1Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2Forensic Science Centre “Ivan Vučetić”, Ministry of the Interior, Zagreb, Croatia
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
During the summer archaeological excavation in 2012, on the site of Our Lady of the Mountain church in Lobor, the grave number 888 was revealed, with skeletal remains of a young male person. The very position of the grave in a gothic church, along the apsidal area, accentuates the status of this person in the society. The apse as a remain of the gothic church elements is part of multi-stratified layers, maybe of a vertical complex where it is possible to separate structures from the 3rd to the 17th century, with the church Our Lady of the Mountain in Lobor as the last layer. It was a primary burial, with a position of the grave following the church’s East-West orientation. The anthropological analysis was performed: determination of sex and age at death, body height, description of pathological conditions and eventual musculo-skeletal stress markers. On the skeletal remains circular defects were detected, in forms of a penetrating trauma due to a spherical or spheroid body or object activity. These fragments of uneven dimensions were embedded in the bones: right tibial bone, left and right femoral bone. With application of a scanning electron microscopy (Scanning Electron Microscopy / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy method, SEM/EDX) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Micro X-ray fluorescence method, µXRF) a chemical analysis of the elements, together with morphological 2D and 3D characterization of samples were obtained.
Key words: anthropological analysis, skeletal remains, balistics, SEM/EXD method, µXRF method, Lobor, Croatia
CORPORAL IMAGE SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO BODY COMPOSITION IN A YOUNG POPULATION FROM THE BASQUE COUNTRY (SPAIN) (p. 29)
Ibáñez María Eugenia1, Buffa Roberto2, Mereu Elena2, Marini Elisabetta2, Rebato Esther1
1Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain
2Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Cagliari, Monserrato (Cagliari), Italy
The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition variations among different states of body image satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The sample was composed of 932 individuals from the Basque Country, Spain (306 men, 626 women aged 18–30). Williamson silhouettes collection (2000) was used to assess satisfaction degree. Four anthropometric measures (height, arm, waist and calf circumferences) and two bioelectrical measurements (resistance and reactance; 50 kHz) were taken. Specific Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (spBIVA) was used to evaluate body composition. Bioelectrical values were projected on the specific tolerance ellipses from an Italo-Spanish reference population. Comparison between groups was performed using Hotelling’s T2 and Student’s t-tests. In men, the specific bioelectrical vector mean of the group with moderate dissatisfaction by excess was situated in the right quadrant of the ellipses (indicative of low cell mass) and toward the upper pole (indicative of high FM%). There were no significant differences in body composition between satisfaction and dissatisfaction by defect, and these groups are located near the median value of the ellipsis. In women, the specific vectors of groups with severe and moderate dissatisfaction by excess were in the left quadrant (indicative of high cell mass) and toward the upper pole. The group corresponding to body image satisfaction was in the lower left quadrant, which indicates a tendency to low FM%. The group with a slight dissatisfaction by defect was characterized by a smaller phase angle, indicative of less cell mass. There is a trend toward increasing FM% with increasing dissatisfaction by excess. Men and women differ in body composition characteristics associated to their body image satisfaction, women being more satisfied with a lower FM%. Body image dissatisfaction by excess tends to be related to FM% excess in men, while in women it seems to be more related to cell mass excess.
Keywords: Specific BIVA; Body Composition; Body Image Satisfaction; Fat Mass Percentage
VARIATION IN FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PONTICULUS POSTICUS AMONG MODERN HUMANS: GENERAL OBSERVATIONS (p. 29)
Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Ponticulus posticus is a non-metric feature located on the first cervical vertebra posterior to the lateral masses (other names: Kimmerle’s anomaly, dorsal ponticle of the atlas). It is found in humans with a frequency of approximately 25% and is more common among non-human primates. The feature has attracted some attention, mainly because the presence of ponticulus posticus was thought to have an adverse effect on blood flow through the vertebral artery. Most of previous works focused on estimating frequencies of the feature within a study population, and little is known about factors affecting its variation in humans. We went through literature on this topic and analyzed frequency distribution of ponticulus posticus in modern humans. In addition we used our own data on 449 atlas vertebrae from 3 Russian and 3 North American osteological series. According to the results, complete ponticulus posticus is more common in males than in females and this pattern is repeatedly seen in most of the samples studied. As we can judge from available data, groups of African ancestry have higher frequencies of the feature compared to Caucasians, this is especially true of female groups. Asian populations show the lowest frequencies. In the Caucasian groups that we studied ponticulus posticus is positively associated with cranial shift at cervico-thoracic border (χ2-test, p<0.05), and negatively – with lumbalization of S1 (p<0.01). In summary, if the frequency of ponticulus posticus is used in inter-group comparisons it should be analyzed separately for each sex. The feature shows mild racial differences. It is somehow associated with cranial shift in spine morphology described by Khüne (1932), the nature of this association is a matter of future studies.
