Key words: senior population over 60 years, body fat mass, fat free mass, senior fitness test, bone mineral density, maximum muscle strength, risk of falls
CHANGES OF THE GENERAL BONE STATUS IN THE MENOPAUSE TRANSITION (p. 22)
Utczas Katinka, Zsákai Annamária, Bodzsár Éva
Department of Biological Anthropology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
The purpose of the research was to study the relationship between the menopausal status (estimated by the reproductive and menstrual history as well as the level of female sex hormones) and the general bone status (characterized by bone structure and bone mass) in Hungarian women. A random sample of 2602 Hungarian women (aged 40–65 years) was to be enrolled in the study between 2011 and 2013. By considering the reproductive and menstrual history subjects were divided into premenopausal, early perimenopausal, late perimenopausal and postmenopausal subgroups. In a subsample of 150 subjects salivary estrogen and progesterone levels were determined by 17 beta-Estradiol Saliva Elisa and Progesterone ELISA immunoassays. Bone mass was estimated by Drinkwater-Ross four-component method. The bone SOS and BUA bone structural parameters were assessed by using the DTU-one osteometer. Hypotheses were tested at the 5% level of random error. By comparing the menopausal status estimation methods in the studied subsample, the reproductive and menstrual history was found to be a more reliable estimator of the menopausal status than the sex hormone levels (that are having considerable daily fluctuation also in a normal menstrual cycle) determination. Former epidemiological studies suggest that the menopause transition is associated with significant changes in bone structure. Our results evidenced these significant changes in body structure by reproductive ageing in women, but an important shift between the changes in bone mass and the bone structural parameters (SOS and BUA) was found. This could imply that (1) bone system changes not only in its absolute mass, but also in its structure in the perimenopausal period, and (2) the onset of these bone structural changes in the skeletal system and the intensity of these changes differ in the menopause transition. In general, the earlier onset of menopause the more pronounced changes were found in these trends of bone structure by reproductive ageing. The study was supported by the Hungarian National Foundation for Science (OTKA grant K83966).
Key words: menopause, body structure, bone mass; Hungarian women
PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATION ASSOCIATED WITH FRAILTY AMONG OLDER RESIDENTS OF HIGHER ALTITUDE VILLAGES OF THE SELŠKA VALLEY (p. 22)
Vidovič Maruška1, Sharron Genevieve2, Crews Douglas2
1National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia
2The Ohio State University, Department of Anthropology, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Frailty is the multi-system dysregulation following multiple life stressors that is associated with age and increases an individual’s vulnerability to negative health effects (Fried et al 2001). One of the most critical questions frailty research seeks to answer is to what extent biocultural variables predict frailty. In the model employed in this paper, endogenous variables that individuals cannot control, such as age and sex, affect exogenous variables that are a result of individuals’ lifestyles (Fried et al., 2001). These variables then affect frailty, as assessed by a five-factor frailty index developed by Fried et al. (2001) and Walston (2005). Previous research that also employed this index studied mostly North American populations and found associations between education level, age, sex, prevalence of certain diseases and levels of frailty (Fried et al., 2001, Walston, 2005). This paper broadens the range of variables studied, and expands the demographic and cultural scope of frailty research by applying the frailty index to a geographically isolated Slovenian population. Data were obtained from 40 participants aged 55 years and older during fieldwork in 2008 and 2009 in the Selska Valley, Slovenia. Of participants, 26 were women (ages 59–86) and 14 men (ages 57–82). Self-report data and physical assessments were recorded for each individual. We used linear regression to explore associations between frailty and these variables. Significant associations (p=0.05) were found between frailty and age, being female, height, length of residence in the village, self-reports of negative health effects including poor overall health, feeling tired, and negative future health expectations. When effects of age and sex were controlled, significant associations were again found between frailty and multiple self-reports of poor health and painful or reduced activity level. In conclusion, this paper explores possible interactions of lifestyle factors and frailty across cultures and calls for further cross-cultural frailty research.
