Вестник Московского университета. Серия XXIII. Антропология. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia



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Key words: sizes and form of the auricle, methods of multivariate statistics, medical-anthropological reconstruction

Section GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT
EVALUATION OF FOOT ANTHROPOMETRY AND SECULAR CHANGES IN TURKISH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS (p. 49)

Akca Duygu Hilal, Özer Başak Koca



Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
Evaluation of foot development is important for growth and development as well ergonomics studies. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate age and sex dependent foot anthropometry and secular changes in Turkish children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1427 (709 boys and 718 girls) healthy school children aged between 6–17 years from Ankara. Height, foot length and foot breadth were measured according to the standard anthropometric protocols and foot index was calculated. To reveal secular changes on foot growth, the data were compared with Bostancı’s study of 1950, which included 1679 healthy school children from Ankara. The results show rapid increment in foot length at 11-13-year-olds for the boys and 9-10-year-olds for the girls. Similar growth pattern in foot breadth was also recorded which followed by a steady increase. Although during early childhood the boys have larger foot dimensions, just before the puberty girls catch up and sexual dimorphism disappear. After the age of 13 years significant difference between the two sexes have been recorded (p<0.01). Positive secular increase was prominent for the foot length and breadth measurements for both sexes but this increment was greater for boys, which can be linked with the different degree of response to the improved environmental conditions. Positive secular changes documented in the present study appear to be a logical outcome of gradual social changes. As a developing country, Turkish population still tends to be diverse, and by taking into account potential social improvement, we might predict a further positive secular trend in growth.

Key words: Foot anthropometry, secular changes, children and adolescents, Turkey
TERRITORIAL VARIATIONS OF THE MATURATION RATES OF HAND AND WRIST BONES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS (p. 49)

Batsevich Valery, Mansurov Fayzali, Yasina Oksana



Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
This research aims at studying the influence of ecological factors on the maturation rates of hand and wrist bones in children and adolescents. It is based on the radiographs of the left hands, collected in the course of the expeditions of the Institute and Museum of Anthropology through 1964-2013 periods in 19 ethno-territorial child groups, aged 8-17 years, with the total number of 6456 individuals. The Tanner-Whitehouse method (TW-2) was used to determine skeletal maturation. As to the European part of the former USSR the highest rates of skeletal maturation belong to the rural school children of Arkhangelsk region and Karelians of Olonetski region with the exceeding of skeletal age compared to chronological almost through the whole age interval. In the groups of Russians of the Yaroslavl region and Byelorussians the skeletal age falls behind chronological, which is stronger manifested in Byelorussian girls from longevity population (over 0.5 years). Maturation rates of hand skeleton of Chuvashs and Bashkirs are close to each other and 0.25 years lower than British standards. Significant changes of maturation rates of the hand and wrist bones through 25 years occurred in Abkhazia. The results of skeletal age of Abkhazian children in 2004 showed significant acceleration of maturation rates in the long-lived population of the Abkhazians. The changes are more evident in the population of the Ochamchiry region as compared to Gudauta region. The differences between longevity population of Chlow with the delayed rates of physical development and the control group from Duripsh, revealed in the 1970 – 1980 study, almost disappeared. Child groups of Central Asia, Khalkha-Mongolians and Tuvinians had the slowest maturation rate of hand skeleton, 0.8 years less than British standards. Altaians and Stolypin’s migrants descendants are characterized by the accelerated rate of physical development and high maturation rates of hand skeleton (0.4 years above the standard). In the Middle Asian region the highest maturation rates belong to the Turkmen urban school children from Chardzhev, the lowest maturation rate in this region is seen in the rural Tajik children from Varukh. Growth and maturation rates depend on various environmental factor: climatic, geographic and social. Differences of skeletal maturation in the observed groups may be interpreted in the context of maintaining (Khalkha-Mongols, Tuvinians, and Tajiks) or transformation (Turkmen, Chuvashs, Bashkirs, Altaians, Russians) of the traditional way of life. Social stress, connected with the military actions, caused the acceleration of maturation rates in the longevity group of the Abkhazians. Longevity populations were traditionally characterized by the low rates of growth and development (Abkhazians till 1991, Belorussians).