Key words: ponticulus posticus, human anatomy, non-metric feature, intra-species variability
INHERITANCE OF DERMATOGLYPHIC ASYMMETRY AND DIVERSITY TRAITS IN TWINS BASED ON FACTOR: VARIANCE DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS (p. 30)
Karmakar Bibha1, Malkin Ida2, Kobyliansky Eugene2
1Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India
2Human Population Biology Unit, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Background: It is well known that twin data have played a central role to sort out genetic from environmental variation. The increased dermatoglyphic asymmetry corresponds to a higher inter pair variability in a number of behavioral tests have prominent from earlier twin studies. Relatively few studies have attempted towards the extent and relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects on twin pedigrees through genetic model fitting statistical procedures. Aim: Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and diversity traits from a large number of twins were analyzed based on principal factors to evaluate genetic effects and common familial environmental influences by the use of maximum likelihood based Variance decomposition analysis. Sample: Data consists of monozygotic (MZ) twins of two sexes (102 male pairs and 138 female pairs) and 120 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) female twins. Results: All asymmetry (DA and FA) and diversity (Div) traits were clearly separated into factors and are perfectly corroborated with earlier studies (Micle and Kobyliansky, 1986, 1991, Karmakar et al., 2001) in different ethnic populations, which indicate a common biological validity perhaps exists of the underlying component structures of dermatoglyphic characters. Heritability results of twins clearly showed that DA_F2 is inherited mostly in dominant type (28.0%) and FA_F1 is additive (60.7%), but no significant difference in sexes were observed for these factors. Inheritance is also very prominent in diversity Factor 10, which is exactly corroborated with our previous findings (Karmakar et al., 2006). The present results are similar with the earlier results of finger ridge count diversity in twins (Holt, 1960), which suggested, finger ridge count diversity is under genetic control. Conclusion: The relationship between MZ and DZ twins is due to common genes that affect dermatoglyphic asymmetry and diversity traits (factors), suggests is under genetic control of which DA is inherited mostly in dominant type and FA is additive.
Key words: dermatoglyphic asymmetry and diversity, segregation analysis, variance decomposition analysis, twins
MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN WATER POLO AND HANDBALL (p. 31)
Komissarova Elena1, Panasyuk Tatyana2
1Department of Anatomy, St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
Game activity of athletes is characterized by richness of the contents and a variety of actions. In water polo teams three game roles are distinguished: center forwards, mobile forwards and defenders. In handball there are two main game roles: players specializing on throws from far distances (central) and those who ends the “fast breaks” (extreme). The aim of the paper is to reveal model characteristics of the athletes depending on their game roles. Anthopometrical, bioergometrical and psychophysiological indicators were studied in 50 male water polo players, 20–25 years of age. Center forwards and defenders possess more massive body build, while mobile forwards have more gracile structure. Factor analysis isolated five factors, the 1st having the greatest loadings in total, length and girths traits. Longitudinal study of 46 boys, of 10–16 years of age, engaged in handball for 7 years, has been conducted. Players of the central zone possess macrosomatic type (MAS) at 10–13 years (74–82%), and at the age of 14–16 years they have mesosomatic type (MES) (43–62%). Extreme players represent three types: MAS, MES and micromesosomatic (МIMES) at the age of 10–13 years, with almost equal proportion of these somatotypes. At the 14–16-years period players of MIMES (53.8–-85%) and MES type (15.4–46%) prevails, thus showing their instability in the pubertal period. It may be concluded that at the very first stage of training in handball it is possible to differentiate young athletes of macrosomatic type as the future players of the central line, and those of micromesosomatic type as extreme players. Thus, the morphological component should take a leading position in the system of training of players.
Key words: sports anthropology, game role of athletes, model characteristics, body types
SENSATION SEEKING AND HEALTH-PROTECTING AND REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES (p. 31)
Kornienko Dmitrii, Derish Fedor
Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Psychological Institute, Perm, Russia
Sensation seeking (Zuckerman, 1971) can be seen as personality trait representing the psychological basis of adaptation strategies, formed in evolution. Higher sensation seeking (SS) is associated with reproductive behavior (Farthing, 2005; Cooping et al., 2013). SS correlates with status and reputation, higher SS is associated with short-term relationship (Egorova et al., 2013). The study sample was 280 students, 18-20 years of age. The following characteristics are assessed: sensation seeking (thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, intelligence seeking, novelty avoidance) psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) and health protecting behavior (leisure time, drinking and smoking). Higher level of SS was found in the male sample. This allows us to consider SS as the trait contributing to reproductive behavior. Men with higher levels of SS tend to be more preferred partners. SS is negatively associated with a preference for sports as leisure time, regardless of gender. “Intelligence seeking”, “novelty avoidance” are positively correlated with a tendency to consume high spirits and with smoking. Psychological well-being scales traits, such as “positive relations with others” and “personal growth”, have negative correlations with the “general sensation seeking”, “experience seeking” and “thrill and adventure seeking”. These results suggest that high SS acts in the opposite manner to different adaptive strategies. High SS leads to a focus on short-term relationship and simultaneously to low health-protecting behavior. This situation can be regarded as a preference for the traditional strategy of adaptation in terms of evolutionary psychology. Low SS on the contrary would lead to a preference strategy aimed at preserving themselves and at long-term relationship. The study was supported by Program of Strategic development of Perm state humanitarian-pedagogical university, project No. 26-F.
Key words: sensation seeking, health-protecting behavior, reproductive strategies
INTERDAILY VARIATIONS OF BODY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS IN YOUNG WOMEN (p. 32)
Kutáč Petr, Fusiková Kristina, Vaňková Romana
Human Motion Diagnostic Center, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
The objective of the study is to determine the size of the changes of the selected body composition parameters during one week. The research was executed with a group of 40 women with the average age of 21.29±1.45 years. The measured parameters were: total body weight (BW), body fat representation (BF) and total body water (TBW). The monitored parameters were measured using the Tanita BC 418 MA tetrapolar bioimpedance scale. The measurements took place during one week (Monday – Friday). The error of the device was expressed with the typical error of measurement (TE) by Hopkins from three repeated measurements in one day (Monday). Only one measurement was taken on the remaining days. To evaluate the size of changes during the week, we used the ANOVA repeated measures. The practical significance was verified using Eta-squared. To express the size of the error of measurement in the weekly analysis, we used typical error of measurements (TE). The TE values expressing the accuracy of the device measurements were the following: BW 0.06 kg, BF representation 0.22 kg and 0.39%, TBW representation 0.17 kg and 0.29%. The differences found between the mean values of the monitored parameters during the week ranged from 0.00 – 0.15 kg in BW, 0.03 – 0.29 kg and 0.01 – 0.48% in BF, 0.00 – 0.21 kg and 0.00 – 0.35% in TBW. The practical significance was not established despite the fact that statistically significant differences were determined. The changes in the monitored body composition parameters during the week were very small, which was confirmed by the low practical significance values. When interpreting the results of repeated measurements, the values exceeding the level of the TE weekly analysis are considered to be a change. In BW, the value was 0.33 kg, in BF 0.41 kg and 0.70% and in TBW 0.41 kg and 0.51%.
Key words: body weight, body fat, total body water, typical error of measurement, statistical significance, practical significance
CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN MONGOLIAN MALE ATHLETES (p. 32)
Lkhagvasuren Gundegmaa1,2, Shagdar Bat-Erdene2, Lkhagvasuren Altantsetseg1,2
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
2Mongolian National Institute of Physical Education, Ulaanabaatar, Mongolia
Sports training is the process which requires years of hard work and can not accomplish its main goal without considering human growth and body development characteristics, level of physical preparation. Anthropometric and morphologic examination of Mongolian athletes has not been conducted. Therefore, the results are of great value to theory and practice of sports science. Anthropometric examination and data collecting have been carried out at Sport Center of Mongolian Olympic team of the city Ulaanbaatar. The study comprised 581 athletes aged 17–25 years. Each athlete has been involved in 45 measurements and 20-questions survey. As a result of this study we come to the conclusion that sports activity strongly influences on physical growth and development. Training for different kinds of sports is different. The basketball players and field athletes (runners) were the tallest (average height 179 cm). Wrestlers were the shortest in height (average 166.5 cm). Compared to people who do not go in for sport, the athletes were taller by 4.5 cm. Mean height of Mongolian male sportsman is 172.6 cm. Geographical zones from where the athletes originate also influence on physical development. Sportsmen from steppe zone have bigger body, and those from Goby desert zone are smaller but have bigger fat mass. Basing on these results, it can be suggested that marathon runners can be selected from Gobi inhabitants, wrestlers – from steppe population, and players – from mountain-taiga people.