Key words: physiological variation, frailty, old people, Selška valley, Slovenia
REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY IN RELATION TO FATNESS IN THE MENOPAUSE TRANSITION (p. 23)
Zsákai Annamária, Bodzsár Éva
Department of Biological Anthropology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
The occurrence and the timing of the reproduction-related events, as menarche and menopause, as well as the characteristics of menstrual cycles and reproductive life, as gestations, lactation, child-caring behaviour, etc. are mainly controlled by the neuroendocrine system. The progressive and regressive changes of the neuroendocrine system through the female life cycle contribute not only to the age-changes of the reproductive system and reproductive behaviour but also to considerable changes of the female body structure. The importance of studying the relationship between the reproductive variables (age at menopause, characteristics of menstrual cycles, fertility) is increasing nowadays, since (1) many diseases (e.g., obesity, cardiovascular disorders, breast, ovarian and uterine cancers, etc.) seem to be related to the characteristics of reproductive life and (2) the increasing knowledge about this complex relationship could help to improve the effectiveness of the health prevention programs. The main purpose of the present analysis was to analyze (1) the relationship among some indicators of reproductive history in women (aged 40–65 ys), and (2) the reproductive variables in relation to the characteristics of fatness indicators (fat mass and its distribution) in the menopause transition. Data on the age at menarche and menopause, the pattern and regularity of menstrual cycles before and during menopause, the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, the regularity of menstruation, gynaecological or obstetric problems and contraceptive usage were collected by questionnaires. Salivary progesterone and estrogen (as 17beta-estradiol) levels were assayed using IBL ELISA kits. Subjects were divided into premenopausal, early and late perimenopausal as well as postmenopausal subgroups on the basis of the menstrual cycle characteristics and sexual hormone levels. The main results of the present analysis of the relationship between the reproductive factors and fatness indicators during the menopause transition revealed that (1) age at menarche did not show any association with subsequent fatness, nor did age at menopause; and (2) parity, menopausal status and the age at menopause were associated with the fatness indicators. The study was supported by the Hungarian National Foundation for Science (OTKA grant K83966).
Key word: menopause, menarche, body fatness, Hungarian women
Section APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPATIAL POSITION OF THE TORSO, PELVIS AND FOOT IN THE MALE ELITE ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS (p. 24)
Abramova Tamara1, Nikitina Tatjana1, Kochetkova Natalja1, Giljarova Olga1,2
1Federal Scientific Centre of Physical Culture and Sport, Moscow, Russia
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Characteristics of the musculoskeletal system in 231 elite male athletes from 11 Olympic sports, age of 19–36 were investigated. The purpose of research is to study type-specific traits of the spatial position of torso, pelvis and foot in elite athletes men specializing in different kinds of sport with the use of modern quantitative methods. The methods included computer optical topography (1994, Novosibirsk). Disorders of orientation and shape of the body sagittal, front and horizontal planes, the frequency of local deviations in posture from the norm were determined. Characteristics of the position and arch of the foot were determined by a computer complex “Diasled-Scan”. The type-specific risks of incorrect posture and foot related to sports specialization were identified. It was shown that the deviation of the spatial orientation and shape of the body, the position of the foot setting were correlated under the intense muscular activity; they have an influence on the increase of the evolutionarily formed functional asymmetry in humans, aggravated by strenuous physical activity. Main motor stereotype, in a long-accented training process, forms a specific muscle profile with the imbalance of the paired torso muscle groups, and the agonists-antagonists muscles of the lower limbs and trunk. Most general and essential posture indicators in the total subpopulation of athletes are the round or round-shouldered back, a left-side curvature of the spine in chest department and a right-hand twisting of a trunk towards pelvis. Common positions of violations are supplemented with the type-specific changes, particularly in sports, both “symmetric”, and “asymmetric” in terms of biomechanics of the competitive exercise: archery, cross-country skiing, biathlon, curling. Positional settings stop athletes characterized mainly by valgus-varus of the left-right asymmetry from a greater support on the left foot that is a direct projection of the left-hand shift of the spinal processes with right-to-torso twisting.
Key words: musculoskeletal system, posture, foot, elite athletes
THE CHALLENGES OF THE EXCAVATION PROCESS OF WELLS USED AS BURIAL FEATURES IN CYPRUS. DEALING WITH THE RECOVERY OF HUMAN REMAINS (p. 24)
Baranhan Gulseren, Hartsioti Sophia
Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus, “Bi-Communal Forensic Team”, Cyprus
The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the challenges of locating, excavating and recovering human remains from wells, one of the most common burial features that the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) is dealing with. The frequency of burials in wells can be explained by the little amount of time and effort needed in burying the bodies since they already exist and are not distinguishable from the surrounding environment. For our purpose, wells are divided in two main categories, those that are open and the filled ones. While the open wells are visible and easy to find, special methods need to be applied in order to locate the filled ones. In both situations, the scientists have to deal with the depth of the wells. That is why an access ramp is constructed by the excavator to reach the undefined level where the human remains, which are situated in the well, are located. During the removal of the deposit of the wells different challenges, either caused by nature or humans, can be encountered. For example, during the years these abandoned wells were used as “trash pits” (garbage, dead animals, discarded materials) or were altered (e.g., collapsed, water existence) by natural forces. The same reasons can be present during the exhumation process. Once these difficulties are confronted, with the use of several techniques the scientists have to concentrate on the exhumation process, which is mainly followed manually. The procedure depends primarily on the type of burial (single or multiple/commingled), the existence of water or not, whether it was disturbed, and the decomposition of human remains inside the well.
