W15 Anatomy D170 Lab 4: Appendicular skeleton and joints



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W15 Anatomy D170

Lab 4: Appendicular skeleton and joints
Learning objectives: At the end of this lab session, you should be able to:

  • Identify and describe the functions of the bones of the appendicular skeleton

  • Identify and describe markings on bones of the appendicular skeleton

  • Identify and classify types of joints and what movements they allow

  • Explain how bone surfaces articulate to form joints

Note: For the following exercises it may help to use your textbook, atlas, or the guidebook that came with the skeleton model to identify structures. If you do not have a guidebook, you can access it at this website: http://www.a3bs.com/product-manual/A05-2_A11_A13.pdf


Station 1: Appendicular skeleton overview (human skeleton model)

  • Obtain a human skeleton model and identify the four main areas of the appendicular skeleton: pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, and lower limb

  • At what structures do the upper limb and pectoral girdle articulate? Identify these structures on the skeleton.



  • At what structures do the lower limb and pelvic girdle articulate? Identify these structures on the skeleton.

Pectoral girdle (human skeleton model)

Identify the following features of the pectoral girdle. Be able to identify these structures from an anterior and posterior point of view (if possible). Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures.



Clavicle

  • Acromial end

  • Sternal end

Scapula


  • Glenoid cavity

  • Inferior angle

  • Coracoid process

  • Acromion

  • Spine



Answer the following questions regarding the pectoral girdle.



  • Which side (anterior or posterior) of the scapula is smooth? Which side contains the spine and coracoid process? How can you tell the right and left scapula apart?



  • What is the function of the acromion?


  • How can you tell the right and left clavicles apart?

Answer the following questions regarding the pelvic girdle:



  • What is the most superior bone of the coxa?




  • What is the function of the iliac crest?




  • What portions of the left and right pubic articulate at the pubic symphysis?

Appendicular skeleton – pelvic girdle (human skeleton model)

Identify the following pelvic girdle bones and markings. Be able to identify these structures from several points of view (lateral, superior, etc). Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures.

Coxa


  • Acetabulum

Illium


  • Iliac crest

  • Anterior superior iliac spine

  • Posterior superior iliac spine

  • Iliac fossa

  • Greater sciatic notch

Ischium

Pubis


Joints (human skeleton model)

Identify the following fibrous joints on the human skeleton. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures. Classify each joint by their specific subcategory (suture, sydesmosis, or gomphosis). Use Table 9.3 in your textbook if you need help.


  • Lamboid suture

  • Inferior tibiofibular joint

  • Teeth

Identify the following cartilaginous joints on the human skeleton. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures. Classify each joint by their specific subcategory (synchondroses or sympheses). Use Table 9.3 in your textbook if you need help.



  • Intervertebral

  • Sternocostal joint (rib 1 and sternum)

  • Pubic symphysis

Identify the following synovial joints on the human skeleton. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures. For each joint, examine the range of motion allowed. BE VERY CAREFUL WITH THE SKELETONS WHEN PERFORMING THESE MOTIONS! Use Table 9.3 in your textbook if you need help.





  • TMJ

  • Atlanto-occipital

  • Atlantoaxial

  • Sternoclavicular

  • Shoulder (glenohumeral)

  • Elbow

  • Distal radioulnar

  • Wrist

  • Carpometacarpal of digit I (thumb)

  • Hip

  • Knee (tibiofemoral)

  • Superior tibiofibular

  • Ankle

  • Tarsometatarsal





  • Examine the knee joint in detail. What range of motion does the knee joint allow?



  • What happens to the ACL and PCL when the knee is flexed and extended?



  • What happens if you apply a medially-directed force to the lateral side of the knee?



  • Identify the following parts of the knee joint. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures.

  • Lateral and medial menisci

  • Patellar ligament

  • Fibular collateral ligament

  • Tibial collateral ligament

  • Anterior cruciate ligament

  • Posterior cruciate ligament



  • Answer the following question regarding joints:

  • Which joint in the body is the most flexible? How does this relate to stability of the joint?







  • Station 2: Lower and Upper Limbs

  • Identify the following upper limb bones and markings. Be able to identify these structures from several points of view (lateral, superior, etc). Consider how these bones and markings differ between the left and right upper limbs. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures.



  • Humerus

  • Head

  • Greater tubercle

  • Lesser tubercle

  • Intertubercular sulcus

  • Deltoid tuberosity

  • Trochlea

  • Capitulum

  • Olecranon fossa



  • Radius

  • Head

  • Radial tuberosity

  • Styloid process



  • Ulna

  • Coronoid process

  • Ulnar head

  • Styloid process

  • Olecranon process



  • Carpal bones

  • Scaphoid

  • Lunate

  • Triquetrum

  • Pisiform

  • Trapezium

  • Trapezoid

  • Capitate

  • Hamate

  • Metacarpal bones

  • Phalanges





  • Answer the following questions regarding the upper limb:

  • Describe the location of the trapezium bone with regards to the hamate bone.





  • How many bones does the radius articulate with? Name them below and identify the articulations on the skeleton.







  • How does the left ulna differ from the right ulna? How could you tell them apart?





  • Lower Limb:

  • Identify the following lower limb bones and markings. Be able to identify these structures from several points of view (lateral, superior, etc). Consider how these bones and markings differ between the left and right lower limbs. Check each box when you are able to confidently identify these structures.



  • Femur

  • Head

  • Neck

  • Greater trochanter

  • Lesser trochanter

  • Medial condyle

  • Lateral condyle

  • Patellar surface



  • Patella



  • Tibia

  • Medial condyle

  • Lateral condyle

  • Tibial tuberosity

  • Medial malleolus



  • Fibula

  • Head

  • Lateral malleolus



  • Tarsals

  • Talus

  • Trochlea of the talus

  • Calcaneus

  • Calcaneal tuberosity

  • Cuboid

  • Navicular

  • Medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms



  • Metatarsals

  • Phalanges of the toes





  • Answer the following questions regarding the lower limbs:

  • What is the anatomical relationship of the fibula with respect to the femur?





  • The femur and tibia articulate to form the knee. What markings of the femur articulate with what markings on the tibia?





  • What bone articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint?







  • Station: 3: At your desk:

  • Appendicular skeleton (PAL)

  • Go to PAL, and open “Appendicular Skeleton” under the Human Cadaver column and click on the four sub-categories. Note: identical images are found under the Anatomical Model column

  • Work through the Self-Review and take note of the important structures and terms that are labeled

  • Also note that you can click the “rotate” button that allows you to rotate the bones in three different planes.

  • Repeat for “Joints.” Use your list of terms from reading notes for structures to memorize.





  • Surface Anatomy:

  • Palpate the spine of the scapula on your back (see page 337 in the textbook for help). Also palpate your clavicles and feel how they articulate with the manubrium of the sternum.



  • Palpate (feel) the following structures on your own upper limbs. Ask your group for assistance if you need it! Also see pages 337 – 340 of the textbook for help.

  • Olecranon process

  • Metacarpals

  • Radial styloid process

  • Ulnar head





  • Palpate the following structures on your own lower limbs. Ask your group for assistance if you need it! Also see pages 340 – 343 of the textbook for help.

  • Medial and lateral condyles of femur

  • Patella

  • Medial and lateral condyles of tibia

  • Tibial tuberosity

  • Anterior border of tibia

  • Lateral malleolus

  • Medial malleolus

  • Calcaneus







  • Be able to act out these motions:








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