1Chapaevsk Medical Association, Chapaevsk, Russia
2Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia
3Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
4Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
5Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, USA
6Institute of Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
7Pediatric Endocrine Division, Departments of Pediatrics and Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, USA
Introduction. There are few longitudinal male cohort studies with serial assessments of growth and puberty. Design/Methods. We assembled a multi-disciplinary team of U.S. and Russian researchers to design and conduct a longitudinal boys’ cohort study of male growth, development, puberty and reproductive health in Chapaevsk, Russia. At annual study visits scheduled at each subject’s birth month, the same study physician (O.S.) assesses pubertal staging and one nurse (L.S.) measures anthropometric variables. Pubertal assessments are based on a 1–5 scale for genitalia and pubic hair staging by visual inspection, testicular volume is measured using orchidometers, and penile length is measured with a ruler. Blood and urine samples for hormonal, chemical, genetic and epigenetic analysis were collected at baseline and biennially. Results. In 2003–2005, 516 prepubertal boys were recruited at ages 8–9 years (86% of all eligible Chapaevsk boys) to be followed annually for at least 10 years. The participation rate has remained high with over 75% followed for 6 years and 64% at 9 years of follow-up with 4319 visits as of February 2014. A core set of 23 anthropometric indices measured at annual visits (e.g., height, weight, segment lengths and diameters, circumferences, skinfolds) are available, as well as an additional 30 measures conducted biennially. Longitudinal curves for selected anthropometric and pubertal measures will be constructed. 113 semen samples were collected at 18-19 years old and evaluated for semen quality, including sperm concentration and motility. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this longitudinal male cohort is the first to have serial assessments of growth and puberty performed by the same physician and nurse followed for over ten years, from prepuberty to young adulthood. This cohort provides an excellent foundation for describing growth and pubertal development trajectories and evaluating associations with environmental exposures.
Key words: growth, development, puberty, longitudinal curves, Russians, males, anthropometry
PHYSICAL STATUS OF CHILDREN BORN IN 1996 (LONGITUDINAL AUXOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN FROM VILNIUS CITY, 1996–2013) (p. 62)
Suchomlinov Andrej¹, Čerškus Gediminas², Kolosov Andrej², Rakita Ignas², Tutkuvienė Janina¹
1Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania
2Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania
Based on the 1985–1992 cross-sectional auxological Lithuanian growth study, the new growth monitoring system and percentile growth charts were implemented at clinical practice in Lithuania since 1995 (Tutkuviene, 1995). The aim of the present study was to evaluate physical status of children born in 1996 in Vilnius city from birth up to the end of puberty and to investigate their growth tendencies. Material and methods: data were derived in 2014 from personal health records of children (373 boys and 342 girls, total number 715) born in 1996 in Vilnius city. Main growth indices (height and weight recorded annually from birth up to the age of 17 years, and calculated body mass index) of children were investigated. Main growth indices were compared with the results of the longitudinal study of children born in 1990 from Vilnius city (Suchomlinov, 2011) and the results of the cross-sectional growth studies of Lithuanian children (Tutkuviene, 1995, 2000–2005). Results: at the age of 17 years children born in 1996 were 1.5–2 cm higher than in 1985–1992 (p<0.05) – boys’ and girls’ height was 180.1±7.5 cm and 168.1±6.1 cm, respectively. Children of both sexes from the current study, compared to their peers born in 1990, were higher at birth (boys 53.3±2.3 cm and 52.8±2.3 cm, girls 52.8±2.4 cm and 52.3±2.4 cm respectively, p<0.05). There were no differences in final height, weight or BMI between 1990 in 1996 birth cohorts; however, children born in 1996 had significantly higher BMI compared with the results of the cross-sectional growth study of Lithuanian children conducted in 2000-2005 (boys 21.8±3.4 kg/m² and 21.1±2.6 kg/m², girls 21.5±3.6 kg/m² and 20.2±2.3 kg/m² respectively, p<0.05). Conclusion: stabilization in height and gaining in BMI was observed in children born 1996 in Vilnius city.
