2Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
The paper focuses on the biological affinities of the medieval population of Mamisondon, the Alagir district, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Because the cultural affiliation of Mamisondon people is controversial, biological data can provide important information on the origin and population history of that group. We used data on two morphologically independent systems of traits: craniometric and cranial nonmetric. First, cranial measurements of medieval and modern groups from northern Eurasia including Mamisondon were subjected to canonical variate analysis (CVA) whereas frequencies of nonmetric characters of the same groups were subjected to the principal component analysis (PCA). Next the resulting CV and PC scores were treated as new traits and integrated using PCA. The results of both analyses, metric and nonmetric, are consistent despite the independence of both trait sets. The correlation coefficient between CV 1 and PC 1 reaches 0.9 and that between CV 2 and PC 2 equals 0.5. According to the results of both analyses, the Mamisondon people are autochthonous, possibly with some admixture from the Alans. Our data suggest that Adygeis are the most similar to Mamisondon people among the modern groups. The specific position of Mamisondon on CV 3 shows that random microevolutionary processes were an important factor in the population history of this group possibly due to its geographic isolation.
Key words: North Caucasus, Alan Culture, Middle ages, craniometry, nonmetric cranial traits
NEW DATA ON A MEDIEVAL COPTIC POPULATION OF DAIR AL-BANAT, THE FAYOUM OASIS, EGYPT (p. 67)
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The medieval site of Dair al-Banat is situated in the Eastern part of the Fayoum governorate in a deserted area about 2 km from the monastery of Dair al-Malak. All female long bones from that cemetery were very gracile and so were all male arm bones. Most male femora and tibiae were gracile, but some were very robust. The estimated stature of Dair al-Banat men is average – 169.5 cm (range, 163–179 cm), and that of women equals 155.4 cm (range, 150–160.5 cm). Also, we studied limb proportions of males and females. Both were characterized by relatively long legs, forearms and shins, and relatively narrow shoulders and hips. All female arm bones and some male arm bones have weak muscular attachments. In certain men the insertion areas of the following arm muscles were well developed: tuberositas deltoidea, cristae tuberculi majoris and minoris, tuberositas ulnae, tuberositas radii and supinator relief. The leg bones of most individuals showed well developed attachment sites for muscles such as tuberositas glutea, linea intertrochanterica, trochanter major, epicondili medialis and lateralis femoris, tuberositas tibiae, and linea musculi solei. We conclude that people of Dair al-Banat spent much time walking. The typical postcranial pathology is the osteoporosis of long bones. Frequent cases of palatine porosity, cribra orbitalia, and periodontosis are accompanied by tooth loss.
Key words: physical anthropology, osteology, muscular attachments, Egypt, Copts
COMPOSITE PORTRAITS OF SOUTHERN SINAI BEDOUINS (p. 67)
Chumakova Anna1, Maurer Andrey1, Kobyliansky Eugene2
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
The aim of the study was to create series of composite portraits (CP) of southern Sinai Bedouins based on photographs of the Israeli expedition of 1979–82 and using new digital technologies. For that purpose, 89 photographs of adult Bedouins in two norms––full face and profile, and those of 116 children aged 7–15 were processed with the “Face on Face” software (Savinetsky-Syroezhkin). Anthropometric and descriptive traits of the head and face were analyzed. CP were collected to specify the information about different aspects of anthropological variability in Bedouin tribes. Three adult and five children’s portraits reflect age-specific characteristics; the profile portrait provides information on the vertical facial profile and nasal morphology. Integral visual images representing various tribes and subtribes as well as the general portrait of the adult part of the whole population were generated. Our analysis of metric and nonmetric facial variation in Bedouin subtribes revealed a number of significant differences (in transverse dimensions and height of the face, eye and hair pigmentation, and hair form). Various Bedouin tribes, then, differ in important features of appearance. Results of visual analysis of composite portraits are comparable with biometric data. In some cases the CP method is more informative. For example, CP of the homogeneous Muzeina tribe and the tribal group “others” are consistent with metric information; CP of Gebelia subtribes of patchy origin visualize and complete the numeric information. The profile portrait adds information on a number of features: height and overall profile of nasal bridge, morphology of supraorbital and chin areas.
