ADOLESCENCE NOW AND BEFORE: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL AND THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS IN THE CHANGED CONDITIONS OF GROWING UP (p. 41)
Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Clinic for Psychological Medicine, Croatia
The research of and observations related to adolescence often lead to partly contradictory results. It may at times seem that adolescence has changed in the recent decades, and at other times that it has remained the same (Briggs, 2008). Research however indicates to the fact that particular parameters in relation to adolescence have indeed changed: e.g. adolescence lasts longer and is by far more diverse than described in the earlier theories of adolescence. The socio-cultural changes have most probably made the term “identity” – as defined by the earlier theoreticians, for instance Erik Erikson – questionable. Identity seems to be a multi-fold and complex concept, rather difficult to comprehend; hence, some authors (e.g. Cahn 1998; Briggs 2008) suggest it is necessary to tackle the idea of “subjectivism” or “subjectivation” (or “becoming subject”) more thoroughly. Since the “post-traditional” identity is more open and changeable, it seems as if an individual becomes a continued project of oneself (Thomson et al., 2004). The tension between the more narcissistic goals and those directed toward interrelation indicate to conflicts that potentially occur in more markedly individualised societies – unlike, if compared with, the situation in the earlier, more traditional societies, such as were present for a long time in technologically less developed countries (e.g. many former socialist countries of the Eastern Europe). A revision of the concept of narcissism might lead to a better understanding of growing up and development in and under changed socio-cultural conditions that strengthen the inclination towards the occurrence of more destructive and self-destructive behaviour (Waddell, 2006).
Key words: adolescence, growth and development, psychobiological and the socio-cultural factors
BODY COMPOSITION IN RUSSIANS AS ASSESSED BY BIOIMPEDANCE ANALYSIS: THE POPULATION REFERENCE DATA AND SOME COMPARISONS (p. 42)
Rudnev Sergey1,2, Soboleva Nadezhda2, Sterlikov Sergey2, Chernykh Svetlana3, Starunova Olga4, Nikolaev Dmitry4
1Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Federal Research Institute for Health Care Organization and Informatics, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
3Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia 4Scientific Research Centre «Medas», Moscow, Russia
819,808 Russian males and females aged 5-97 years, who represented nearly 0.6% of the total Russian population, were assessed cross-sectionally in 2010-2012 by the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 ‘Medas’. The measurements were done in 220 Health Centers from 52 out of 83 federal subjects of Russia. The smoothed reference centile curves for anthropometric and BIA variables, such as height, weight, BMI, body fat (BF), fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body cell mass (BCM) and other (33 variables in total) were provided based on extensions of the Cole and Green LMS method realized in the software package GAMLSS. At the age interval 5-25 years, our data on median weight and height showed good agreement with the updated 2002 data on the ICRP reference man. As compared to the IOTF reference population, the BMI distributions in children were shifted towards excess weight, with the average BMI z-score +0.41 for boys (29.1% of them being overweight and 12.5% obese) and +0.19 for girls (23.3% overweight and 8.0% obese). 2.9% of male and 3.0% female children were undernourished. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity in adults according to the conventional WHO criteria was 22.5% in men, and 31.9% in women. Our data indicated an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, with the maximum in women aged 55-65 years and the likelihood of developing the disease in this group being 4-5 times higher than in the age range 18-25 years. In male adults aged 50 years and elder, the metabolic syndrome risk was 1.5-2 times less than those in the females. In contrast, the age-standardized prevalence of high disability risk in Russian males aged 50-85 years was more than twice as much as the corresponding value in the females (12.7% vs 5.4%). Generally, our data show a significant interregional variation suggesting the presence of varying health conditions and epidemiological risks.
