all of the influential bishops, as exemplified by A.F. Lavrov, The Planned Reform of the Ecclesiastical Court (Petersburg, 1873, Vol. I). For a more detailed discussion, see Igor Smolitsch, Geschichte Der Russischen Kirche 1700-1917 (Leiden, 1964), pp. 174-77.246. Nikanor Brovkovich. See above, note 149.

247. A graduate of the Moscow Academy, Nikita Petrovich Giliarov-Platonov (1824-1887) was a well-known commentator on current affairs. He taught at the Moscow Academy, was a member of the Moscow censorship committee, and carried out special commissions for the Ministry of Education. From 1867 until his death he devoted himself to publicistic activity, publishing a daily newspaper in Moscow with Slavophile leanings (Sovremennye Izvestiia) and contributing to other Slavophile journals. His autobiography, Iz perezhitogo (Moscow, 1886) contains a talented portrayal of the mores of his time and the spiritual environment of the ecclesiastical schools of which he was a product.

248. Istoriia russkoi tserkvi, in 13 volumes; most recently published in St. Petersburg, 1889-1903.

249. Ioann Sokolov (1818-1869) is best remembered as a preacher and canonist. He studied at the Moscow Academy and taught in Kazan' and St. Petersburg,where he was also rector. He died as bishop of Smolensk. His Opyt kursa tserkovnago zakonovedeniia (St. Petersburg, 1851-1852) is a fundamental work on Russian canon law. See below, pp. 259-262.

250. See above, note 149.

251. On Strauss and Bauer see above, note 230. Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872) was a famous German atheist philosopher. He taught that God is a subjective principle produced by the human consciousness and that all religion is psychological illusion. His chief work is Das Wesen des Christentums (Leipzig, 1841; English translation The Essence of Christianity, London, 1854) and his collected works were published also in Leipzig from 1846 to 1866.

252. The Survey was first published as articles in Christian Reading in 1852 and 1853, and then separately in 1856 and 1858. [Author's note].

253. The Crimean War (1855-1856) had shown clearly to all the shortcomings in the Russian state, and when Alexander II took the throne in 1855 he immediately turned his attention to comprehensive reforms of the Russian social, political, legal, and military system. The first problem to be dealt with was that of the peasantry. In 1856 Alexander opened official discussion on the emancipation of the serfs, and after much stalling on the part of the landowning nobles the Act of Emancipation was issued in 1861. This was followed in 1864 by political reforms, creating the organs of local self-government the zemtstvos, and a new court system with jury trials. Censorship was relaxed and the educational system expanded particularly at the primary level. On the one hand these reforms brought some hope to disaffected segments of society, but eventually they proved insufficient to deal with the pressing problems Russia was facing.

254. Afanasii Prokof'evich Shchapov (1830-1876) was a Russian historian of the federalist or “regional” school, which concentrated on the history of popular, rather than governmental institutions. A son of a priest near Irkutsk in Siberia, he graduated from the Kazan' Academy and taught Russian history both there and at Kazan' University. He was deeply interested in the plight of the peasantry, and was arrested in 1861 for criticizing the recent reforms for their inadequacy in another public address. His chief work is his study of the Church Schism, Zemstvo i raskol (St. Petersburg, 1862). His collected works were printed in three volumes in St. Petersburg, 1906-1908.

255. It was published in The Orthodox Interlocutor [Pravoslavnyi sobesednik], 1863. [Author's note] .

256. Aleksei Petrovich Akhmatov (1818-1870) was Over Procurator of the Holy Synod for only a year (1863-1864). A soldier by profession, he was a cavalry officer in the Crimean War, rose to the rank of adjutant-general, and served as military governor of Khar'kov.

257. The bishops of the Orthodox Church are traditionally drawn exclusively from the monastics. If a non-monk is elected to an episcopal see he must first be tonsured a monk before he can be consecrated.

258. St. Athanasius (295-373), bishop of Alexandria, was a great Trinitarian theologian and leader of the struggle against the Arians. The Cappadocians are Basil the Great (d. 379), bishop of Caesarea and a leading defender of Nicene orthodoxy; Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 390), known as “the Theologian” for both his doctrinal works and spiritual poetry; aiid Gregory of Nyssa (d. 394), whose work tended to be more philosophical and mystical. St. Ephrem the Syrian (c. 306-373) was the most important representative of Syrian Christianity in the fourth century. He left many theological works, Biblical commentaries and hymns.