Key words: ethnic anthropology, composite portraits, South Sinai Bedouins, facial morphology
CEPHALOMETRIC VARIATION AMONG THE TURKMEN OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA (p. 68)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Cephalometric data on Turkmen males (N=240) living in the Stavropol and Astrakhan Provinces of Russia since the XVII century are analyzed (the material was collected by this author and O. Babakov in 1987 in eight settlements of the Stavropol Province and in two in the Volga delta). Thirteen traditional head and face dimensions were included. All statistics were performed using Statistica 8.0 software. The analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the Chovdur, Igdir, Abdal and Suyundzhadzhi tribes (Wilks’ lambda = 0.712135; F=1.53). Differentiation between villages is stronger (Wilks’ lambda = 0.405974; F=1.80). Discrimination of the total population by either criteria (“tribe” and “village”) shows no effect for total head and face measurements. Differences concern mainly details of facial morphology (tribes differ in zygomatic and nasal breadth; villages, in these features plus minimal frontal breadth, zygomatic breadth, and upper lip height). Based on the above traits, correct tribe attribution is possible only in 48.75% of individuals ranging from 39.5% in Abdal to 84.6% in Suyundzhadzhi. Correct village attribution was possible in 37.9% (Funtovo, 60.4%;Sharahalsun, 51.3%). Variation among all the Turkmen tribes (N=1064 individuals) is greater than in southern Russia alone (Wilks’ lambda = 0.322341; F=10.8). However, correct classification in that case was possible only in 37.4% of cases (Stavropol Turkmen, 57.4%; Nohurly of Turkmenistan, 47.6%; Astrakhan groups, 10.5%). Weighted pair-group clusterization links South Russian Turkmen with Ersari of Middle Amudarya, Igdyrs and Chovdurs of Northern Turkmenistan. Tajiks, Turkmen, Kirghizes, Uzbeks and other Central Asian peoples (N=3895) were correctly classified in 54.9% of cases (Wilks’ lambda = 0.38396; F=38.27), and Turkmen groups alone, in 81.8% (Tajiks, 75.9%; Karakalpaks, 1.7%, Uzbeks, 8.6%). In the same sample, Stavropol Turkmen were correctly attributed in 22.8%, those of Astrakhan, in 1.8%. Cephalometric traits, then, do not distinguish the Turkmen of southern Russia from other Central Asian populations. Descriptive traits appear to be more efficient. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for the Humanities , project 12-01-00235).
Key words: Turkmen, anthropometry, cephalometric traits, Stavropol and Astrakhan regions, ANOVA, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis
THE STUDY OF CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY IN CASES OF ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL DEFORMATION USING ANGULAR MORPHOMETRY (p. 69)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Artificial deformation of the head is one of the most widespread ancient practices of changing human appearance. It has been studied by more than two hundred years. Certain problems relating to this custom can be solved with the help of physical anthropology. Angular morphometry is rooted in cranio-trigonometric studies of the early 20th century. The essence of this method consists in analyzing cranial morphology through a description of its shape by the system of triangles the angle values being used in multivariate statistical analysis. Numerous studies of artificial cranial deformation using the cranio-trigonometric approach were published in the first half of the 20th century. They were mainly based on the craniometric systems of H. Klaatsch and J. Imbelloni and on the notion of “cephalic constants”, such as the ‘Klaatsch central angle (Z)’. We selected some 400 skulls with various types of deformation coming from various regions of northern Eurasia. They were measured according to the angular morphometry program developed by S.V. Vasilyev and R.M. Galeyev. This program is based on a system of 33 triangles generated by craniometric reference points. The trigonometric systems of artificially deformed and undeformed skulls differ in various respects. The heavier the deformation, the larger these differences are. The braincase undergoes heavy transformation whereas general angular characteristics of the face change little if at all. Visual differences of artificially deformed crania are more evident in the curvature of individual skull bones than in the position of craniometric points within the cranial space. The angular characteristics of deformed braincases differ by types of deformation. Based on the results of the angular morphometric analysis we can distinguish two subtypes of circular deformation: straight and inclined types according to J. Imbelloni.
Key words: angular morphometry, artificial cranial deformation
MEDIEVAL POPULATION OF THE MIDDLE DANUBE: ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALISIS (p. 69)
Goncharova Natalia1, Radichevich Deyan2
1Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Archaeology Department, Faculty of Phylosophy, Belgrad University, Serbia
The purpose of this study was to get a better insight into the lifestyle of medieval Slavic populations by examining skeletal remains. The populations of two 12th–13th-century settlements on the Middle Danube were studied. One group is an urban population, the other one is rural. The Duplyaya fortified settlement was situated on the left bank of the Danube, 10 km north of the mouth of the river Caras. The Omolitsa rural settlement is also on the left bank of the Danube, near Belgrade. Burials of at least 150 individuals were excavated. Both settlements are well dated by coins. The analysis revealed differences in frequencies of stress markers and pathological bone changes between the urban and the rural groups. The urban population was more affected by a variety of infectious and systemic diseases such as cancer, while the injury rate is virtually the same. Indicators of cranial trauma are almost the same in both groups, but the urban group shows more diverse types of injuries. Differences might result from different lifestyles of the rural and urban populations. Physical features of the two groups differ too, though both belong to the same type of southern Slavs. Urban dwellers had robust skulls and less protruding noses. To visualize differences between the groups, composite “cranial portraits” were generated with Galton’s method.