Key words: forensic anthropology, wells, Cyprus, CMP, human remains, excavation, exhumation
COMPARATIVE ANALYZIS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF ATHLETES SPECIALIZING IN SHORT-TRACK AND MOSCOW SCHOOLCHILDREN AT THE AGE FROM 7 TO 16 YEARS (p. 25)
Department of Anatomy and Biological Anthropology, Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
The aim of the paper is to study and compare variability of individual anthropometric indices in short-track athletes with the control group of Moscow schoolchildren from 7 to 16 years of age. Anthropometric measurements were conducted in conformity with classical methods, accepted at the Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Conducted research has allowed to establish that the basic differences between athletes and schoolchildren of both gender groups have been observed at the age of 7–12. Schoolchildren have conceded athletes in all measured parameters. The 13–16-year-old schoolchildren are significantly smaller in all circumferences, but exceed in hand grip strength in both gender groups.
The obtained anthropometric characteristics might be used in sport selection as well as for conducting a medico-biological monitoring.
Key words: anthropometric indices, short-track athletes, Moscow schoolchildren
T/A POLYMORPHISM OF THE FTO GENE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PREDISPOSITION TO FAT ACCUMULATION IN THE KALMYKIAN MALES (p. 25)
Bondareva Elvira1, Anisimova Anna1, Khomyakova Irina1, Zadorozhnaya Ludmila1, Burlykov Vladimir2, Godina Elena1
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Kalmykian State University, Elista, Russia
The problem of human fatness is one of the most urgent in the modern world. Studies in the field of anthropogenetics revealed some genetic determinants of increased fat accumulation and, as a consequence, of obesity development. The T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene, is a strong candidate to explain how the disease modifier polymorphisms may contribute to a lower risk for obesity among trained individuals (Kilpelainen et al., 2011). It has been shown that adults who are homozygous for the A-allele weigh on average 1.5 to 3 kg more than those homozygous for the T allele. This finding has now been replicated in multiple obese cohorts (Fawcett and Barroso, 2010).The aim of the study was to examine possible relationships between T/A polymorphism of FTO with fat accumulation among 101 Kalmykian males (46 wrestlers aged from 14 to 26 years and 52 sedentary controls aged from 17 to 28 years). The program included standard anthropometric measurements (Bunak, 1941). For molecular genetic analysis buccal smears were collected. Genome DNA was extracted with the technique of alkaline extraction. Genotypes were determined with the minisequencing technique followed by MALDI-TOF detection (Ross et al., 1998). Statistical analysis, performed with the software «Statistica 8.0», included descriptive statistics, normalization procedure, one-way ANOVA with Scheffe’s test for multiple comparisons. Statistical analysis has revealed the tendency to significant difference in genotype frequencies between wrestlers (FTO*TT 52.5% FTO*AT 32.5% FTO*AA 15.0%) and sedentary controls (FTO*TT 48.9% FTO*AT 32.5% FTO*AA 18.6%), χ2 = 5.52, p=.06 There is a certain increase of T-allele frequency in the wrestlers’ group (69% vs 65%). In general, the athletes demonstrate lower fat accumulation matching with the controls. ANOVA results revealed a lot of associations between FTO genotype and anthropometrical characteristics, describing fat accumulation both in the wrestlers’ group (weight, fat mass, chest, waist and hips circumferences, trunk and leg skinfold thicknesses) and in the sedentary controls (trunk skinfold thickness). The carriers of two mutant alleles (AA genotype) demonstrate increased parameters of fat accumulation in both groups. Thus, the presence of two rare alleles of the FTO gene polymorphic system in the genotypes of the investigated Kalmykian males could be considered as a risk-factor of increased fat accumulation. This research is supported by the RFBR grants # 13-06-00702.
Key words: FTO gene, fat accumulation, wrestlers, Kalmyk males
ANTHROPOMETRIC NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM (p. 26)
El-Nofely Aly, Kandeel Wafaa, El-Wakeel Khaled, Abdelmaguid Nagwa
National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
Autism is the fastest rising developmental disorder in the world today. Studies denote aberrations in conduct during meals, selectivity of food as well as problems in timing of meals. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status of children suffering from autism using anthropometric criteria. 100 Egyptian children diagnosed with autism of the age range 3-10 years and of whom 71 males and 29 females were studied. Body weight, height, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness had been assessed in view of the relevant measurements, by age and sex, of normal healthy Egyptian children. The mean Z score of all measurements attempted, calculated BMI and its standard deviations as well as the range are presented. Using single sample t-test, it was found that all measurements are significantly higher than normal with the exception of body height and mid-upper arm circumference. Probably the increase in fat component in our autistic children is due to increased carbohydrate and fat intake as well as sedentary life style, thus suggesting introduction of a feeding program for such children to overcome the unfavorable consequences of the disease.