Key words: longitudinal auxological study, personal health records, height, weight, body mass index
GROWTH FROM BIRTH TO TWO YEARS: ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS (p. 62)
Sukhova Alla, Fedotova Tatiana, Gorbacheva Anna
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
To estimate the specificity of growth dynamics of Slavonic children from birth to 2 years in different ecological conditions, data on physical development of children of the former USSR from late 1960’s – early 1970’s were compiled. Among them, samples from the following regions: megalopolis of Moscow; sea port of Murmansk, settled over the polar circle in the permafrost zone; city of Norilsk, settled over the polar circle, one of the most polluted cities in the world; city of Magadan, settled in the permafrost zone, severe climate with short summer; industrial center of Cheliabinsk, air pollution over the norm and high radiation background; industrial center of Kuibishev, the highest level of the air pollution in Russia; industrial agglomeration of Donetsk, a zone of ecological disaster with the extreme exhaustion of natural resources. Growth patterns of four main indices of physical development (body length and mass, chest and head circumferences) were compared at different age groups: at birth, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The highest indicators of physical development and the rate of their changes through 0-2 years interval belong to the children from rapidly developing urban centers with intensive migration processes – Moscow, Murmansk, Kuibishev. Evidently, high level of urbanization is positively correlated with the high level of medical service. Children growing in the severe conditions of the North, in Norilsk and Magadan, have lower indices of physical development and lower rates of their dynamics. The combination of natural and anthropogenic stress in the ecology of Norilsk intensifies this tendency. Children of Cheliabinsk, living in the conditions of the high anthropogenic pollution, are characterized with the deficit of body mass and chest circumference through the second year of life, which is an evidence of asthenization of body shape, more evident in girls. The same tendency characterizes the growth of children from urban Donetsk. The lowest indices of children from Donetsk region are probably connected not only with the high level of technogenic stress, but also with the lower quality of life in this province, which includes nutrition status and medical service. The retardation of the girls from Donetsk and the region compared to the boys who assume to be more ecosensitive, may testify to the distress of the ecological situation in the region and to the extreme exhaustion of adaptive resources of the child’s organism. The research is partly maintained by RFBR grant # 12-06-0036a.
Key words: growth dynamics, physical development, infancy, early childhood, ecological stress
HORMONAL STATUS AS A FACTOR OF DIFFERENTIATION OF RATES OF DEVELOPMENT (p. 63)
Titova Elena, Savostyanova Evgeniya, Makhalin Adu, Savchenko Elena
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
The problem of individually typological patterns of growth in connection with the general physical development is one of the most important issue in modern auxology, physical and age morphology. Among the numerous factors affecting the rate of development and somatic status, hormones belong to the most effective ones. This study applies the biotypological approach to the analysis of individual variability of hormonal status in pubertal males. A number of hormones, the most informative for this age, were selected: sex hormones and growth hormone (GH) – leading anabolic factors of growth and development in the pubertal period, and cortisol as their antagonist. As the most informative criterion of biological age, stages of sexual development were used, particularly of such a character as pubic hair (P). There are marked differences in the ratio of testosterone:cortisol: it increases more than twice from the stage P1-2 to P4. The ratio of estradiol: testosterone is reduced from the stage P1-2 to P4 more than twice. An apparent trend towards stabilization in the level of GH between stages P3 and P4 is consistent with the literature data. Anabolic trends in the endocrine formula in connection with the biological age (absolute and relative increase of testosterone in relation to cortisol and estradiol) are accompanied by the corresponding changes in the body build – strong development of endo- and mesomorphic components. The results clearly show the connection of the accelerated type of development with the highest level of testosterone and the minimal ratio of estradiol-testosterone.
Key words: endocrine formula, biological age, auxology
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN IN MOSCOW REGION AND SOME STATISTICAL INDICATORS IN 1976–1980s (p. 63)
Zubareva Vera, Permyakova Ekaterina
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Patterns of physical development of schoolchildren in different areas of Moscow Region (Podolsk, Istra, Dedovsk, Solnechnogorsk, Zagorsk, Golitsino, 1985, n=3512) with additional data of Tchulkovo, Ramenskiy district (1976, n=842) were compared. Height, chest circumference, shoulder and pelvic diameters were studied; questioning of parents was conducted. Main statistical parameters for every age group were calculated. The significance of differences was estimated using Student’s t-test. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons by Scheffe’s method were also used. The results of the 10-year study (1976–1985) show some reducing of the girls’ height against its increasing in boys. In chest circumferences, girls and boys of 1976 have smaller values than those of 1985children. In shoulder and pelvic diameters, children measured in 1976 are ahead of those examined 10 years later. These results indicate to a certain heterochrony of secular changes: growth in length has stopped (at least in girls), while some dimensions continue increasing. Somatotypes of children examined in 1980 demonstrate a trend towards asthenization. Generally, it gets in line with the trends found in other populations, examined at the same period of time. The results of parental questioning indicate that 92.4% of children were from two-parents families, while 7.2% - from incomplete families. Parallel to this study, some analysis of demographical data for Moscow Region has been performed. The dynamics of matrimony-divorce rate as well as the rate of population increase was examined with the use of the official statistics data (FSSS 1997, 2003, 2012). It shows that since the beginning of the 1960s the matrimony rate exceeds the divorce rate: related figures are 8.1% to 1.5%. By 1975 related figures are 11.1 to 3.6%. After 1980’s the situation is drastically changed. In the period of 1985-1990 the corresponding figures are 9.71% to 4%, and the divorce rate goes on increasing. As there was no official statistical data for Moscow Region in 1970’s, it’s hard to consider the dynamics of natural increase rate. However, the data for a later period indicate that after 1980’s natural increase turns to natural “loss”. This process is going on till 2012.