Key words: Slavic populations, lifestyle, stress markers, anthropological types
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF ABKHAZO-ADYGHEAN PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS (p. 70)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Populations of Caucasus are dermatogyphically distinct, being generally intermediate between those of Western Asia and Europe (Heet, 1976; Heet, Dolinova, 2002). Previous data on Abkhazo-Adyghean groups are scarce. In this report, dermatoglyphic data on 51 groups of Caucasus, totaling about 10200 males, are analyzed. The sample includes eight Abkhazo-Adyghean populations (about 2400 males): Abkhazians (495), Abazins (217), Abadzekhs (125), Bzhedugs (348), Shapsugs (240), Chemguis (193), Cherkess (166), and Kabardins (645). Two multidimensional analyses were conducted using a set of key diagnostic traits. Generally, the Abkhazo-Adyghean samples are similar and homogeneous. The mean Generalized Dermatoglyphic Distance (GDD) equals 8.4, which is nearly twice less than that between groups of the entire Caucasus. Among the speakers of Caucasian languages, Abkhazo-Adygheans are closest to Kartvelians and Iranians (GDD ranges within 6.1–6.3) and somewhat less similar to the Turkic-speaking groups except Nogais and to Dagestanians (7.1–7.4), being furthest from the Nakh-speaking people. The South Caucasoid Complex is lower in Abkhazo-Adyghean and Kartvelian speakers (58.0 and 58.7, respectively) than in Turks (61.0), Dagestanians (62.3), Armenians (62.7), and Iranians (62.9). Two significant principal components differentiate Northern and Southern Caucasoids. All Abkhazo-Adyghean groups except Cherkess are included in the larger cluster (2/3 of the samples), occupying a central position there. The Bzhedugs and Shapsugs show the “southernmost” characteristics, Abkhazians, Abazins, Kabardins, Abadzekhs and Chemguis being the “northernmost”. Cherkess group take a central position in the second cluster. Results of the study are discussed in the context of the population history of Caucasus.
Key words: dermatoglyphics, Caucasus, Abhazo-Adygean peoples
PALEODEMOGRAPHY OF THE 10TH–13TH-CENTURY POPULATIONS IN THE TISZÁNTÚL (HUNGARY) (p. 70)
János István1, Szathmáry László2
1Institute of Environmental Science, College of Nyíregyháza, Nyíregyháza, Hungary
2Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
Result of craniological studies suggests that the structure of populations living in the Great Hungarian Plain (Hungary) might have changed considerably between the Age of the Hungarian Conquest (10th century) and the Arpadian Age (11th–13th century). This conclusion follows from the analysis of skeletons from cemeteries dating both to the Age of the Hungarian Conquest and to the Arpadian Age. Given the above result, the basic aim of this study was to perform comparative paleodemographic analysis of representative 10th and 11th–13th-century skeletal populations excavated from cemeteries in the Tiszántúl region, the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. The samples were separated into two groups according to archaeological periods (the Age of the Hungarian Conquest and the Arpadian Age). It was found that the 10th-century populations showed greater variation in mortality parameters. By contrast, the Arpadian Age populations, especially those dating to the 11th century showed a much more homogeneous demographic profile. Among the 11th-century populations, much lesser variation could be detected than among the 10th-century samples. It is possible that 10th-century populations composed of various ethnic groups of different origin settled in the Carpathian basin according to their former environment. This might have caused territorial isolation and was followed by anatomical and demographic distinctions. However, in the 11th century, differences between groups became much smaller, possibly due to the political activities of King Saint Stephen, which resulted in a more homogeneous population.
Key words: paleodemography, skeletal populations, Great Hungarian Plain, Tiszántúl region, age of Hungarian Conquest, Arpadian Age
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ONSET OF MOTHERHOOD IN POLAND (p. 71)
Department of Human Biological Development, Institute of Anthropology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland
Factors of lifestyle and social behaviour were examined in relation to the age at first childbirth given by Polish women. In a sample of 1924 parous women aged 35–45 years at the time of examination, crude associations between maternal age at first birth and selected covariates including place of residence, educational attainment, employment status, financial strain, physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and weight status were evaluated. The bivariate relations were then adjusted to marital status and use of oral contraceptives (OCU).The study revealed key sets of social predictor variables for maternal first birth age in Poland. The large city residents with higher educational level, currently employed and without financial strain, non-smoking cigarettes and non-drinking alcohol, participating in physical exercises and maintaining proper weight and oral contraceptive users were more likely to delay their first childbirth over the median age of 23 years, than their counterparts. The most important predictors of the maternal first birth age included: educational attainment (F=19.8; p<0.001), place of residence (F=4.2 p<0.021), employment status (F=3.7; p=0.026), tobacco use (F=5.0; p=0.007), and use of oral contraceptives (F=3.6; p=0.033), they explained 15% of the total variance in the maternal first birth age. The probability of delivering first child at more advanced age was almost two times higher for the large-city residents than for their rural counterparts (OR=1.58); five times higher for women with better educational qualifications as compared to primarily educated peers (OR=5.24). Currently employed women were 1.5 times more likely to be primiparous at a more advanced age than the unemployed counterparts (OR=1.5). Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely than their peers who had never smoked to deliver a child at an older age (OR=0.75). The OC users were 1.5 times more likely to delay childbirth than never OCU counterparts. The study results confirmed the importance of women’s educational level in undertaking decision about motherhood.
