1Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
4Department of Archaeology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
5Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
The study of genetic basis of aggressive behavior is one of the leading directions of modern behavior genetics. Here we examine the variability of four candidate genes, associated with aggressive behavior – COMT, DRD4, DRD2 and MAOA, in two traditional African groups (the Hadza, egalitarian hunter-gatherers and the Datoga, pastoralists and warriors) different by the level of culturally permitted in-group and out-group aggression. The functionally important polymorphisms, VNTRs in promoter region of the MAOA gene, VNTRs in promoter region (DRD4Pr locus) and in the third exon (DRD4E3 locus) of the DRD4 gene, SNP in the COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1800497) genes, supposedly associated with violent aggressive behavior were detected. The DNA of the Hadza (n=199) and the Datoga (n=230) were tested, using locus specific PCR. It was demonstrated that these two groups differed significantly by the frequency of distribution of genotypes COMT M/M and COMT V/V: in Hadza (COMT M/M – 0.231 and COMT V/V – 0.287) and in Datoga (COMT M/M – 0.107 and COMT V/V – 0.433). The difference in allele frequency of DRD4E3 VNTR with 7 repeats (in Hadza – 0.,093 and in Datoga – 0.213) and in distribution of homozygous genotypes 7/7 (in Hadza – 0.010 and in Datoga – 0.061) was found. Other loci studied haven’t showed any significant differences between these two populations. We suggest that the differences in distribution of COMT and DRD4E3 genotypes in Hadza and Datoga are due to the different adaptations for in-group and out-group social competition. This study was supported by the RAS Program “Molecular and Cell Biology”, RFBR (project # 13-04-00858), RFHR (project no. 12-01-00032),and the President RF Program (# 2501.2014.4).
Key words: COMT, DRD4, MAOA, DRD2, allelic polymorphism, African populations Hadza and Datoga, aggressive behaviour
POLYMORPHISM OF THE Y-CHROMOSOME IN KAZAKH POPULATIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF “SHEZHIRE” STRUCTURE (p. 127)
Zhabagin Maxat1,2, Askapuli Ayken1, Sabitov Zhaxylyk3, Dibirova Khadizhat4,2, Kuznetsova Marina4,2, Balanovska Elena4, Zhumadilov Zhaxybai1, Balanovsky Oleg2,4
1Center for Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
2Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan
4Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
In the perspective of the heritage of the steppe nomads – Shezhire – the genealogy of Kazakh population represents a complex system of tribal structure. Shezhire is based on the patronymic tradition memory. Names of “clan” or “tribe” are inherited like the genetic information on Y-chromosome. This enables to trace the connection between social (Shezhire) and biological (Y-chromosomal) relationships and verify the hypotheses of the origin of some tribes. These data on the fine structure of the gene pool of Kazakh population provides also information about historical migrations. We studied the genetic variations of Y-chromosome in three ethno-territorial units of 14 clans and 20 tribal groups of the Kazakhs in the perspective of hierarchically organized tribal structure. A total of 1407 samples were analyzed by 40 Y-chromosome SNP and 17 STR markers. Summary statistics of haplotype variation were calculated, genetic relationships between subpopulations were estimated, and the phylogenetic tree of microsatellites haplotypes was constructed. It was revealed that there are nine dominant haplogroups in Kazakhs: C3 (xC3c)-M217(xM48), C3c-M48, G1a-P20, J2-M172, N1c1a-M178, O3a3c1-M134, Q-M242, R1a1a*-M198(xM458), and R1b1a-P297. The genetic diversity in the Kazakh population was estimated to be 0.869 ± 0.004. “Genetic portraits” of each tribe and clan were created. The phenomenon of dominance of an individual haplogroup in each clan was revealed. It suggests that in many Kazakh clans most of their members trace their origins to one biological founder. Thus genetic data largely agree with the genealogical structure of “Shezhire”. Note, that the generic (clan) level of organization of the Kazakh population most accurately characterizes the gene pool structure based on Y-chromosome polymorphisms that the “tribal” or “regional” levels. This study was supported by RFBR grant 14-06-31331, Presidium RAS program “Molecular and cell biology” and Targeted funding of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan.
