Key words: morphogenetic traits, female freestyle wrestlers, fingerprint dermatoglyphics
NEW COMPUTER PROGRAM “FACE-ON-FACE” AS A NEW PRACTICAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT (p. 35)
Maurer Andrey1, Savinetsky Alexandr2, Syroezhkin German2
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2National Research Nuclear University (NRNU MEPHI), Moscow, Russia
The program Face-on-Face was developed for optimization of creating of composite portraits (CP) (of the face and body) according to F. Galton by means of new digital images. Composite portrait is a kind of cognitive tool that allows visualizing the integrated variability of morphological characteristics of the human face – in sex, age, race (ethno-territorial) aspects. An algorithm of creating portraits consists of the following: first, the average interpupillary distance for the entire sample (in pixels) is calculated, then all of the individual images are restricted (reduced or increased, respectively) to found the average interpupillary distance and simultaneously stretch or shorten in height, reaching the average distance between an oral point and a horizontal line passing through the pupils. These transformed images are sequentially superimposed on each other. Color of a pixel at each point is the average of all pixels of the points with all the images. The sequence of the overlay does not affect the final image. Due to the transformation of each image into a mathematical model the combining process is fast enough. Therefore, CP could be created for 10–15 minutes depending on the image resolution. A tool “ruler” allows to take measurements relying on the bar existing in the frame scale. The distance in pixels is converted to millimeters. Tool “symmetry” allows to slice an image of the face ( or of the body) by sagittal line and then to “glue” the halves – left with left, right with right. The experience of creating of CP relying on three points in the three classic standards – “full face”, “3/4”, and “profile”, yielded unique CPs of Russian Altai children, some of the peoples of northern Eurasia, Negroid of East Africa, etc. We received an interesting result of CP generated with 27 base points. The developed model can be used by researchers, museum staff, forensic experts and other specialists.
Key words: anthropological photography, composite portrait, computer software, appearance features, visualization
IDENTIFICATION FROM HUMAN BITE MARKS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY (p. 35)
Meşe Cansev1, Güngör Kahraman2, Özer Başak Koca1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Turkey
2Gazi University, Faculty Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Turkey
Identification from human bite marks is one of the major issues which forensic sciences - forensic anthropology and forensic dentistry - are interested in. According to the American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO), standard studies include: tooth structure of suspects, collecting information if there is any possibility to reach DNA, taking photo of bite marks, creation of dental model of the suspect and applying methods for the bite marks analysis. The purpose of the present experimental study is to investigate the bite marks on various materials created by adult volunteers, stating if the elimination or the prevision of suspects can be made or not. A total of 20 adult volunteers (10 from each sex, aged between 20–45 years) were asked to bite styrofoam, apple, cucumber, cheddar cheese, transparency, and their upper arm (biceps). According to the ABFO standards, the photographs were taken showing the intraoral structure and bite marks from various materials, and the dental plaster models were created and scanned. Transparent coating was applied using Adobe Photoshop CS4 Extended software, and comparisons were made. According to the results, comparison between transparent coatings obtained from dental plaster models and bite mark materials of styrofoam (75% of accuracy/true match on the both upper and lower jaws), cheddar cheese (85% of accuracy/true match on the upper jaw) and the upper arm (65% of accuracy/true match on the upper jaw and 70% of accuracy/true match on the lower jaw) bite marks are much more accurate than the bites marks on apple, cucumber and acetate material. We are in the opinion that experimental studies on bite marks have an important contribution to the forensic sciences and crime investigations, and future studies are needed.
Key words: forensic anthropology, forensic dentistry, bite marks, Turkey
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN CHILDHOOD WITH FATHER’S SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY (p. 36)
Mora-Urda Ana Isabel, Montero Pilar
Physical Anthropology, Biology Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Studies about children health have historically considered aspects related to mothers’ health and mothers’ behaviors as determinants of optimal fetal development and subsequent health of children, however, there is little information about the influence of the fathers behaviors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between father’s smoking during pregnancy with obesity and arterial stiffness in children. The sample consisted of 300 children (8 to 12 years old) and their fathers and mothers. Data were collected in public schools in the Community of Madrid. Following the collection of data from children their families were interviewed about the smoking patterns of both fathers and mothers during pregnancy. At the beginning of the pregnancy 16.7% of smoking mothers stopped smoking. Women who maintained smoking during pregnancy significantly decreased the number of cigarettes/day (14.23 cigarettes/day before pregnancy and 7.07 cigarettes/day during pregnancy). However, the percentage of fathers who stopped smoking was very small (5.3%). Fathers’ smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.031), greater waist circumference (p = 0.012) and higher waist/ height index (0.001) in daughters but not necessarily in sons. Likewise the number of cigarettes consumed per day by the father during pregnancy affects the pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of arterial wall stiffness (p = 0.028). Daughters of nonsmoking mothers during pregnancy but who were exposed during fetal life to paternal smoking, presented highest values of visceral obesity and arterial stiffness (PWV) in childhood. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of fathers’ behavior on the health of children.