Key words: skeletal age, TW-2, maturation rates, human ecology
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH TRENDS IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE BASED ON CT DATA (p. 50)

Evteev Andrej1, Anikin Anatoliy2, Satanin Leonid3, Sakharov Alexandr3



1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

2Scientific Centre of Children Health, Moscow, Russia

3Scientific Research Institute of Neurosurgery (Burdenko), Moscow, Russia
The first year of life is a crucial period of craniofacial growth during which most of the main individual and racial features of the facial skeleton are formed. But these important growth changes are still relatively poorly described due to bad preservation of skulls of children of this age in archeological skeletal samples, absence of this age cohort in X-ray longitudinal studies as well as rarity of appropriate CT data. Importantly, quantitative description of growth trends expressed as “normal values” of craniofacial measurements in 3D is lacking. In the present study more than one hundred CT scans of boys and girls of the first year of life were digitized to produce numerical values and growth curves for 30 linear measurements of the mid-face. The children are skeletally normal patients of several hospitals in Moscow, Kaluga and Lipetsk, most of the subjects are ethnically Russians. Slice thickness of the scans ranges from 0.3 to 1.5 mm. 40 landmarks were being placed on 3D surface reconstructions by the first author and their coordinates were further converted into linear distances between the landmarks. In order to construct growth curves the sample was divided into four age groups (newborns, 1-2 months, 3-6 months and 7-11 months) separately for each sex as to account for sexual dimorphism as well. Reliability of our data has been additionally confirmed by very good congruence of our results and those obtained previously on forensic material. The results numerically describe main ontogenetic trends of this period of ontogeny such as slow growth of the upper face in height and length compared to width, very rapid vertical orbital expansion, relatively subtle changes in nasal and mid-facial protrusion. But the study also provides more detailed picture of growth processes and interplay between different mid-facial structures.

Key words: craniofacial growth, computed tomography, children
SECULAR PATTERNS OF GROWTH PROCESSES IN MODERN MOSCOW INFANTS COMPARED TO THE INFANTS OF THE 1970’s (p. 51)

Fedotova Tatiana, Gorbacheva Anna, Sukhova Alla

Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The dynamics of the body dimensions (body length and mass, chest circumference) of Moscow infants of 2000’s from birth to 12 months compared to that of infants of 1970’s is observed. Modern data were collected by the authors on the basis of child outpatient clinics from medical cards, following ethic norms. A longitudinal sample of about 500 children was formed, including monthly dynamics of physical development indices accompanied by the full medical background. Archive data of 1970’s was collected in the course of a cross-sectional anthropometric study. The comparison of dynamic curves, preliminary standardized, of body length of boys and girls describes the process of secular increase of modern infants length, more expressed in the second half of the first year of life and increasing towards the age of 12 months. The level of differences is 0.4–1.0 and 0.4–1.4 SD for boys and girls correspondingly. The comparison of dynamic curves of body mass and chest circumference describes the opposite tendency of some decrease of the dimensions of modern children from birth to 6 months from the level of 0.6 SD to zero. Secular increase of length combined with the decrease of mass and chest circumference means that the process of lepthosomization of body build in modern infants is growing as compared to the second part of the 20th century. The absence of the distinct secular differences of the length growth curves through the first 6 months of a child’s life is connected with the intensive compensatory growth, which smooths the limitations of the prenatal growth in search of the stable growth curve.

Key words: physical development indices, growth curves, infants, secular trends
CONFIRMATION REGARDING SIMILARITY AND DISSIMILARITY TO PHYSICAL GROWTH CURVE OF TWINS BY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION (p. 51)

Fujii Katsunori

Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Japan
Scientific verification is impossible without quantitative assessment of the similarity or dissimilarity to the curve of growth pattern of twins. In this study, this assessment was verified by applying a cross-correlation function in analysing changes from collapsing one of the curves to examine their similarity. The minimum growth curve must be functionalized to apply a cross-correlation function. Thus it is important to approximate the growth curve by the Wavelet Interpolation Method (WIM) proposed by Fujii (1999). Cross correlation function can then be applied to the quantified curve by WIM. Longitudinal growth data consisting of height, weight, sitting height, and leg length was obtained for a pair of identical and a pair of fraternal twins from age six (first year of elementary school) to age 17 (third year of high school). As a result, changes in the cross-correlation coefficient were found by applying the cross-correlation function to identical and fraternal twin height growth described by WIM and collapsing one (set of) growth distance values and velocity values. With r = 0.93 for identical twins and r = 0.74 for fraternal twins, similarity in identical twins was found to be very high when examining changes in correlation coefficients. Similarity among identical twins was also found to be high when weight, sitting height and leg length were analysed, with high correlation coefficients in all three.