Key words: Y-chromosome, Kazakh population, population genetics, genealogy
Section PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR GENETIC VARIATION, FERTILITY AND DESIRE FOR PARENTING IN RURAL KHANTY AND MANSI OF WESTERN SIBERIA (p. 128)
Butovskaya Polina1, Butovskaya Marina2, Fedenok Julia2, Postnikova Ekaterina2, Vasiliev Vasily3, Ryskov Alexey3
1Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
There is a growing evidence of the role of oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism in attachment, pair-bonding and cooperation (Bakermans-Kranenberg, van Ijzendoorn, 2008; Feldman et al., 2010; Gordon et al., 2010). The goal of this study was to test how a SNP polymorphism (rs53576) of the oxytocin receptor gene relates to fertility and parental efforts in rural sample of Khanty and Mansi from Khanty-Mansijsky Autonomous District, Berezovsky and Belojarsky regions. Demography, anthropometry, psychological data and buccal smears for DNA extraction were collected among a traditional fishermen population of Khanty and Mansi. The sample size consists of 182 adult individuals (95 men and 87 women) with the age range from 17 to 70 years (median 38 years). The SNP polymorphism for rs53576 was genotyped, using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. The distribution of genotypes in our sample was: 35.7% AA; 45.1% AG; 13.7% GG. At first, we tested the association of these genotypes with the number of children born in both sexes, but found no significant result. Next, we examined a female sample exclusively and conducted linear regression analyses with the number of pregnancies and abortions as dependent variables, and age and genotype as independent variables. Significant effects were revealed for both predictors. Women, carriers of the AA genotype had significantly more pregnancies (R2= 0.479, β =0.202, t= 2.471, p<0.016), as well as abortions (R2= 0.305, β =0.238, t= 2.530, p<0.013), compared to the AG and GG genotypes. These findings are discussed in line with the data on the role of oxytocin in empathy and stress reactivity. Supported by RFBR, grant 13-06-00393a.
Key words: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism, parenting, Khanty–Mansi, reproduction
2D:4D RATIO AND HORMONAL STATUS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM THREE REGIONS OF RUSSIA: SEX AND AGE DIFFERENCES (p. 129)
Fedenok Julia1, Butovskaya Marina1, Burkova Valentina1, Selverova Nelly2, Ermakova Irina2
1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Developmental Physiology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia
The relevance of 2D:4D ratio to prenatal level of androgenization has been currently in the center of attention. The data on association between 2D:4D and testostosterone in adult males are highly inconsistent. In this paper we present the data on 2D:4D ratios on both hands, saliva testosterone and cortisol levels in the sample of 1545 boys (mean age: 13.49 ± 2.18 years) and 1716 girls (mean age: 13.56 ± 2.16 years) from three regions of Russia (Central, Volga-river and Northern Caucasus regions). Mean 2D:4D ratio differed significantly in boys and girls (0.97 and 0.98 respectively) on both hands. There was no correlation between 2D:4D and age with control for sex and the region of study. Both saliva testosterone and cortisol levels were higher in boys, compared to girls. The effects of the region and age were significant as well. No association between testosterone level and 2D:4D ratio were found for both sexes. We discuss our data in the light of previously publish data on testosterone and the digit ratio. Supported by RFBR, grant 13-06-00393a.
Key words: 2D:4D, saliva testosterone and cortisol, sex, age
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CIRCADIAN PHASE AND LIGHT BEFORE BEDTIME IN JAPANESE CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS (p. 129)
Higuchi Shigekazu, Lee Sang-il, Nagafuchi Yuki, Harada Kazuki
Department of Human Science, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Japan
It has been pointed out that the children have short sleep time and late bedtime in some countries. Since we have already reported that photosensitivity to light in children is larger than that in adults, exposure to artificial light at night may be a cause of delayed circadian rhythm in children. In this study, association between lighting condition before bedtime and individual difference in circadian phase in children were examined. Twenty children (9.2±1.9 years) and seventeen of their parents (41.7±5.0 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The study was approved by the local Ethics Research Committee in Kyushu University. Firstly, in an accommodation facility, salivary samples were collected every 30 min from 19:00 to habitual bedtime under dim light (< 15 lx) to measure salivary melatonin concentration. Timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was determined as a marker of circadian phase. The DLMOs in children and their parents were 20:58 ± 42 min and 21:58 ± 96 min, respectively. The DLMO in children was significantly correlated with that in their parents. This suggests that circadian rhythm of parents can affect that of children. Next, the illuminance level and color temperature of light was measured at home in each participant by themselves. The average and standard deviation of vertical illuminance level at their eye level and color temperature of light was 140.0 ± 82.7 lx and 3862.0 ± 965.6 K, respectively. Interestingly, there were significant positive correlations between DLMO and color temperature in adults and children although illuminance level was not significantly correlated with the DLMO. These results suggest that circadian phase of children is affected not only by circadian rhythm of parents but also by color temperature of light before bedtime in Japan.