Key words: body composition, bioimpedance analysis, large database, Russian population, reference data
MASTOIDITIS: A CASE FROM LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD SKELETAL REMAINS (p. 42)
Sağır Mehmet1, Özer İsmail1, Sağır Seçil2, Özer Başak Koca1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
2Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Anthropology, Bağbaşı Campus, Kırşehir, Turkey
Mastoiditis is an inflammation of the cells in the mastoid region of the temporal bone, and may occur nearly after two weeks of the beginning of acute otitis media. Otitis media is one of the frequently encountered complications, and can lead to deafness when it spread to the surrounding areas. Distribution of the inflammation may cause complications over large endocranial sinuses, lead to meningitis and extradural or the brain abscess, as well. Corruption of drainage of the mastoid cells is the basic pathophysiological mechanisms leading to mastoiditis. Characteristic clinical findings are auricular proptosis, retroauricular erythema and others where the most common symptoms are persistent otalgia, fever, and poor nutrition. Acute mastoiditis is a disease more common in children. The present study identifies pathological changes in the pneumatised cells of the mastoid process based on macroscopic, light microscopic, radiological and x-ray computed tomography investigations in human skeletal remains from the Late Ottoman Empire Period in Karacaahmet Cemetery, İstanbul, Turkey. During the examinations from Karacaahmet Skeletal Collection, a mastoiditis case was diagnosed, which is so far the first known from Ottoman collections. The skull belongs to an adult female subject. It is suggested that further paleopathological investigations are needed in the incidence of the infectious ear diseases to reflect living and health conditions of ancient Anatolian populations.
Key words: Mastoiditis, infection, skull, paleopathology, Anatolia
STATURE ESTIMATION FROM THE RADIOGRAPHS OF METATARSALS IN TURKISH POPULATION (p. 43)
Sağır Seçil1, Sağır Mehmet2
1Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Anthropology, Bağbaşı Campus, Kırşehir, Turkey
2Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
To determine stature is as important as the determination of sex and age when analyzing and identifying the remains of skeleton. Stature, in an approximate and widespread manner, is being determined on the femur and tibia lengths, which are the long bones that directly affect the stature. However, when long bones are not available or they are found in a very bad state of preservation that does not permit any estimation of stature, then other bones of the body are also being used for this purpose. The aim of this study is to determine stature with the help of metatarsals in Turkish population. In this study, by using the x-ray films for the metatarsals bones of 100 women and 100 men, the Bayesian regression equations have been produced for 5 metatarsal bones. The coefficients of correlation existing between the metatarsal bones and stature, together with the standard errors of these equations, have been examined at length throughout this study. The results of the studies conducted by other researchers (Byers, Akoshima and Curran, 1989) have been compared with the results of our study.
Key words: metatarsal, stature, regression, forensic anthropology
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN HIGHLY QUALIFIED FREESTYLE WRESTLERS (p. 43)
Department of Biomedical Support MGFSO, Moscow Sport Committee, Moscow, Russia
For the analysis of sex differences in the morphology of freestyle wrestlers data of 133 women and 88 men were used. The program included 69 absolute and relative indicators of total body size, body proportions, girths, body mass components. The degree (%) and direction of sexual differentiation of each characteristic in women athletes compared to male athletes and their variability (su) were analyzed. The direction of the gender difference was determined by the dominance of the average values (X) of the traits and their variability (su) in one sex group over the other. The coefficient of sexual dimorphism (CSD) by E.G. Martirosov (1976) and S. Bailey (1981) was determined for each individual trait. While the prevalence in men was designated by the sign “+”, the predominance of values characteristic for women had the sign “-”.
The results are as follows: 1. According to the calculated CSDs, men in 53 measurements substantially exceed women athletes, mostly in lengths dimensions and diameters. At the same time they are inferior in indicators of subcutaneous fat and the circumferences of the hips and buttocks. 2. The analysis of the CSDs for body mass components shows the large values of indicators of fat mass in women’s bodies and, vice versa, active cell, bone and skeletal muscle mass in men, which is confirmed by the results of bioimpedance examination.
