1Department of Anthropology, University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland
2Department of Anthropology and Biometry, University School of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
Long-term changes in morphological characteristics of population, progressing from generation to generation towards constant direction, reflect the secular trend. These changes apply to both birth and adult body size of a human and they are observed over the century. Responsible for this variability are mostly non-genetic factors, mainly those related to the socio-economic situation. Such elements of the human environment determine the implementation of the genetic potential. The aim of the study was to determine the existence of intergenerational changes in newborns’ body weight and adult body size of women living in Kraków and Poznań over the past century. Finally the goal of this study was to defining factors responsible for these modifications. This research analyzed data of 15884 newborns (body weight) and 3612 women (body height and weight) at the age of 18, derived from 1900 to 2010. The analysis of differences between individual cohorts was made by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significantly increasing trends of all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities - in Kraków increased by 184 g (♂) and 206 g (♀), in Poznań by 216 g (♂) and 120 g (♀). Changes in women’s body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on the place of residence. In the last century, women’s body height increased by 8,2 cm in Kraków and by 10,2 cm in Poznań and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. Considered period of time covered the years of socio-economic changes which occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, prosperity ages and other factors which determine the standard of living and health care had an influence on the developmental level of the Polish population’s physical features.
Key words: secular trend, newborns, body size, socio-economic changes, political transformation
ANTHROPOMETRY AND SECULAR TRENDS IN SARATOV (RUSSIA) (p. 55)
Lehmann Andreas1, Ivanova Elena2, Godina Elena2, Scheffler Christiane1
1Human Biology Department; University of Potsdam, Germany
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Growth and development are influenced by different environmental factors, like nutrition, health, socioeconomic life circumstances, and psychosocial factors. The analysis of pattern in growth and development is an important tool to observe growth trends over time and leading to a better understanding of children’s growth and development under specific life circumstances. Little is known about the changes and secular trend in growth and sexual development in Saratov over the last decades. In this study anthropometric data of schoolgirls (aged 6-18 years) of the Russian city Saratov were analyzed. The investigations took place in three different years; 1969, 2004, and 2011 including an overall number of 2110 girls. The data involve measurements of height, weight, and other body measurements. Of these variables, body mass index, metric index and frame index were calculated. In addition information on secondary sexual characteristics and menarcheal age were collected to describe sexual development of the girls. The data were analyzed with Least-Mean-Square-method (LMS) (Cole 1990) and Probit-analysis (Finney 1971) to visualize the results. A comparison of anthropometric data and different stages of sexual development over the time showed that girls from 2011 are taller and heavier than from 1969. This is true for all age groups. Furthermore, mean menarcheal age decreased in the analyzed time period while BMI changed only little. The presented results of Saratov will be discussed in the light of secular trend and with implications on modern health related questions, like obesity and skeletal robustness.
Key words: anthropometry, sexual development, menarcheal age, secular trend
ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOSCOW SCHOOLCHILDREN AGED 8–18 YEARS (ON THE RESULTS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES) (p. 56)
Milushkina Olga1,2, Bokareva Nataliya1,2, Skoblina Natalya1
1Scientific Centre of Children Health, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia
The study of physical development in longitudinal researches is carried out with the aim to determine the dynamics of changes of anthropometric indicators, the level of biological maturation and functional indicators of children and adolescents in different time intervals. The processes of physical and sexual development are interconnected and reflect the general patterns of growth and development but at the same time they significantly depend on social, economic, sanitary, hygienic and other conditions, which influence is mostly defined by human age. During three longitudinal studies of physical development of Moscow schoolchildren (1960-1969, 1982–1991 and 2003–2013) the indicators of body mass and length, chest circumference, ratios, stages of biological development and muscular strength of the right hand were evaluated. The 10-year time scale of the observations allows determining the vector of changes of somatic development, puberty and functional capacities of children from decade to decade. The third longitudinal study of physical development of Moscow children and adolescents shows that modern schoolchildren exceed their peers of the 1960’s and 1980’s in main anthropologic indicators (body mass and length, chest girth) and the level of biological development (menarcheal age and the degree of development of the secondary sexual characters at an earlier age). The results of the studies show a change of body proportions in modern schoolchildren: the increase of body length is combined with the increase in leg length. During longitudinal observations of 2003-2013 a significant decrease of functional indicators (of hand strength) was found in children of all age groups. The findings dictate the necessity of new modern references for the assessment of physical development, reconsidering of normatives of biological development of schoolchildren and searching for the reasons of decrease in functional indicators.