Key words: physical development, schoolchildren, Moscow region, demographical data
Section HUMAN DIVERSITY
RUSSIAN FIELD STUDIES OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA (p. 64)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
The Russian school of physical anthropology is one of the oldest in Europe. Russian researchers have been actively engaged in studying modern and ancient populations in multinational Russia and abroad. In the 19th century N.N. MiklukhoMaklay described several ethnic groups of the Malay Peninsula and Oceania. In the 20th century a wide range of methods and hypotheses relating to craniology, anthropometry, dental anthropology, dermatoglyphycs, and genetics was introduced, and further studies of various populations of the world were carried out. In 1956–58, N.N. Cheboksarov worked in China. He studied northern and southern Chinese and other ethnic groups in Guangdong – Huay, Yao, Miao, Li (see Ethnic anthropology of China, in Russian, Moscow, 1982). Data on the peoples of China are important for elaborating the classification of Asian Mongoloids. According to Cheboksarov, Mongoloids fall into the Continental and Pacific branches. The latter branch is divided into Eastern (Arctic and Far Eastern) and Southern Mongoloids. All native peoples of South China, Southeast Asia, and several neighboring regions form the southern Mongoloid area. Cheboksarov described the Eastern Himalayan anthropological type of southern Mongoloids together with the TaiMalay and Indonesian varieties. Anthropometric and dental variation in Thay (three local groups), Khmu, northern Viet, Cham, and Churu was studied by I.M. Zolotareva, A.G. Kozintsev, and G.A. Aksyanova during the SovietVietnamese ethnographic and anthropological expeditions in 1976–78 and 1984 (see in The Paths of Mankind’s Biological History, in Russian, Moscow, 2002). Three major phenomena were described: (1) contacts between Mongoloids and VeddoAustraloids in Southeast Asia; (2) increase of Mongoloid features in Vietnam from the Bronze Age onward; (3) the affinities of the northern Viet with the Far Eastern racial type. In 1987, V.P. Alexeev studied the aboriginal groups of the Tay Nguyen plateau and in 198890 V.A. Sheremetieva studied several groups of northern and southern Viet (unpublished results). East and Southeast Asia remain the key areas for field work and theoretical research.
Key words: physical anthropology, Russia, China, Indochina, Vietnam
SART KALMYKS OF THE ISSYK KUL PROVINCE, KIRGHIZSTAN: THE ANALYSIS OF FIELD DATA (p. 64)
Balinova Natalia1, Khomyakova Irina2
1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The Sart Kalmyks are a small group of Oirat origin now living in the Ak-Suu District, Issyk Kul Province, Republic of Kirghizstan. It is impossible to accurately determine their number at present: according to the 2009 census, 3800 people were counted, but ¾ of the Kalmyks were recorded as Kirghiz for social reasons. The headcount in four villages – Chelpek, Burma-Suu, Tash-Kyya and Beryu-Bash, where 90% of the population are Sart Kalmyks – is about 12 thousand people. Due to their Western Mongolian origin the Sart Kalmyks speak a language which is very close to Kalmyk. At this moment, only few of its speakers have remained, mostly the elderly. Original ethno-cultural characteristics are gradually giving way to Kirghiz and general Muslim traditions. The language, ethnography, and history of the Karakol Kalmyks were studied by scholars such as A.V. Burdukov (1935), Sh. Dondukov (1973), E.R. Tenishev (1976), N.L. Zhukovskaya (1980), D.A. Pavlov (1984), A.N. Bitkeyeva (2006), B. Nanzatov, and M. Sodnompilova (2012). The Sart Kalmyks rarely became the object of bioanthropological research. The few studies include that by D.O. Ashilova (1976), who made a number of conclusions based on anthropometric data. Though the ethnographic group of Sart Kalmyks incorporated into the Kirghiz nation in the past was related to the Western Mongolian ethnic group by common ancestry, language, and culture, now they differ in appearance from groups belonging to the Central Asian anthropological type (Kalmyks, Mongols, and Buryats) and show the closest affinity with Kirghizes. During our expedition in 2013, we conducted a comprehensive anthropometric and genetic study among the Sart Kalmyks. We have collected anthropometric data on 84 women and 119 men, made 830 photographs for creating generalized portraits, and studied the diagnostically important descriptive characteristics of the face. We also collected material for genetic analysis – 197 blood samples of 101 women and 96 men. Regarding ethnicity, the following distribution was observed: 111 persons stated that both their parents were Sart Kalmyks, and about a half of them (51 persons) knew the tribal affiliation of parents. Forty individuals are hybrids between Sart Kalmyks and Kirghizes, 29 have both parents of Kirghiz origin, and 8 people mentioned Kazakhs, Uyghurs, Tatars, and Bashkirs among their ancestors. Based on these materials, we will trace the origin and history of the Issyk Kul Kalmyks in comparison with Kalmyks living in Russia and China; assess the demographic and genetic structure of Karakol Kalmyks; and calculate genetic distances and the degree of relationship with Russian Kalmyks. Based on individual photographs, generalized portraits of the Sart Kalmyk men and women will be created. In sum, this research will highlight the most recent trends in the development of this ethnic group. This study was partly supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for the Humanities, # 12-01-00063a.