Key words: freestyle wrestlers, body dimensions, body mass components, coefficient of sexual dimorphism
BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MODERN HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT (p. 44)
Federal State Training Center of the Russian National Teams, Moscow, Russia
Till now development of physical and psychological abilities in athletes was mainly provided by intensification of training process aimed at reaching maximal capacity in various body systems, in particular by maintaining high work capacity by means of doping accompanied by the out-of-limit expenditures of vitally important reserves of the organism. The difficult situation that we currently observe in sport science is formed by more and more evident contradictions between the already existing and the required knowledge about human organism on the one hand, and ways of achieving sport goals in young and adult athletes by means of physical work capacity stimulation pushing the limits of human capacities, on the other hand. This situation can be solved on the base of setting a new task in sport scientific researches. This task should be focused on “creating conditions for realization of near-maximal natural capacities of a human organism”, rather than on “achieving a top result”. The problem is to determine interdependency of joint development of the cellular, organismic, and social levels organized in a hierarchy. We think simulation modeling based on the informational approach to be a key method permitting to reveal time aspects of the evolution of joint work at those levels, provided mathematical means are adequate to biological laws. In this context special attention should be paid to the use of molecular computers, development of special complexes fitted with an interface for on-line control of processes, which take place in the athlete’s organism at the cellular level. Hybrid systems of artificial intelligence permit to create models of voluntary movements control in athletes. The priorities of forming sport culture of an athlete can shift in three directions even today: firstly, enhancing nature-consistent character of pedagogical influence, that means bringing to conformity the content of physical and sport activity with natural laws of age development of motor functions of athletes; secondly, mastering high technologies of sport training from first steps to harmonious sport perfection of humans; thirdly, maximal approximation of the content and form of realization of sport training to those being individually acceptable for each athlete.
Key words: sport, top athlete, models, sport training
THE EFFECT OF COURSES IN WEIGHT REDUCTION TO THE SELECTED SOMATIC CHARACTERISTICS (p. 45)
Sofková Tereza, Přidalová Miroslava
Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palackэ University Olomouc, Czech Republic
Accelerated pace of life and consumerism leads to increase in obesity. Key element in programs to reduce overweight and obesity is the regular physical activity (PA) by means of healthy lifestyle. Appropriate PA that is accessible to everyone, regardless of age and gender, is walking, which can be simply assessed by pedometers. The aim of our work was to analyse the effect of courses in weight reduction to the selected body composition (BC) parameters in the obese and overweight women with various age and the level of PA. 124 women with existing sedentary lifestyle, which were differentiated by age (< 40 years: and ≥ 40 years) participated in the study. We divided the monitored sample into sub-groups according to the level of their PA. To determine the average daily number of footsteps during the PA the Yamax pedometer was used. InBody 720 device using the Direct Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method (DSM-BIA Method) was used to measure and analyse the BC. Based on the monitoring of the PA and BC health risk indicators, the effect of the exercise program, which included cognitive behavioural therapy, showed decline in the body mass index (BMI) and body fat expressed in percentages (PBF) and in the decrease of the visceral fat area (VFA). The amount of fat-free mass (FFM) remained the same. Following the three months therapy we observed in women with a higher level of PA shift to the overweight group. Therapy contributed to a reduction in PBF from 2.4% to 3.9% even though the women’s groups were still classified as obese (> 35%). Research studies have shown positive relationship between the increase in PA and changes in health risk indicators. Observance of the recommended number of 10,000 footsteps per day primarily prevents the increase in body fat mass (BFM) and maintains FFM.