Key words: father’s smoking, obesity, arterial stiffness, children
FILIPPOVKA: SKULLS AND FACES. NOMADS OF THE SOUTH URALS IN THE EARLY IRON AGE ACCORDING TO ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTIONS (p. 36)
Institute of History, Language and Literature, Ufa Scientific Centre of Russian Academy Sciences, Ufa, Russia
Early Iron Age is one of the spectacular periods in the ancient history of the Eurasian Steppe. Just in the center of the nomadic world, there is Filippovka kurgan cemetery, situated between Volga and Ural Rivers. Twenty-five kurgans are located on the left bank of the Ural River, 100 km to the west of the city of Orenburg. As a result of the 1986–1990 excavations, the expedition of the Institute of History, Language and Literature, Ufa Scientific Centre, RAS, under the guidance of А.Kh. Pshenichnyuk, investigated burial complexes of the nomadic elite accompanied by unique sculptures of the gold-plated deer and other pieces of jewelry. The excavations also gave craniological material consisted of five skulls (including 3 male and 2 female skulls) of varying integrity. Craniometric investigations along with morphological and total analyses of the male skulls from Filippovka showed a mixed origin of their anthropological type. The male skulls are characterized with large size, brachycrania, well-developed macrorelief, high face, slightly weakened profiling at the level of the orbit and small or medium projection of nasal bones above the facial plane. This combination of craniological features observed in paleoanthropological materials of the 5th and 4th centuries AD from the East European steppe region has been determined as “eastern Europoid type”. Two male skulls and one female skull from Filippovka formed the craniological basis for plastic facial reconstructions. Typologically, the basis for the racial type of the buried men from Kurgans 5 and 12 of the Filippovka kurgan cemetery is represented by a complex of Protoeuropoid traits with a slight addition of Mongoloid peculiar features in the facial architecture. Weakened profiling of the facial skeleton at the horizontal level can be explained by preservation of the archaic features in the Protoeuropoid-type morphological complex. The female skull from Kurgan 12 is characterized with a more pronounced Mongoloid appearance that is reflected in the facial reconstruction sculpture. In the process of restoring the appearance, M.M.Gerasimov’s method was employed with further modifications proposed by G.V. Lebedinskaya and S.A. Nikitin.
Key words: Nomads of the South Urals, Filippovka, craniology, plastic facial anthropological reconstruction
ESTIMATION OF WATER SECTORS IN HUMAN ORGANISM BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD (p. 37)
Nikitjuk Dmitry, Nikolenko Vladimir, Klochkova Svetlana
First State Moscow Medical University by name of Setchenov, Moscow, Russia
Diagnostic possibilities of a method of multifrequency segmentary bioimpedance analysis were studied in 125 practically health patients. It is shown that in the age range from 25 till 75 years and BMI (Body Mass Index) in the range from < 20 kg/m2 up to >35 kg/m2 the decrease in impedance parameters occurs, more significant at arms and legs regions. Ranges of normal bioimpedance values are established at low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) for body regions at various BMI values and for different age groups. The degree of correlation of the revealed changes of impedance values at LF and HF varies for different body parts and is most ly expressed on upper extremities. As the degree of changes of impedance parameters varies, their analysis for separate body regions is necessary. The suggested values can be used as references for individual and estimation of human body mass parameters in adults.
Key words: organism, water balance, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis
HEALTH PROTECTING BEHAVIORS AND MORBIDITY IN STUDENTS (p. 38)
Perm State Humanitarian-Pedagogical University, Perm, Russia
The factors, which can influence the health status and the quality of life, were studied, and the analysis of the morbidity of the students was held. MOS-SF 36 Questionnaire, and the questionnaire for estimating living conditions and self-evaluated health status were used, as well as the data of applications to the polyclinics. 343 students of the average age 19.6±0.1 years were examined. In the morbidity structure the leading diseases among males are those of respiratory system (J00-J99), eye/adnexal (H00-H59), nervous system (G00-G99), and among females - diseases of respiratory system, genitourinary system (N00-N99), and eye diseases. Analysis of the lifestyle showed significant differences between duration of sleep and the diseases of respiratory system. They were noticed in the 13% of the interviewed students with average duration of sleep not more than 6 hours, and in 6% of those with average duration of sleep 7-9 hours a day. The same tendency was found for the diseases of nervous system, and allergic diseases. Allergic diseases were recorded among 30% of smokers and 13% of non-smokers. The scores on the “general health perceptions” and “physical role functioning” scales were reliable at the presence of diseases of respiratory system, nervous system, and allergic diseases. Among those having a low incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infections there were 60% of active athletes, and among those having a high incidence rate - 48% of athletes. Persons with the high level of physical activity have higher scores of “physical role functioning”, “vitality” and “general health perceptions” according to the MOS-SF 36 Questionnaire. Supported by 026-F grant of the Perm State Pedagogical University.