Key words: physical growth and development, anthropometry, physical training, athletes
MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALE ADOLESCENTS FROM REPUBLIC ALTAI, PRACTICING SAMBO WRESTLING (p. 33)
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
The purpose of this research is to determine and compare morphofunctional characteristics and body traits of male juvenile sambo wrestlers, who live in the southern and northern areas of Republic Altai, Russia. The sample included 65 males, practicing sambo wrestling on a regular basis. The research protocol included anthropometric examinations (height, weight, and chest circumference) using a standard anthropometric measurement methods. Collected data of somatic characteristics were converted into Quetelet Index for BMI; the somatotypes were identified by using Chernorutskiy’s classification. Evaluation of constitutional type was based on the ratio of height, weight, and thoracic circumference. Sambo athletes from the northern part of Republic Altai are taller and have more body mass and larger chest circumference in comparison to those from the southern part of Republic Altai. The height of athletes from the north is 6.1 cm higher than of those from the south (174.4±1.66 cm vs 168.3±1.12 cm, р<0,001). Body mass of sambo athletes from the north is 6.2 kg bigger than of those from the south (67.8±1.97 kg vs 61.6±1.12 kg, р<0.05). The chest circumference of athletes from the north is 3.7 cm larger (88.5±1.33 cm vs 82.4±0.98 cm). Values of Pignet Index show that the participants from the north have predominantly hypersthenic body type, while normosthenic and “average” body type is mostly represented among sportsmen from the south (p<0.05) Thus, the sambo athletes from the north are characterized by significantly higher anthropometric features – height, weight, and chest circumference. Northern participants have predominantly hypersthenic body type while asthenic and normosthenic types are more often observed among the participants from the southern area.
Key words: Republic Altai, male sambo athletes, somatotypes, anthropometry, Quetelet Index, Pignet Index
STRESSING OUT IN TRANSITION – THE CASE OF UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM ZAGREB, CROATIA (p. 34)
Martinović Klarić Irena1, Peternel Lana1, Malnar Ana2
1Institute for Social Research in Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Zagreb, Croatia
This anthropological account explores manifestations of psychosocial stress in youth as a response to cultural changes in the transitional (postsocialist and postconflict and now the European Union) context of contemporary Croatia. For youth a successful transition to independent adulthood requires competences in dealing with various agespecific developmental tasks, each of which might represent a specific stressor. Youth maturation and social integration are even more uncertain and stressful in the transitional society that itself is undergoing drastic and multiple transformations of institutions, cultural values and norms. Analytical approaches based on the cultural consensus and cultural consonance theories are used to assess the associations of various cultural domains of everyday life to the stress outcome measurements of salivary biomarkers. Saliva is useful for population studies of psychosocial stress because it allows noninvasive collection of samples in nonclinical settings. Two salivary biomarkers of stress physiology are selected for laboratory testing: cortisol (the central hormone in the physiology of stress, a biomarker of the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis) and alphaamylase (a surrogate marker of the sympathetic nervous system activity that parallels stressrelated increase in norepinephrine). The results are presented from a recent pilot study using cultural consensus and cultural consonance analyses on salivary cortisol and alpha amylase levels in the group of the upper secondary school students from Zagreb, Croatia. This pilot study illustrates the usefulness of complementing recent developments in cognitive and cultural anthropology with research in biological anthropology.
Key words: stress, salivary biomarkers, youth, cultural consensus and cultural consonance
MORPHOGENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY QUALIFIED WOMEN FREESTYLE WRESTLERS (p. 34)
Department of biomedical support MGFSO, Moscow Sport Committee, Moscow, Russia
The fingerprint dermatoglyphics of 75 top Russian female freestyle wrestlers of three conditional weight categories (light, medium and heavy) was studied with the use of hardware-software complex “Malachite”. The athletes’ age ranged from 20 to 33 years. It is established that for the whole sample (irrespective of weight categories) the typical phenotypes are LW and ALW. For the wrestlers of a light weight category in 48% of cases the occurrence of the pattern arch (A) was observed and in 32% – the pattern whorl (W). There are also athletes of this weight category with the phenotype of ALW. The prevailing patterns in athletes of a middle weight category are the loop (L – 62%), the whorl (W – 24%) and a complex pattern (S – 12%). They are relating primarily to the phenotype of LW. For athletes of a heavy weight category, the typical patterns are: the loop (L-74%), the whorl (W – 14.4%) and complex pattern (S – 7.8%). The main phenotype is LW. The obtained results may be used for the selection of the most prospective athletes in women’s freestyle wrestling.