Key words: body composition health risk indicators, obesity, walking, healthy lifestyle, weight loss program
MODERN TENDENCIES IN THE PHENOTYPE CHANGES OF HIGH-QUALIFIED ATHLETES (p. 45)
Federal Scientific Centre of Physical Culture and Sport, Moscow, Russia
Existing range of phenotypic diversity is considered as a result of human adaptation to complex civilization processes (V.A. Geodakjan etc.). Dynamics of modern population shifts is characterized with such trends as asthenization and juvenilization of body structure by increasing the duration of the growth processes and biological maturation. At the same time an increase in the sensitivity of the nervous system occurs, the growth of intellectual abilities with the expansion of human cognitive skills is observed, creativity manifestation of consciousness is shown (L.A.Rudkevich et al.). Our long-term cohort study of highly qualified swimmers showed significant differences between the winners in their age groups and elite athletes (T.S.Timakova). Comparative analysis between young athletes and elite swimmers showed that body structure of the elite swimmers has a trend to greater leptosomy, as well as higher electrodermal sensitivity and hypersensitivity toward vibratactile stimulation. Greater complications in the somatotype are accompanied with more signs of heteromorphism by lengthening the period of biological maturation in general. Our retrospective analyses of the three years observation data of elite racing skiers is of particular interest. Data processing was carried with the method of factor – typological description of the athletes. The analysis included anthropological characteristics, the results of functional testing till total exhaustion, as well as 16-PF questionnaire of R.Cattell. Results of the study revealed the advantages of athletes with more complex somatotype characteristics, which manifest a tendency towards wonderful activity economization of energy supply. A comparison of the selected groups of athletes of different classes of professional success with the structural features of their personality showed the advantages of those with severe manifestations of reflection and action mechanism of the unconscious (intuition and fast-action).
Key words: high-qualified athletes, factor-typological description, different classes of professional success, more complicated somatotype
OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AS RISK FACTORS FOR FALLEN ARCHES (p. 46)
Tománková Kristína, Přidalová Miroslava, Gába Aleš
Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic
Overweight and obesity are associated with structural and functional limitations, mainly in terms of fallen arches or other foot deformities. Static flat foot of the adults might appear at each age if an unbalance occurs in the rate of the applied load to load bearing capacity of the foot, for a long time. The most common external factor is an excessive body weight. The main aim of this study was to confirm that the foot arch significantly falls with increasing BMI values. The measurements were performed in a sample, which consisted of 139 adult women of average age 56.67±4.80 years. Body mass index (BMI [kg/m2]) was calculated for each person. We measured the foot dimensions in the widest and narrowest place of a plantogram to calculate the Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI). CSI values from 0% to 45% indicate normal healthy feet, over 45% – flat feet. Footprints were taken from both feet by the standard static plantography method. Data was statistically analyzed with the non-parametric tests (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) and Kruskal-Wallis test (H)) with calculating of the effect size (η2).On the base of the increasing average CSI values in BMI categories (normal weight: n = 52, sin. = 37.27%, dex. = 35.82%; overweight: n = 51, sin. = 41.18%, dex. = 42.48; obesity: n = 36, sin. = 45.92 %, dex. = 44.94%), we showed a significant increase of the CSI values (sin. H = 27.17, p < 0.01,η2 = 0.2;dex. H = 24.32, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.18). CSI values showed medium positive linear relation with BMI values (sin. r = 0.42; dex. r = 0.40; p < 0.05), which confirmed that a foot arch significantly falls with increasing BMI values. Overweight and obesity have significant impact on the fall of the foot arch.