Key words: students, morbidity, quality of life, health evaluation
PALEOPATHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA DATING FROM THE MIDDLE AGE PERIOD FROM THE BURIAL GROUND STARITSA (p. 38)
Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Volgograd, Russia
This paper is devoted to the study of bone material dating back to the Golden Horde from the burial mound in the neighborhoods of Staritsa village in Chernoyarsky rural area of the Astrakhan region. The Staritsa burial ground is unique in some way as it represents a projection of one period in the region’s history. The complex became operating at Yamna culture period when the first burial grounds cemeteries serving as generic crypts appeared. The present paleoanthropological research examined bones of twenty-six people: 12 female, 9 male, and 4 immature individual skeletons. Despite the fact that the studied Staritsa burial ground was chosen at random, its examination provides an opportunity to expand our understanding of the population inhabiting the Volga Delta and the Lower Volga region in the Golden Horde period. This is especially important due to the fact that our understanding of the lifestyle and physical conditions of the people of that period is mainly based on the study of mass burial grounds of the settled populations such as the Golden Horde cities of Khan-Tube, Selitrennoe and Krasnoyarskoe. The study revealed that men were the most active part of the population; it follows from the observed increased number of low temperature makers. The studied group of nomads is characterized by widespread dentition pathologies. Low frequency of caries, high occurrence of periodontal disease, tartar and intravital tooth loss are also common for nomadic groups from the barrows in the Early Iron Age burials. There is also a striking feature of the studied material. Unlike the synchronous complexes and nomadic series of the Early Iron Age, in medieval populations of the Staritsa burial ground no injuries resulting from violent actions either on the bones of the cranial vault, of the facial part, or on the bones of the postcranial skeleton were found.
Key words: paleopathology, Golden Horde, kurgan burials, traumatic injuries, cranial deformation
HOW ETHNOGRAPHY MAY INSTRUCT BIOCULTURAL RESEARCH? (p. 39)
Peternel Lana1, Malnar Ana2, Martinović Klarić Irena1
1Institute for Social Research in Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Zagreb, Croatia
Conducting biocultural research in anthropology remains to be one of biggest challenges in our discipline. To implement a biocultural synthesis in anthropology it is necessary to select an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding culture that is both ethnographically valid and adequate for operationalization in complex biocultural models. The solution to connecting the culture as an aggregate and collective phenomenon with individual beliefs, behaviour and health outcomes became more feasible with the theoretical and methodological breakthroughs in cognitive anthropology, and in particular, after the development of the theory of cultural consensus. By using the example of the recent pilot study conducted within the framework of the project “Modernity stress, youth and migration” we demonstrate how ethnographic research may be used to direct, optimize and complement the quantitative research based on the integration of demographic, psychological and biomedical data (including anthropometric, physiologic and salivary biomarkers). In this project individual subjective and objective stress outcomes are researched in relation to culture changes associated with modernity in the postsocialist transitional society. We demonstrate the analytical usefulness of using interviewing and freelisting as ethnographic techniques for defining variables of interest in domains of everyday life of Croatian youth and the results of the cultural consensus analyses in various everyday lifedomains such as education, employment, family, material goods, leisure time, social support and participation, premigratory potential.