Key words: maternal age at first childbirth, social status, lifestyle behaviour
MAPPING DENTAL MARKERS IN EURASIAN POPULATIONS: WHAT WAS HIDDEN IN TABLE DATA? (p. 72)
Institute of Arid Zones, Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
The study aims to consider numerous dental data from Eurasian populations in a spatial and temporal context. Mapping dental markers and PC scores as an innovative approach involves 906 samples; 594 of them are living groups and 312 are cranial series dated from the Late Pleistocene to the Early Iron Age. The results highlight the division of the whole area into two main provinces––western and eastern. The distinctive landscape, however, changes dramatically with the chronological depth when gracile lower molars as a distinguishing characteristics of our species are considered. The maps provide the evidence of the four-cusped LM2 to be a constant marker of western Eurasian populations, while the four-cusped LM1 turns to be an eastern trait in the Upper Paleolithic and early Holocene. Since the four-cusped LM1 is generally considered a western feature in recent populations, the discovered phenomenon provides a new view of the population history of the continent. The maps demonstrate the earliest western localization of gracile LM1, followed, in different ratio, by eastern traits (shoveling, dtc, dw) only in the Mesolithic and Neolithic northeastern Europe. The most intense dispersal of a similar combination from Asia to the west is traced in the Early Metal and Bronze Ages, mainly along the steppe belt of the continent. By the turn of the Common Era the landscape takes on essentially modern outlines. The results of the study suggest that LM1 and LM2 evolved independently in Eurasian populations, thus marking two separate ancestral groups. The separate ancestry could result from different tempos of transition of the key tooth role, thus suggesting four-cusped LM1 to be more archaic. In fact, should we admit at last that all the relevant dental traits specified as eastern are basically archaic? Several implications will be discussed.
Key words: phenogeography, Eurasia, dental markers, lower molars, gracilization, population history
ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SOUTHERN URALIAN AND FOREST-STEPPE VOLGA VARIETIES OF THE SINTASHTA AND POTAPOVKA CULTURES, MIDDLE TO LATE BRONZE AGE TRANSITION (p. 72)
Khokhlov Alexander1, Kitov Egor2
1State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities, Samara, Russia
2Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
The study of the Bronze Age sites in the Southern Uralian and Volga steppes is crucial for addressing many issues of Eurasian prehistory. The discovery of a number of archaeological sites dating to the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age, and in particular of a series of fortified settlements of Arkaim type, resulted in a revision of the existing periodization of the archaeological cultures in the region, and of the views concerning their origins. It was immediately suggested that people who lived in these settlements and left kurgan graveyards with remains of early battle chariots, abundant animal sacrifices, and very specific burial practices, were Indo-Iranians. We have had an opportunity to study skeletal materials from the Sintashta-Arkaim sites in Southern Urals and from the forest-steppe Potapovka sites of the Volga region, which are culturally related (materials are stored at the Volga State Socio-Humanitarian Academy in Samara). Various analytical methods were utilised, and close relationship between the two neighbouring populations was revealed. At the same time, the considerable heterogeneity of these groups, which has no parallels among preceding or succeeding Bronze Age populations, was noted. Almost all anthropological series demonstrate features that could indicate either steppe or northern forest affinities. Some series could represent a result of a mechanical mixture while others attest to incipient hybridization. Despite the evidence of military activity in the society (fortified settlements, chariots, weapons), a small number of injuries suggests that Sintashta and Potapovka populations were involved in conflicts only occasionally. It should be emphasized that despite the apparent cultural homogeneity of the cemeteries, the buried people were not necessarily related to each other. The central and elite graves often contain individuals of a hypermorphic European type, perhaps of steppe origin. We therefore conclude that one must concentrate on elite burials to identify the founders of the Sintashta and Potapovka traditions in this archaeologically homogenous and, at the same time, biologically heterogeneous group.