Key words: circadian rhythm, melatonin, sleep, children, light at night
COMPARISON OF CEREBROVASCULAR AND CARDIOVASOCULAR RESPONSES TO DYNAMIC ORTHOSTATIC STRESS USING SINUSOIDAL LOWER-BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE (p. 130)
Ishibashi Keita1, Oyama Fuyuki1, Yoshida Hisao1, Higuchi Shigekazu2, Iwanaga Koichi1, Yasukouchi Akira2
1Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
2Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
In the evolution of human bipedalism, gravity is one of the essential environmental factors to which humans had to adapt. The high metabolic demand of the human brain necessitates the upward delivery of a large proportion of the cardiac output (CO), and the relatively large length of human legs causes blood pooling in the legs along with orthostatic stress. The ability of cerebral vasculature to maintain relatively steady blood flow in the face of changing mean arterial pressure (MAP), termed cerebral autoregulation (CA), is critical to adapt to gravity. Although CA is an integral component of the systemic circulation system, little is known about the relationship between cardiovascular regulation and dynamic CA in response to transient changes in MAP, such as during changes in posture. We examined the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to dynamic orthostatic stress using sinusoidal lower-body negative pressure (SLBNP), which can simulate orthostatic blood shifts. We measured the middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (MCAv) and cerebral blood oxygenation (OxyHb), MAP and CO in 13 adult male subjects. Two different periodic changes (18- and 90-sec of 0 to −40 mmHg) of SLBNP were provided. The transfer function of gain to MAP (that is, vascular conductance during the 90-sec period) was significantly larger than that of the 18-sec period in all parameters (MCAv, OxyHb, and CO), but the conductance ratio between 90-sec and 18-sec was significantly larger in CO compared to MCAv. These results suggest that the systemic regulatory system including CA could be responsive to the slow fluctuations of MAP and that CA is relatively stable over a wide range of MAP fluctuations in frequency. The unique characteristic of CA could also include the ability to maintain relatively steady blood flow in the face of changing frequencies of MAP fluctuation.
Key words: cerebral autoregulation, whole body coordination, gravitational stress
SEASONAL VARIATION IN BASAL METABOLIC RATE AND THERMOGENIC RESPONSE TO COLD (p. 131)
Maeda Takafumi, Sakurai Hiroki, Takano Shoichi
Laboratory of Environmental Ergonomics, Hokkaido University, Japan
The purposes of this study were to clarify a seasonal variation in basal metabolic rate and thermogenic response to cold environment. Twenty healthy men attended to this study, including cold exposure test, measurements of maximal oxygen intake, vascular function, basal metabolic rate, daily activity, and air temperature surrounding them in daily life, in winter and summer. In cold exposure test, subjects were remained supine rest in the climatic chamber for 90 min, where air temperature was gradually declined from 26°C to 5°C in 90 min, with measuring rectal and skin temperatures, oxygen intake, skin blood flow, and blood pressure.
Basal metabolic rate in winter, compared with summer, increased in 13 subjects (increase BMR group) and decreased in others (decrease BMR group). In the increase BMR group, oxygen intake, rectal and finger skin temperatures during cold exposure, and daily physical activity were significantly higher in winter than summer. In the decrease BMR group, there were no seasonal difference in oxygen intake, rectal temperature, and daily activity. In winter, oxygen intake and rectal temperature during cold exposure, and daily physical activity were significantly higher in the increase BMR group. Furthermore, an onset of increment in oxygen intake during cold exposure was observed earlier in the increase BMR group than in the decrease BMR group in winter. These results suggest that cold-induced thermogenesis is affected by seasonal variations in basal metabolic rate, and that a person with increase in basal metabolic rate from summer to winter has a calorigenic type of cold adaptation especially in winter, resulting in improved cold tolerance.