Key words: flat foot, BMI, excessive body weight
MODERN RUSSIAN FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION SCHOOL (p. 47)
Veselovskaya Elizaveta1, Grigoryeva Olga1, Rasskazova Anna1,2
1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Mikhail Gerasimov was the first who invented scientifically substantiated method of individual facial reconstruction based on subjacent cranial structures analysis. Nowadays, the Laboratory of Anthropological Reconstruction of Russian Academy of Science is proceeding with his research concerning the problem of correspondence between facial structures and cranial elements. A large database containing information on facial soft tissues thickness of different ethnic groups (Mongoloids and Caucasians) has been created. The craniofacial correspondence program was also created, being an algorithm of transition from cranium dimensions and characteristics determined to corresponding facial dimensions and characteristics. A system of regression equations has been produced to calculate such characteristics as ear height and physiognomic facial height, nose and mouth width. Regression equations are also used to estimate such characteristics as nasal labial fold width and eye fissure dimensions. High correlation coefficient rates between mouth and dental arch width, orbit and eye fissure dimensions, nose width and juga alveolaria are demonstrated both for Mongoloids and Caucasians. Anthropological reconstruction today is successfully used in many fields of research, particularly in the historical persons’ identification. For example, craniofacial reconstruction was used to identify the skull found in Ermolov’s crypt. Alexey Ermolov was a Russian military leader, who took part in many great wars. According to historical records, the crypt contained the remains of A.P. Ermolov, his father and his son. Unfortunately, only one skull was found there. Another case was the identification of the skull found in Novoierusalimsky monastery, which presumably belonged to Arkadiy Suvorov, the son of the famous commander Alexander Suvorov. The method of craniofacial reconstruction is used to visualize anthropological data. A number of sculptural portraits of the ancient city of Palmira inhabitants was produced and matched to sepulchral images. The Laboratory also completed a number of early hominids’ reconstructions, such as Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis OH24, Homo rudolfensis 1470. The above-mentioned method is widely used in forensic science (undefined remains identification). Special procedures have been worked out to reconstruct the appearance basing on mummified materials. The method makes it possible not only to reproduce main facial features, but to make a precise facial reconstruction, showing persons’ individual characteristics.
Key words: facial reconstruction, craniofacial identification, forensic science
THE AURICLE AS AN OBJECT OF MEDICAL-ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONALITY (p. 48)
Zvyagin Victor1, Negasheva Marina2, Snegiryova Evgenia2, Fomina Elena1
1Department of Medical Forensic Identification, Russian Center of Forensic Medical Examination, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Up to the present, very few studies have been devoted to the investigation of the auricle as an object of medical-anthropological reconstruction and identification of personality. The objective of our study was to investigate intra-group, racial, secular and constitutional variability of sizes of the auricle and to establish biometrical criteria for quantitative assessment. 284 women and 173 men of Russian nationality at the age from 20 to 25 years old were examined. The program included 6 measurements of the auricle (4 supplementary indicators were calculated) along with somatic and cephalometric characteristics (more than 30 dimensions of the head and body). Using standardized photos of the auricle, with the help of special software “Database for auricle parameters registration”, values of 12 additional parameters were received for each person, with 9 calculated indicators based on these parameters. Elements of the auricle were described using R.A. Reiss’ method: a form of the auricle was evaluated, forms of the contours of tragus and antitragus were determined, and the type of adherence of the ear lobule to the cheek was assessed. For the first time in Russian anthropology, secular changes in the auricle sizes have been analyzed. For the comparison, archival materials of the Department of Medical Forensic Identification were used: namely, the results of measurement of auricle sizes of 231 men and 100 women in Ryazan province (Vorobyov, 1901). For the past 100 years an increase in all sizes of the external ear has been observed in both sexes. Literary data on general sizes of the auricle (length and width of the ear, physiognomic index) in the representatives of three big races were analyzed and borders of variability of these parameters were detected. For sex determination based on the complex of auricle sizes, linear equations of discriminant functions were developed (classification precision 85%). The following parameters appeared to have the highest significance level at sex determination: the length of cartilaginous part of the ear, the length and width of the ear, the length of base and real height of the ear, the length of the ear lobule. The results of factor analysis stable trends of combined variability of sizes of the body, head and auricle: the most informative one was the variability of sizes of the auricle on the scale of micro/ macrocephaly and micro/ macrosomia. The second vector (in terms of its significance) was a scale of lepto/ brachycephalia: brachycephalic people are characterized with relatively small auricles. Multiple regression equations for the prediction of auricle sizes on some somatic and cephalometric parameters were elaborated. Five categories in the variability of auricle sizes were chosen: very small, small, medium, big, very big. This will allow avoiding subjective assessments at description of the auricle and can be used in human morphology, medical forensic examination and criminalistics.