Key words: physical anthropology, anthropometry, population history, Sart Kalmyks
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM PATTERNS IN ROMA POPULATIONS LIVING IN CROATIA BASED ON X CHROMOSOME STR LOCI (p. 65)
Barešić Ana, Peričić Salihović Marijana, Janićijević Branka
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
The aims of the study were to evaluate the genetic diversity and explore linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in three Roma populations of different migration origin, socio-cultural and dialect category using seven microsatellite (STR) loci in the Xq13.3 region of the X chromosome. These loci (DXS983, DXS8037, DXS8092, DXS1225, DXS8082, DXS1066 and DXS986) were analyzed in 189 Roma males from three populations in Croatia (Međimurje, Baranja and Zagreb), who belong to different migration and dialect groups. Several diversity indices (e.g. gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, mean number of pairwise differences) were calculated and the level of LD was inferred using exact test and D’ statistics. Results suggest that Međimurje Roma population has the lowest genetic diversity ( = 4.756) and is significantly different from Baranja ( = 5.395) and Zagreb ( = 5.429) populations. Linkage disequilibrium analyses showed that Međimurje Roma population has the highest level of linkage disequilibrium while Zagreb population has the lowest. When compared to other isolates, Međimurje population shows highest similarity to small and stable isolated populations while Baranja and Zagreb Roma populations resemble large, more open isolated populations. In addition, results point to possible early separation of all the three populations despite the fact that Međimurje and Baranja populations belong to the same migration category and speak the same dialect. All three populations were most likely separated as early as the beginning of slavery in Romania, which was approximately 500 years ago.
Key words: Vlax Roma, Balkan Roma, Bayash, microsatellites, X chromosome
TREPANATION AMONG THE NOMADS OF CENTRAL KAZAKHSTAN (8TH-3D CENTURIES BC) (p. 66)
Beisenov Arman1, Kitov Egor2
1State Institute of Archaeology after A.Kh. Margulan Science Committee Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Burials with stone mounds, which gave the name to the archaeological culture of Tasmola (“Stone Grave”) are being investigated by archaeologists in the very heart of Kazakhstan. Tasmola sites date to the 8th–3d centuries BC and are mainly located in Central Kazakhstan, though some parallels are found in southeastern Urals and in southern Siberia. The study of skeletal materials excavated over the past several decades resulted in assembling a large collection of ca. 60 individuals of good preservation. Ten male and one female crania demonstrated trepanation holes, all of which are located on the occipital or on the posterior part of parietal bones. The number of trepanations varies between one and 15 per skull. Similar cases have been recorded in the past, but only two concern crania of the same chronological and cultural background. The pattern of trepanations in Central Asia can be related to embalming rites, which have also been recorded in the Pazyryk Culture of the Altai. We assume that in our case perforations were made for ritual purposes and were post mortem, as no traces of healing on male crania were identified. While differing in appearance, trepanation cases from Central Kazakhstan may indicate proximity of the ideological views of Tasmola people to those held by people in Western Siberia, Mongolia, and China, although at the moment it is hard to define the purpose of such operations in Tasmola people. The diameter of holes is too small for brain extraction, and absence of obliteration suggests non-medical purpose of the intrusion. Perhaps, this could be explained by the specificity of the funeral rites of the early nomads Central Kazakhstan. Notably, in this case trepanations were performed on individuals of high social position, buried with golden artifacts, under large mounds. These features can indicate the flourishing of mummification and postmortem cranial autopsy rites in the early Iron Age population of Central Asia. Further analysis of similar manipulations could significantly expand our understanding of the death rituals in the ancient world.
Key words: trepanation, Early Iron Age, Central Asia, Central Kazakhstan, death rituals
RESULTS OF AN INTEGRATIVE ANALYSIS OF METRIC AND NONMETRIC TRAITS IN CRANIA FROM THE MEDIEVAL CEMETRY AT MAMISONDON, NORTHERN CAUCASUS (p. 66)
Berezina Natalia1, Moiseev Viacheslav2
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia