Key words: population structure, island isolate, Rab, Croatia, biochemical traits
THE LINEAR GROWTH: PROGNOSIS CRITERIA IN GROWING UP CHILDREN (p. 134)
The M.F. Vladimirskiy Moscow oblast Research Clinical Institute, Russia
The linear growth is an important indicator of health and harmonious development of child. It is known that dimensions of skeleton depend on content of calcium in bones. Until now, it was considered that only dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry made it possible to determine amount of bone mineral in skeleton bones. However, application of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of growth processes in children is not recommended. The implementation of qualitative ultrasound analysis of bones in pediatrics permitted to establish that this method reflects content of calcium in cortical layer of tubular bones. During last 10 years it is proved that linear growth of children of early and preschool age depend on content of calcium in cortical layer of tubular bones. The original national standards of bone strength in children from birth to 16 years were developed to implement qualitative ultrasound analysis into pediatric practice. The sampling included 2854 examined children from period of newborn to 16 years. The study used ultrasound device Sunlight Omnisense (Israel). The indicators of bone strength were determined according speed of sound - SOS (m/sec) passing along cortical layer. The speed of sound is an integral value characterizing content of mineral in bone, structure of cortical level and its thickness. This method is distinguished by its high sensitivity and specificity, rapidity of application and low cost. The analysis provides values of bone strength and integral value (Z-score) expressed in units of standard deviation (SD) towards middle-aged standard of bone strength for children of the same age and gender. The original standards of bone strength (M±m) with regard to age and gender were developed. On the assumption of standards, children with decrease of speed of sound less than -1SD are referred to risk group with decreasing of growth rate, skeleton size and insufficient content of mineral in cortical layer. The application of national standards made it possible to establish insufficient mineralization of tubular bones in 9.8% of newborns, 10.2% of children of first year of life, 10.8% of two-year-old children and in 12.5% of three-year-old children. Besides, it is proved that under value of speed of sound less than -1SD significantly more frequent low physical development and body height less than 10th percentile were observed (p<0,05). This pattern is observed in older age and especially in children with severe chronic pathology effecting linear growth. Therefore, monitoring of age-related mineralization of bones using method of quantitative ultrasound examination makes it possible to form risk group with disorders of physiological processes of mineralization of skeleton and linear growth for benefit of practical significance.
Key words: children, quantitative ultrasound examination, mineralization of skeleton, linear growth.
BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE IN HUMANS: PRESENCE AND ACTIVITY (p. 135)
Son’kin Valentine1,2, Akimov Egor1, Andreev Roman2, Kalenov Yuriy2, Kozlov Andrey1, Yakushkin Andrey1
1Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Developmental Physiology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia
Over the past 7 years the interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased dramatically due to several bright publications in which it was shown that active BAT is found not only in infants but also in 70–80% of adults. In animal models, the efficiency of BAT in the prevention of the obesity and type 2 diabetes has been proven. Therefore, when in January, 2012, a hormone IRISIN was discovered, which is produced by muscles during their activity and stimulates transformation of white fat cells into BAT cells or similar ones (“beige”ones), expectations have been raised on the use of certain therapeutic techniques for the increase in the amount of active BAT in adult humans. It is shown that the production of irisin in muscles occurs both at movement, and at thermogenic shivering in cold conditions. To date, it became apparent that there are at least three varieties of BAT, differing in origin (from different progenitor cells), in the ratio of active biochemical mechanisms and methods of activation. Moreover, it is clear that the amount of BAT in the body itself and even the content and activity of specific for BAT protein UCP1, uncoupling oxidation and phosphorylation, do not reflect the real functionality of the normalization of metabolic processes. It is likely (and this possibility has been widely discussed in the literature of the past two years) that, despite the unified mechanisms for energy dissipation, known today as 3 options BAT fundamentally differ in their function. According to one hypothesis, the original version of BAT, available in neonates and continuing in a small number of adults, provides thermal homeostasis; “Beige” version of BAT, formed under the influence of a muscle hormone irisin, is far more widespread and is involved in the maintenance of carbohydrate homeostasis and thus is a factor in the prevention of obesity and diabetes. The third option – “brite” – also, apparently, depends on the irisin influence, but is intended to solve the problem of homeostasis during intense muscular activity due to its ability to oxidize lactic acid. As far as the functioning of these options overlap and whether they can be compatible solutions for such different homeostatic problems is an issue to the further studies.
Key words: brown adipose tissue; irisin; homeostasis; adult humans; functional activity
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO REPEATED INHALATIONS OF TREE ODORS IN INFANTS (p. 135)
Tsunetsugu Yuko1, Yamashita Yasuko2
1Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
2Central Research Center, Pigeon Corporation, Tsukubamirai, Japan
We investigated the physiological responses to inhalations of odorous components of coniferous trees in infants. The participants were 57 infants of 1-3 months old whose parents gave a written informed consent. Each infant was exposed for two or three minutes to three different odors of α-pinene, limonene and a control (air). Two or three minutes of rest were taken before and after the exposure to odors. During this rest-inhalation-rest course, cerebral activity (NIRO200, Hamamatsu Photonics KK.) and an electrocardiogram (Polymate II AP-216, TEAC) were continuously measured. Heart rate and heart rate variability were calculated from the electrocardiogram. The measurements were repeated with a 2-week interval until the infants became 3.5 months old. The data was analyzed excluding the cases where the infants fell asleep or cried. The cerebral activity was enhanced in response to all three odors including the control. The heart rate significantly decreased in response to α-pinene (p<0.05), but not to limonene and the control. The heart rate during the inhalations of the odors decreased as the number of repetition increased (p<0.01). The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities, which were assessed by heart rate variability analysis, did not show significant changes. We consider that the measurement system we have built for assessing infants’ physiological responses to odors is useful, but further investigations are still necessary as there were many missing data accompanying infants’ crying or sleeping.
Key words: near infrared spectroscopy, heart rate, heart rate variability, olfactory stimulation
EFFECT OF SINUSOIDAL LOWER-BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE ON CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND EVENT-RELATED POTENSIALS (p. 136)
Yoshida Hisao, Ootaka Masaki, Ishibashi Keita, Iwanaga Koichi
Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
A decrease in central venous pressure caused by orthostatic stress reduces the cerebral blood flow. Lower-body negative pressure is used as a perturbation to the cardiovascular system and has been applied to simulate the gravitational stress of orthostatic blood shift in humans. However, little is known about how dynamic changes in the cerebral blood flow affect brain activity. Using sinusoidal lower-body negative pressure (SLBNP) as a postural blood shift simulation and event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from electroencephalograms (EEGs) of subjects engaged in an oddball task, we assessed whether mild blood pressure fluctuations disturbed brain activity. The middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (MCAv) and cerebral blood oxygenation (OxyHb) were measured in 11 healthy male adults. Two different periodical changes (18- and 90-sec of 0 to −40 mmHg) of SLBNP were provided. We observed that the fluctuations of MCAv and OxyHb coincided with the SLBNP. We found that the N100 amplitude evoked by standard stimuli at 18-sec was significantly decreased compared to the 90-sec SLBNP and to the one without-SLBNP condition, but there was no significant effect of SLBNP on the P300 amplitude. These results indicate that SLBNP affected the cerebral blood flow, whose fluctuations affected brain activity. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between mild fluctuations of cerebral blood flow and brain activity.
Key words: cerebral blood flow, event-related potentials, lower-body negative pressure