Key words: longitudinal studies, physical development, level of biological development, dynamometry
DEVELOPMENT OF SUBCUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE IN BULGARIAN ADOLESCENTS (p. 56)
Mladenova Silviya1, Mitova Zorka2, Nikolova Mima3
1University of Plovdiv “Paisii Hilendarski”, Smolyan Branch, Smolyan, Bulgaria
2Institute of Еxperimental Мorphology, Pathology and Аnthropology with Мuseum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
3University of Plovdiv “Paisii Hilendarski”, Faculty of Biology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
The purpose of this study is to investigate development of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in Bulgarian children and adolescents by anthropometrical methods. The data analyzed are part of the three separate cross-sectional studies of 9–16-year-old children from Sofia, Plovdiv and Smolyan cities in Bulgaria, conducted in 1999–2009. The general sample included 3095 adolescents aged 9 to 16 years (1568 boys and 1527 girls). Height (cm), weight (kg) and waist circumference (cm) were taken on each person with standard methods (Martin-Saller, 1957). Additionally, the body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous (SAT, cm2) and visceral (VAT, cm2) adipose tissue, and VAT/SAT-ratio were calculated. The quantities of subcutaneous (SAT, cm2) and visceral (VAT, cm2) adipose tissue were defined by the regression equations of Brambilla et al. (2006). Different categories of body nutritional status were defined by cut-off points of BMI for children by Cole et al. (2007; 2012). Statistical data processing was performed using the software STATISTICA 10.0. The descriptive analysis, ANOVA and alternative analysis (Z-score) were used. The results of analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of SAT and VAT between groups of children with different nutritional status. The children with normal nutritional status were characterized by non-significant below average values (Z-score) for SAT, VAT-and VAT/SAT-ratio for their age and gender. In contrast, the groups of children with overweight and obesity were characterized by above average values for SAT and VAT (p <0.05). The values VAT/SAT-ratio is below average for age and gender. With age the quantity of SAT and VAT in both sexes increase. Overall, the boys accumulate greater quantity of VAT in all period, and of SAT after 14 years. Тhe differences between age, sex and territorial groups in quantity of SAT and VAT and their ratio were found.
Key words: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/SAT-ratio, body nutritional status, adolescents, Bulgaria
EVALUATION OF ARM ANTHROPOMETRY AND NUTRITION IN TURKISH PRESCHOOL CHILDREN (p. 57)
Özdemir Ayşegül, Sibel Önal, Özer Başak Koca
Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Turkey
Arm anthropometry – cross-sectional analyse of arm muscle area and arm fat area- has been used as a proxy of body composition in both clinical and field research and proposed to be an indicator of nutritional status. Present study aimed to evaluate nutritional status of preschool children aged 3-5 years old using arm anthropometry. The survey was conducted in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, on 270 children (135 boys and 135 girls) from private and public preschools, whose parents gave consent to include their children in the study. Anthropometric measurements of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold were taken using standard technique and instruments, and arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) were calculated. The results show that age differences in AMA between ages 3 and 4 were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, gradual increase in AMA in boys with age was prominent, and in AFA in girls, respectively. Thus, muscle development was clear in favour of boys and fat development - of girls. Anthropometrical studies, particularly, those of arm anthropometry on preschool children in Turkey are very limited, we think that the present study will provide a contribution to this area.