Key words: cross-correlation function, wavelet interpolation method, twins, similarity, dissimilarity
SOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF MONGOLIAN AND KALMYKIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS (p. 52)

Godina Elena1, Khomyakova Irina1, Zadorozhnaya Ludmila1, Lkhagvasuren Gundegmaa2, Burlykov Vladimir3



1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

2Mongolian National Institute of Physical Education, Ulaanabaatar, Mongolia

3Kalmykian State University, Elista, Russia
The aim of the study is to compare growth characteristics of Mongolian and Kalmykian children and adolescents. The materials were collected by the authors in 2007-2008 and in 2010–2011 as a result of anthropological investigations in the cities of Elista (Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation) and Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia). Total number of the investigated children from 9 to 17 years of age was about 2,000. The program included standard anthropometric measurements (Bunak, 1941), hand grip strength, somatotype evaluation according to Shtefko-Ostrovsky method. A number of indices were calculated including Body Mass Index (BMI), absolute and relative fat mass (Slaughther et. al., 1988). Statistical analysis, performed with the software “Statistica 8.0”, included descriptive statistics, normalization procedure, one-way ANOVA with Scheffe’s test for multiple comparisons. The results show significant differences between Kalmykian and Mongolian children in most of the measurements: stature and weight, chest, waist, hip and arm circumferences, body diameters are bigger in Kalmykian schoolchildren and the differences are stronger in boys. During the whole age period Kalmyks are taller than their Mongolian peers. At the age of 17 Kalmykian boys’ stature is 173.89 cm, while for Mongolians it is 168.34 cm (р<0.001); for the girls the corresponding figures are 161.8 and 159.42 cm (p<0.05). Mongolian boys at almost all age groups have smaller values of chest circumference and BMI but surpass Kalmykians in chest depth. Mongolian girls after the age of 13 have slightly bigger values of chest circumference and BMI, as well as bone diameters. Mongolian boys and girls have significantly smaller values of skinfold thickness and fat mass. In both ethnic groups the accumulation of fat layer is bigger on the trunk, particularly in the abdomen area. There were no differences between Kalmykian and Mongolian adolescents in maturation rates evaluated by the development of secondary sex characteristics. As both groups have similar ethnic origins, it can be concluded that the revealed differences are the results of the influence of socioeconomic factors.

Key words: growth, physical development, biological age, Kalmykian schoolchildren, Mongolian schoolchildren, auxology, anthropology
DYNAMICS OF THE SEXUAL DIMORPHISM INDICES OF BODY DIMENSIONS OF CHILDREN FROM BIRTH TO 17 YEARS (p. 53)

Gorbacheva Anna, Fedotova Tatiana, Sukhova Alla

Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Age characteristics in the process of forming of the direction and degree of definitive adult sex differences are reviewed using a great number of children’s samples, collected by the authors and taken from the literature. To estimate the value of sexual differences the Kullback method is used. The analysis of 63 ethno-territorial samples of the newborns showed that the minimal variability belongs to the body mass – the main object of stabilizing selection and the main marker of the quality of intrauterine development. Body length and head and chest circumferences have relatively higher indices of sexual dimorphism, independent from ethnic and different ecological factors. Through the interval from birth to 7 years of age according to the data of three ethnic samples – Russians, Kazakhs, Kirghizs – the bigger skeletal and muscle dimensions of boys are maintained till the age of three years. Indices close to zero level through the age of 3-7 years in Russian and Kazakh samples are an evidence of comparable growth rates of children of both sexes. While negative values of the indices in Kirghiz children point to the more intensive growth processes in girls. The values of skinfolds in girls are higher through the whole interval and this tendency is stronger in 7-year-olds, more evident in Mongoloid groups. The common pattern of sexual dimorphism of skeletal and muscle dimensions through the period of 8-16 years may be described by the parabola of the 4th order with three bend points, connected with the differences of pubertal spurt in boys and girls. The dynamics of sexual differences of the skinfolds is characterized by a small degree through the second childhood and the beginning of the puberty, and its further gradual increase from 12 years of age towards the definitive status.

Key words: sexual dimorphism, body dimensions, children from birth to 17 years
THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL CONNECTEDNESS ON BODY HEIGHT IN SWISS CONSCRIPTS (p. 53)

Hermanussen Michael1, Alt Christoph2, Staub Kaspar3, Aßmann Christian4, Groth Detlef2