Key words: autism, anthropometry, nutrition, children, Egypt
ACE, FTO AND VDR POLYMORPHISMS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELITE ROCK-CLIMBERS (p. 27)
Gaydamakina Alina1, Bondareva Elvira2, Baykovskiy Uriy1, Godina Elena1
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The aim of the study was to examine possible relationships between I/D polymorphism of ACE, T/A polymorphism of FTO and G/A polymorphism of VDR genes with selected anthropometrical characteristics among 12 (6 males and 6 females) elite rock-climbers, aged from 20 to 30 years. Polymorphisms of these genes are associated with physical capacities (ACE), increased risk of fat accumulation (FTO) and decreased bone mineral density (VDR). Detailed anthropological characteristics of this investigated group are presented in our previous article (Gaydamakina et al., 2013). The program included standard anthropometric measurements (Bunak, 1941). For molecular genetic analysis buccal smears were collected. Genome DNA was extracted with the technique of alkaline extraction. Genotypes were determined with the minisequencing technique followed by MALDI-TOF detection (Ross et al., 1998). Statistical analysis was performed with the software «Statistica 8.0». Results: the distribution of the genotype frequencies of all examined genes are not in accordance with the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Each person in the investigated sample carries at least one insertion (I) allele of the ACE gene, which could reveal increased aerobic capacities of the elite rock-climbers. There are no AA genotype carriers of the FTO gene among the investigated athletes. Thus, elite rock-climbers do not have genetically determined risk of an increased fat accumulation. Previously it was shown that peak mineral density is decreasing in the rock-climbers compared with other athletes (Sherk et al., 2010). In the total sample only two persons have GG genotype of the VDR gene, which determines normal bone mineral density. Most of the participants (83%) carry at least one mutant (A) allele, which determines a decreased bone mineral density. The investigation of three molecular-genetic makers ACE, FTO and VDR among the elite rock-climbers has shown the following tendencies: the occurrence of I-allele of the ACE gene, T-allele of the FTO gene and A-allele of the VDR gene. Our results correspond with the investigations by other authors (Djarova et al., 2013; Sherk et al., 2010) and with our previous study of morphological characteristics of the elite rock-climbers (Gaydamakina et al., 2013). This research is supported by the RFBR grants #13-06-00702.
Key words: ACE, VDR, FTO, elite climbers, anthropology
THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL STORY OF VUČEDOL CULTURE (EARLY BRONZE AGE, VUČEDOL, EAST CROATIA) (p. 28)
Hincak Zdravka1, Jeleč Vjekoslav2, Gršković Branka3,4, Špoljarić Igor3, Mršić Gordan3,4, Jukić-Krmek Silvana5
1Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2Department of Neurosurgery, Zagreb University Medical Center “Dubrava”, Zagreb, Croatia
3Forensic Science Centre “Ivan Vučetić”, Ministry of the Interior, Zagreb, Croatia
4University Center for Forensic Sciences, University of Split, Split, Croatia
5Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Vučedol is a culture’s eponymous settlement of the first half of the third millennium Before Christ (BC). The aim of this study was to complete the knowledge about life of Vučedol culture inhabitants with the help of biological anthropology, the wide unknown field which is still there after decades of archaeological excavation and research. The evidences are provided by well preserved skeleton remains of a few individuals, seven children and fourteen adult persons. From single to multiple grave funerary practices, through classic anthropological analysis of sex and age at death to usage of different forensic methods, unique details were revealed. Special attention has been given to musculoskeletal stress markers, possible conditions and a manner of life, its rhythm and difficulties, and pathological changes which all left their traces on bone remains. We were following the asymptote of the Vučedol inhabitants life and death.
Key words: anthropological analysis, musculoskeletal stress markers, pathological changes, Vučedol culture, Early Bronze Age
WHEN BALISTICS MEETS ANTHROPOLOGY: A CASE STUDY FROM THE MEDIEVAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF OUR LADY OF MOUNTAIN CHURCH IN LOBOR (CROATIA) (p. 28)
Hincak Zdravka1, Krešimir Filipec1, Špoljarić Igor2, Gršković Branka2, Mršić Gordan2, Popović Maja3, Mikulka Ana1