Key words: nutrition, arm anthropometry, arm muscle area, arm fat area, preschool children, Turkey
PREVALENCE OF UNDERWEIGHT, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN ANKARA, TURKEY AND ASSOCIATED SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS (p. 58)
Özer Başak Koca1, Özdemir Ayşegül1, Sibel Önal1, Ece Özdoğan2, Müdriye Yıldız Bıçakçı3, Neriman Aral3
1Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
2Ankara University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
3Ankara University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Child Development, Ankara, Turkey
The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among preschool children and to analyse factors contributing to this phenomenon. The study group consisted of 270 children (135 boys and 135 girls) aged 3–5 years, whose parents gave consent to include them in the study. Weight, height were recorded according to the standard protocols and, underweight, overweight and obesity were classified using BMI according to WHO criteria. Socio-economic status (SES) was determined using education level and occupation of parents. Developmental multiple domains, motor, concept, linguistics developmental levels were measured and a standard of development index were also taken into account. Younger children’s development level was assessed with Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning™, Fourth Edition (DIAL™-4). It was developed by Mardell and Goldenberg (1998) and adapted by Aral et. al. (2014) to Turkish culture and was utilized as data collection tools. Data indicated that younger children (3 and 4 years old) had sexual dimorphism, girls had significantly lower mean weight-for-age (p<0.01) and height-for-age (p<0.01). According to the mean z-scores of BMI, 1.1% of children were diagnosed as underweight (1.2% at age 3, 1.9% at age 4, no at age 5), 3.6% overweight (3.6% at age 3, 2.1% at age 4 and 3.9% at age 5) and 1.2% obese (1.2% at age 3, 0.9% at age 4 and 2.6% at age 5). Tendency of being overweight and obese was prominent in boys, prevalence gradually increased with age, where stunted girls were evident at younger ages. Development index, SES, weight and height factors were highly associated (p<0.01), and ANOVA results revealed better anthropometric status with better family background. It is suggested that the growth level of these more advantaged peers may have a positive impact of changing environmental conditions among preschool children in Turkish population.
Key words: preschool children, growth, underweight, overweight, obesity, Turkey
CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL MATURATION PROCESS IN ONTOGENESIS (p. 58)
Panasyuk Tatiana1, Komissarova Elena2
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
2Department of Anatomy, St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
The rate of biological maturation may have a genetic nature, associated with a certain type of constitution (Nikityuk, 2000). Longitudinal study of 210 boys and 159 girls was conducted for 4 years (ages 3 to 6) and of 66 boys and 59 girls for 10 years (ages 7 to 17). Biological age of the examined subjects was estimated from 3 to 9 years with the somatic criterion (Philippine test), from 5 to 14 years with odontological criterion, and from 9 to 17 years by the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Somatotypes of all children were assessed according to the Shtefko-Ostrovsky method (1929) with the 4 selected types: asthenic (A), thoracic (T), muscle (M) and digestive (D). In the first childhood constitutional differences in biological maturity were expressed as trends likely due to insufficient differentiation of somatotypes at this stage. In the second childhood somatotypes significantly differ in the results of the Philippine test only at the age of 7 years, when children have positive and negative values. Complete replacement of milk teeth with the permanent ones occurs in girl of type D at 10 years, of type M – at 11 years, of types T and A – at 12 years. In boys constitutional differences in teeth replacement are more pronounced before 11 years, while at the final stage (up to 13 years) they develop more synchronously. Variations of the loss of primary teeth in the representatives of different somatotypes are stronger than in the eruption of the permanent dentition. Secondary sexual characteristics in girls are accelerated in the types as follows: A
Key words: children, somatotypes, different criteria of biological age
SECULAR CHANGES OF ADIPOSITY AND PHYSICAL FITNESS DURING EARLY GROWTH (p. 59)
Pařízková Jana1, Sedlak P.2, Vignerová J.3
1Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic
2Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
3Prague, Czech Republic
Secular changes of somatic growth, body composition and functional capacity has concerned not only school children and adolescents, but also preschool age children. Highest level of spontaneous physical activity (PA) was found in Czech preschool children, with its following significant decrease in school and adult age. This means that the reduction of PA can have a more serious consequences in the following life. Since the 1950‘3-70‘s up to the first decade of this millenium, significant increase of adiposity, especially on the trunk (evaluated by skinfold thickness measurements) was revealed in Czech preschool children. Increased adiposity was accompanied by significant deterioration of motor developement (evaluated by motor tests – broad jump and ball throw, as markers of the adaptation to exercise) which has been considered as the result of PA reduction along last decades. Changes of lifestyle concerning nutrition and PA have therefore negatively influenced Czech growing population especially during the period of adiposity rebound (AR), which has been also occurring at a significantly lower age as compared to previous decades: Earlier start of AR, accompanied by increasing adiposity is considered especially as an increased risk with regard to later development of obesity and health prognosis. Global epidemy of obesity has concerned during recent decades also children and adolescents not only in the industrially developed, but also in transition countries, or in selected social strata of developing countries. - An adequately increased physical activity tended to reduce adiposity, improved cardiorespiratory efficiency in spite of an increased food intake, and significantly increased serum level of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in Czech preschool children. Percent of body fat correlated significantly with total cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels (TG and TC) already at preschool age, which indicates a significant role of PA in health development. Organized physical education for preschool children (physical education classes for preschooler with one of the parents, or any other caretaker), or special physical education regime introduced in selected Czech kindergartens improved significantly motor development already at preschool age. As follows, aimed intervention in lifestyle including PA regime has to start in children as early as possible.