1Altenhof, Germany

2University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Germany

3Institute of Anatomy; University of Zurich, Switzerland

4Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Germany
Background: Human populations differ in height. Recent evidence suggests that social networks play an important role in the regulation of adolescent growth and adult height. We further investigated the effect of physical connectedness on height. Material and Methods: We considered Switzerland as a geographic network with 169 nodes (district capitals) and 335 edges (connecting roads) and studied effect of connectedness on height in Swiss conscript from 1884–1891, 1908–1910, and 2004–2009. We also created exponential-family random graph models to separate possible unspecific effects of geographic vicinity. Results: In 1884–1891, in 1908–1910, and in 2004–2009, 1st, 2nd and 3rd order neighboring districts significantly correlate in height (p<0.01). The correlations depend on the order of connectedness, they decline with increasing distance. Short stature districts tend to have short, tall stature districts tend to have tall neighbors. Random networks analyses suggest direct road effects on height. In 1884-1891, direct road effects were only visible between 1st order neighbors. In 1908–1910, direct road effect extended to 2nd and 3rd and in 2004–2009, also to 4th order neighbors, and might reflect historic improvements in transportation. Conclusion: Height in a district depends on height of physically connected neighboring districts. The association decreases with increasing distance in the net. The present data suggest that people can be short because their neighbors are short; or tall because their neighbors are tall (community effect on growth). The vision strongly contrasts the current concept of growth as a mirror of health and economic prosperity.

Key words: community effect on growth, connectedness, body height, direct road effect, exponential-family random graph models

SECULAR VARIABILITY OF HEAD SIZES IN BELARUSIAN CHILDREN (MINSK) (p. 54)

Hurbo Tatyana

Department of Anthropology and Ecology, Institute of History, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NAS), Minsk, Belarus
The trends in variability of general head sizes (head circumference, longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter) and the shape of head (cephalic index) in 4–17-year-old children of Minsk over the last 80 years (1920–2000) are analyzed. In 1980–2000 a significant increase of all indices was revealed. Head circumference in the older age groups is bigger in the children of 1980 in comparison to those of 1920 – by 2.16–3.09 cm longer in boys, 2.42–3.14 cm in girls; longitudinal diameter – by 1.40–1.85 cm and 1.14–1.30 cm respectively; transverse diameter – by 0.82–1.35 cm and 0.69–0.83 cm respectively. At the same time the head index reduced during the period of 1920–1980: by 1.32-1.88 in boys and 0.62–1.83 in girls. A significant growth of general head sizes was completed in 1980-2000. If there were some variations in head circumference and longitudinal diameter in children of different age during these 20 years (first some reduction, then some increase), the transverse diameter reduced at all ages. The reduction of the cephalic index continued in 1980–2000 due to a more intensive reduction of the average values of the head breadth in comparison to the head length. So some changes in head shape and sizes in children of Minsk were observed during 80 years: the process of dolichocephalization (or debrachycephalization), i.e. a decrease of the head index (the ratio of the transverse diameter to the longitudinal one) was revealed. If in 1920–1980 this process took place together with the increase of head sizes, then in 1980–2000 both longitudinal and transverse diameters were reduced, the decrease of the transverse diameter being more significant.

Key words: head sizes, dolichocephalization, Belarusian children
DOES BIRTH ORDER REALLY MATTER? ASSOCIATION WITH ANTHROPOMETRICS IN CHILDREN FROM THE GREATER BILBAO (SPAIN) (p. 54)

Jelenkovic Aline1,2,3, Esther Rebato1



1Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain

2IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain

3Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Birth order has been related to the anthropometric variation both in children and adults, but the evidence is still inconsistent. Examining the relationship in different populations may lead to improved insight. We aim to determine the associations between birth order and a set of anthropometric traits defining body morphology and composition. The sample consisted of 847 children (2­19 years) from 533 nuclear families living in the Greater Bilbao (Spain). Simple measures and derived variables [stature, iliospinal height, weight, body mass index (BMI), trunk/extremity skinfolds ratio (TER), sum of 4 circumferences (CC4), sum of 6 skinfolds (SF6), and the three components of the Heath­Carter’s anthropometric somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy)] were z­scored for age, separately by sex. Associations were analysed using linear multivariate regression models controlling for different covariates and p­values were adjusted for clustering of siblings within families. Overall, very few associations were statistically significant at p<0.05. Third­born boys were associated with greater iliospinal height z­score (0.38, p=0.04) and stature z­score (0.37, p=0.06) than first­borns. After adjustment for parental education, second­born girls showed reduced SF6 (­0.21, p=0.32) and endomorphy z­scores (­0.20, p=0.37) but greater ectomorphy (0.19, p=0.05) than first­borns. Additional adjustment for maternal age slightly attenuated the associations. In conclusion, birth order showed a tendency towards a positive association with vertical dimensions in boys and negative with adiposity in girls. Our findings do not support an association of birth order with weight, BMI, TER, mesomorphy and CC4.

Key words: anthropometrics, birth order, body composition, children, siblings, vertical dimensions

SECULAR CHANGES OF THE NEWBORNS’ BODY WEIGHT AND WOMEN’S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING LAST CENTURY (p. 55)

Kryst Łukasz1, Bilińska Inez2

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