Key words: thermogenesis, cold tolerance, thermoregulation, seasonal variation, basal metabolic rate, oxygen intake
INDIVIDUALLY-TYPOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF RESISTANCE TO THERMAL STRESS (p. 132)
Martirosov Eduard, Martirosova Karina, Semenov Muradin
Department of Biomedical Support, MGFSO, Moscow Sport Committee, Moscow, Russia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different individual-typological indicators for resistance to thermal stress (heat stabilization). 38 well-trained athletes and soldiers were surveyed twice before and after the heat load in a special heat chamber. A survey of one person was held for two days and took an average of 4 hours a day. The heat load to +40 degrees Celsius, at 85% humidity was simulated in a heat chamber. The hardware control via remote sensor and humidity sensor was provided. The load represented 60-min stay in the cell. The subjects were not allowed to sit, or drink the water. During all time of staying in the cell they quietly walked or stood. All participants signed a voluntary agreement to participate in the experiment. Over 200 different indicators were taken from each participant prior and after the heat load. As criteria of stability to thermal stress the following conditional indices of physical disability were taken: the difference of average work power on a bicycle ergometer in Wingate Anaerobic Test before and after a stay in the heat chamber, and others. The differences were taken into account. Individuals with maximum differences were seen as less resistant to the thermal stress. Among proposed indicators of physical disability, the impact of different individual-typological indicators and their complexes, such as morphological features, personal and psychological traits, visimetrics indicators, indicators of psychomotoric system, cognitive index, fingerprint dermatoglyphics, electroencephalographic portrait (profile), biorythmological characteristics, astrological portrait, as well as the combination of all those indicators were studied. Some predictors are selected, and the decision rules are developed, allowing in laboratory conditions to predict what individually-typological characteristics will limit physical capacity of a person in the conditions of heat stress.
Key words: individually-typological characteristics, physical capacity, thermal stability, prediction
INFLUENCE OF ADAPTIVE PRESSING ON ANXIETY PARAMETERS AND CORTISOL LEVEL IN STUDENTS FROM MOSCOW AND OTHER CITIES OF RUSSIA (p. 133)
Negasheva Marina1, Kozlov Andrew1,2, Kornienko Dmitry2, Vershubsky Galina1,2, Manukyan Alexandra1, Derish Fedor2, Kozlova Maria3, Otavina Marina2
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Perm, Russia
3State University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
One of the most important directions of medical anthropology is an investigation of reactions to stressors characteristics for the contemporary “modernized” society. 490 university students from Moscow (Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1st place in the rating of Russian universities, including the level of demand for graduates among employers); from the city of Perm (Pedagogical University, 42nd place in the ranking of 213 pedagogical universities); and from the branch of this university in the town of Kudymkar, an administrative center of agricultural region, (126th place in the rating) were examined. Moscow population is 11,5 mln. people, Perm – 1,026000,00; Kudymkar – 30,500. Moscow students are characterized with high anxiety levels and low levels of cortisol in saliva. These reactions are typical for the dwellers of a megalopolis, which are developed under the feeling of external threat at constant gathering of large amounts of people and cause the appearance of chronic tension syndrome. At the same time, in Moscow sample, the lowest levels of situational anxiety are registered. It can be suggested that students receiving their education in a prestigious university are sure in their professional perspectives and less worried about the future place of work. The students from demonstrate the highest levels of situational anxiety, uncertainty and cortisol levels. It can be a manifestation of serious concern about their future life: education in a not very prestigious university with relatively low ratings does not guarantee a successful carrier. But relatively high level of aspirations causes significant emotional load expressed in the increase of anxiety and cortisol levels. The lowest levels of cortisol, uncertainty and anxiety are registered in the students from a small town. It means that the graduates even from a low-rating university can regard themselves as quite competitive in their low urbanized region with small number of people with the university degree. This positive illusion perception of their own qualities and an exaggerated self-evaluation are associated with reliably lower cortisol levels (Taylor et al., 2003), during the period of time when this illusion is being supported. This study is performed within the frames of project # 2684 of the Ministry of Education of the RF.
Key words: urbanization, stress, cortisol, anxiety
POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE ISLAND OF RAB ESTIMATED BY THE ANALYSIS OF BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS (p. 134)
Pribačić Ambrožić Vanda
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
Island population isolates are best for investigating theoretical hypotheses about microevolution by applying holistic approach. Anthropological and genetic research of the inhabitants on the Adriatic coast, particularly of the island populations, was started in 1972 by Academician Pavao Rudan. Biochemical traits are good indicators of the microevolutionary influence on the biological structure of the population. The aim of this research was to study the population structure of the island of Rab by the analysis of biochemical traits. This research contributes to anthropological investigations of microevolutional trends that have shaped the present genetic structure of the population of Rab. The sample collected in 2002 is comprised of 600 adult individuals from five island settlements. Biochemical traits (creatinine, urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glucose) were analyzed using multivariate biostatistical methods in order to determine the degree of heterogeneity among the populations of the island settlements and the pattern of their variation. Heterogeneity among subpopulations of the island of Rab in biochemical traits was determined by blood glucose and LDL cholesterol. Biochemical variability among the populations corresponds to that of previously established for morphological traits of head and body and most likely reflects genetic differences, given the fact that those populations have been exposed to a homogenous physical environment. The results on biological variability within the population of the island of Rab are in line with the historical data on settlers from different areas from the mainland and in different time periods, and with the data on their reproductive isolation.