Key words: secular changes, preschool children, adiposity,motor development
CHARACTER OF SECULAR CHANGES IN FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS AMONG SCHOOLCHILDREN OF POLOTSK (REPUBLIC OF BELARUS) (p. 60)
Institute of History, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NAS), Minsk, Belarus
Dynamics of functional indices was followed for 8-, 13-, and 17-year-old schoolchildren of Polotsk. Data on 433 males and 450 females were collected in 2002 and 2012. There was a significant reduction of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in 2012 relative to 2002: for 8-year-old males by 3.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05), for 13-year-olds – by 4.6 mm Hg (p < 0.01) and for 17-year-olds – by 8.7 mm Hg (p < 0.001). For females SBP decreased in all groups, but statistically significantly in 13-year-olds – by 9.8 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and in 17-year-olds – by 8.5 mm Hg (p < 0.001). Age changes of diastolic blood pressure in children were not so straightforward. Analysis of the pulse rate showed a significant secular decrease from 2002 to 2012: for 8-year-old males – 5.6 beats/min less (p < 0.01), for 13-year-olds – 7.2 beats/min less (p < 0.001), for 17-year-olds – 4.2 beats/min less (p < 0.02); for 8-year-old girls – 5.1 beats/min less (p < 0.001), for 13-year-olds – 9.9 beats/min less (p < 0.001), for 17-year-olds – 6.6 beats/min less (p < 0.001). Changes in hand dynamometry (HD) in the period from 2002 to 2012 were also investigated among Polotsk schoolchildren. A highly significant (p<0.001) decline of HD among 8-year-old boys was revealed: for the right hand – 1.6 kg less, for the left hand – 1.7 kg less. For children older than 10 years mean values of HD for both hands increased. In groups of males of 13- and 17-year-old the increase was up to 0.7–1.4 kg, though the differences were not significant. Among schoolgirls of all age groups HD values did not change. The decrease of hand strength among schoolchildren was observed in various countries, so the tendency for the HD level to grow parallel to the improvement of the functional traits of the cardiovascular system among adolescent boys of Polotsk deserves attention and might be connected with stabilization of ecological and economic situation in Belarus.
Key words: schoolchildren, performance indicators, secular trend
DO WE WALK ENOUGH IN MODERN TIME? (p. 60)
Scheffler Christiane1, Hermanussen Michaell,2
1Human Biology Department, Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany
2Pediatrician, Gettorf, Germany
Modern human life style has led to significant decreases of everyday physical activity and bipedal locomotion. It has previously been shown that skeletal robustness (relative elbow breadth) is associated with daily step counts. The aim of the study was to investigate whether other skeletal measures, particularly pelvic breadth, also may have changed in recent decades. Elbow breadth, pelvic breadth (bicristal), and thoracic depth and breadth, of up to 28,975 healthy females and 28,288 healthy males aged 3–18 years from cross-sectional anthropological surveys performed between 1980 and 2012 by the Universities of Potsdam and Berlin, Germany, were re-analysed. Since 1980 relative elbow breadth (Frame index) significantly decreased in both sexes (<0.001). The trend towards slighter built was even more pronounced in absolute and relative pelvic breadth. In contrast, equivalent changes of parts of the skeletal system that are not involved in bipedal locomotion such as thoracic breadth, thoracic depth and the thoracic index were absent. The present investigation confirms the decline in relative elbow breadth in recent decades. Analogous, but even more pronounced changes were detected in pelvic breadth that coincides with the modern decline in upright locomotion. The consequences to health status of the following adult generations in future are unclear. Firstly, the findings underscore the phenotypic plasticity of humans while adapting to new environmental conditions and maybe they are not pathological changes. But the influences of health status in locomotor system cannot be excluded in future. From this point of view we do not walk enough today.
Key words: bipedal locomotion, modern life style, skeleton breadth measurements
LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDY OF GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RUSSIAN BOYS (p. 61)
Sergeyev Oleg 1,2, Lam Thuy3, Williams Paige L.4, Burns Jane S.3, Korrick Susan A.3,5, Hauser Russ3, Revich Boris6, Dikov Yury1, Sergeyeva Lyubov1, Lee Mary M.7