259. Over Procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1905, Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) was an ultra-conservative and nationalist thinker. The son of a priest, he began his career in the civil service, and also lectured in law at the University of Moscow. In 1861 he was hired as a tutor to Alexander II's son the future Alexander III, and later he was in charge of the education of Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia. In 1864 he worked on the legal reforms and was named to the Senate and the State Council. Pobedonostsev was at the head of the conservative reaction following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 and remained a close advisor to Alexander III and Nioholas II. Although he possessed great erudition and was widely traveled, his extreme ideas isolated him from contemporary intellectual society, and one of his only friends was the novelist Dostoevskii. See R.F. Bymes, Pobedonostsev: His Life and Thought (1968).

260. O dogmaticheskom dostoinstve i okhranitelhom upotreblenii grecheskago semidesiaty tolkovnikov i slavianskago perevoda Sviashchennago Pisaniia. It was published only in 1858 in the Moscow Academy Journal Supplement.

261. Gavriil was formerly a professor at the seminary in Riazan' and rector of the Orlov Seminary. In 1828 he was made bishop of Kaluga then moved to Mogilev in 1831, where he worked to bring the Uniates of West Russia back into the Orthodox Church. In 1837 he became archbishop of Riazan', where he remained until his death in 1862.

262. Nikolai Gerasimovich Pomialovskii (1835-1863) was a graduate of the St. Petersburg seminary. His critique of the seminaries, Ocherki bursy was printed in the journals Vremia and Sovremennik in 1862-1863. On Rostislavov see above, note 150. Ivan Sawich Nikitin (1824-1861) was a well-known Russian poet. His Dnevnik seminarista [Diary of a Seminarian] appared in Voronezhskaia Beseda in 1861.

263. Viktor Ipat'evich Askochenskii (1820-1879) studied at the Voronezh Seminary and finished the master's course at the Kiev Academy. Remaining in the chair of patrology, he became a full professor in 1846. Most of his literary activity was in the journal Domashniaia Beseda, which he founded in 1854 but because of censorship did not come out until 1858. He also wrote a short Istoriia russkoi literatury (Kiev, 1846) and Kiev s drevneishim ego uchilishchem (Kiev, 1856).

264. The Kazan' gymnasium was given university status only in 1805, two years before Aksakov graduated, and he doubted the school's ability to grant him a university degree. Sergei Timofeevich Aksakov (1791-1859) the father of the Slavophiles Konstantin and Ivan, was a civil servant inspired by the works of Gogol to produce his own novels. His three chief works all translated into English, are the autobiographical novels Semeinaia khronika (1856; English translation Chronicle of a Russian Family, 1924), Vospominaniia (1856 Autobiography of a Russian Schoolboy, 1917), and Detskii gody bagrova-vnuka (1858; Years of Childhood, 1916).

265. Raznochinets was a term applied in the 18th and 19th centuries to “people of various classes,” or those who left their hereditary social station without formerly entering another legal class. More specifically in Russian literature it refers to members of the lower social strata, such as peasants and priest's sons, who took leading roles in the provincial intelligentsia.

266. A political reactionary and literary disciple of Shishkov Prince Platon Aleksandrovich Shirinskii-Shikhmatov (1790-1853) began to work for the Ministry of Education in 1824, and was minister from 1850 until his death. He also headed the St. Petersburg Archeographic Commission and was a member of the Academy of Sciences.

267. Avraam Sergeevich Norov (1795-1869) was a hero of the battle of Borodino, and afterwards worked in vasious government offices. In 1850 he became assistant Miruster of Education and succeeded Shirinskii-Shikmatov in 1854, remaining in the post until 1858. Norov was versed in many languages and was very well traveled, leaving a five volume Puteshestviia (St. Petersburg, 1854) of a journey to Sicily, the Holy Land and Egypt.

About the Author.


Born in Odessa in 1893, Father Georges Florovsky was Assistant Professor at the University of Odessa in 1919. Having left Russia, Fr.Florovsky taught philosophy in Prague from 1922 until 1926. He was then invited to the chair of Patrology at St. Sergius' Orthodox Theological Institute in Paris.

In 1948 Fr. Florovsky came to the United States. He was Professor and Dean of St. Vladimir's Theological School until 1955, while also teaching as Adjunct Professor at Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary.

From 1956 until 1964 Fr. Florovsky held the chair of Eastern Church History at Harvard University. Since 1964 he has taught Slavic studies and history at Princeton University until his death.

Fr. Georges Florovsky, Emeritus Professor of Eastern Church History at Harvard University and recipient of numerous honorary degrees, was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.



Fr. Georges Florovsky died on August 1 1 , 1979.








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