Key words: biocultural synthesis, ethnography of stress, cognitive anthropology, youth, Croatia
MOTOR SKILLS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN (p. 39)
Popova Elena1, Simonova Olga1, Makhalin Adu2, Zabolotnaya Irina2
1Gorno-Altaisk State University, Gorno-Altaisk, Altai Republic, Russia
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
The purpose of the research is to determine a development of motor skills of 6-7 year old children who attend elementary schools. The participants were divided into an experimental group with 22 children (12 males and 10 females) and a control group with 21 children (10 males and 11 females). None of the participants has any restriction for physical education classes. In the experimental group, the physical education classes were conducted by the instructor using methods and techniques of an advanced motor skill training. In the control group the physical education classes were conducted by an elementary school teacher. Methods of research included an evaluation of motor skills which were measured by a calculation of the gross and fine motor skills consistency. The results of the study show that the level of fine motor skills in the experimental and control groups differs. The corresponding indicator is 81% among 6 year old children and 89% among 7 year old children in the experimental group. In the control group the average indicator of fine motor skills is not above 65% among 6 year old children and 75% among 7 year old children. It may be concluded that the level of gross and fine motor skills in the control group is lower than in the experimental one, and physical exercises without stimulating the physiological functions and without training are not effective.
Key words: motor skills, fine and gross motor skills, preschool children
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND NEIGHBORHOOD WALKABILITY IN OBESE AND OVERWEIGHT WOMEN (p. 40)
Přidalová Miroslavá, Sofková Tereza
Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palackэ University Olomouc, Czech Republic
A neighborhood environment allows defining typical features for physically active or inactive lifestyle. An accelerated pace of life and higher availability of an unhealthy lifestyle increase obesity rates. An analysis of body composition can be used as a predictor for assessment of current somatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the dependence of selected body composition parameters on neighborhood walkability in 167 women aged 20-60 years attending weight-loss program, so called STOB-courses. A multifrequency bioimpedance analysis InBody 720 was used to determine body composition of respondents. Further, ANEWS questionnaire was used to determine the level of neighborhood walkability. We divided the sample into two age groups (<40 years; ≥ 40 years) and into partial subgroups according to the neighborhood “level of walkability” (lower and higher level). Based on the assessment of body composition, it can be assumed that more walkable neighborhood opportunities positively affect body composition. Body composition in older women is positively influenced if they lived in high walkable areas. In younger women we found only one indicator of body composition (body fat mass) influenced by neighborhood walkability. The relationship between health indicators of body composition and residential infrastructure might be useful in the strategies aimed at maintaining and developing a healthy lifestyle within the community.
Key words: questionnaire ANEWS, environmental conditions, bioimpedance analysis, InBody 720, weight-loss program
SENSATION SEEKING AND ANTHROPOMETRY OF SUCCESSFUL FEMALE WRESTLERS (p. 40)
Prosikova Ekaterina, Butovskaya Marina, Veselovskaya Elizaveta
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
In this study a hypothesis was tested about increased level of masculinity in successful female wrestlers. We were looking for significant behavioral and morphological differences between female wrestlers of high achievements compared to the control group of females from the same population. This study is conducted in line with our main project of general evolutionary processes in different test samples from modern populations (Butovskaya et al., 2009, 2010, 2011; Prosikova et al., 2013). The goal of this research was to compare female wrestlers (100 individuals) with a control group (200 individuals) on risk-taking, and to analyze the association between risk-taking and morphological parameters. Zuckerman sensation seeking scale was applied (Zuckerman, 2007). It was found that successful female wrestles scored significantly lower on all four sensation seeking subscales. These differences were in the same direction as those earlier revealed for male wrestlers. At the same time, female wrestlers were more masculine by their face proportions, body circumferences, as well as 2D:4D ratios on both hands. Supported by RFBR, grant N. 13-06-00393.
Key words: female wrestlers, risk-taking, masculinity, 2D:4D ratio, face proportions
HERITABILITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, DIETARY HABITS AND SLEEP PATTERNS IN A FAMILY-BASED SAMPLE OF SPANISH ROMA INDIVIDUALS (p. 41)
Rebato Esther1, Ibañez Maria Eugenia1, Poveda Alaitz1,2
1Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology.Faculty of Science and Technology.University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao, Spain
2Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
The influence of genetic factors on the variation of self-reported physical in/activity, dietary habits and sleep patterns was evaluated in 50 large and extended pedigrees, including 372 Roma individuals (147 males and 225 females) living in the Greater Bilbao (Spain). Information characterizing environmental variables (physical in/activity, dietary habits and sleep patterns) was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Univariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted employing the SOLAR computer program.After accounting for significant covariates effects, heritability estimates were, in general, significant (p< 0.01), with moderate values ranging from 0.20–0.39. Practice of sports, walking activity and time spent eating the main meal of the day were the variables most influenced by additive genetic effects, showing heritability estimates of 0.39, 0.37 and 0.35, respectively. In conclusion, evidence of a slight but significant genetic contribution on variation of physical in/activity, sleep patterns and dietary habits has been found in this Spanish Roma population.
Key words: family, heritability, genetics, environment, exercise40>