Key words: surgical trephination, Roman Age, Sarmatians, Hungary, paleopathology, cranial surgery
PREDICTORS OF ACCEPTANCE OF EVOLUTION IN MILWAUKEE, WI, USA (p. 105)
Campbell Benjamin, Barone Lindsay
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA
Recent research indicates that less than half of American agree with the idea that modern humans are the result of evolutionary processes that shape the biological world. Most attribute the lack of belief in evolution in the U.S. to religious fundamentalism. In fact, acceptance of evolution has been shown to vary inversely with the importance of religion across countries, but these results have not controlled for other factors such as economic development and education. To explore the role of religion in the acceptance of evolutionary more deeply, we surveyed visitors to the Milwaukee Public Museum during summer 2013. Information was collected on education levels, religious affiliation and practice, and familiarity with concepts of human evolution. Acceptance of evolution was assessed using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument, a twenty-item Likert-scaled questionnaire. Based on a total of 259 questionnaires, we found that neither religious denomination nor frequency of church attendance were related to educational attainment. Now was religious denomination related to knowledge of evolutionary terms. Christian affiliation was associated with lower acceptance of evolution, with nondenominational Christians showing the lowest level of acceptance. In a multivariate model, knowledge of evolutionary terms was predicted by both education and religious denomination. Acceptance of evolution was predicted by education, religious denomination, frequency of church attendance and knowledge of evolutionary terms. Our results are consistent with previous findings in U.S. samples demonstrating religious denomination, religiosity and education as predictors of evolutionary acceptance among adults. In addition, they confirm our hypothesis that religion and education represent largely distinct pathways in the acceptance of evolution. The major impact of religious denomination is on the acceptance, not knowledge of, evolution. These results focus attention on understanding what processes allow religious fundamentalists to block the conversion of knowledge about evolution into evolutionary belief. In addition, they raise a larger cultural question about the predictors of evolution acceptance in countries where evolution is more accepted. Is education level the only predictor or do factors such political conservatism and personality differences play the role that religious fundamentalism plays in the U.S.?
Key words: acceptance of evolution, religion, education
MICROSTONYX FROM THE UPPER MIOCENE OF HAYRANLI-HALIMINHANI, TURKEY (p. 106)
Erkman Ahmet Cem1, Güleç Erksin Savas2, Van der Made Jan3, Ozkurt Sakir Onder4
1Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science and Literature, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey
2Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
3Spanish National Research Council, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Madrid, Spain
4Department of Science Teaching, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey
Microstonyx major refers to the Suid remains retrieved from two different localities that date back to the Late Miocene period, Derindere Member of the Incesu Formation in the Hayranlı-Haliminhanı area (Sivas, Turkey). These localities have the potential of yielding hominoid fossils. Microstonyx teeth display some changes in incisor morphology, which are interpreted as a further adaptation to rooting. These changes occurred during a short period of time most probably between 8.7 and 8.121 Ma ago and it could be related to environmental change. It seems that the partially open shrubland and savannah grasslands during the early or/and the Middle Turolian period (MN 11-12) has created a rich faunal diversity exaggeration in the Hayranli-Haliminhani area. These findings are discussed within the regional context and how it contributes to our knowledge of fossil mammals in Anatolia.
Key words: Suidae, Microstonyx, ecology, Late Miocene
THE EXACT DAY AND TIME OF PETRALONA SKULL DISCOVERY (p. 106)
Malkotsis Anastassios1, Poulianos Nickos2
1Anthropological Association of Greece, Athens, Greece
2Ministry of Culture, Greece
In the present-day bibliographical data the 16th of September 1960 is indicated as the discovery day for the famous Petralona human skull. The first of the authors is a son of the late Ioannis Malkotsis (BSc Agronomy) who was one of the six persons present during the very moment of the skull’s discovery inside a small chamber towards the, until then known, end of Petralona cave. I. Malkotsis was also a person who took the first photos, mainly due to whom the discovery status of Petralona skull is world wide known among anthropologists, as well as other scientists and/or ordinary people. On the opposite side of the photo, by Malkotsis’ hand, instead of the 16th, the 15th of September 1960 is written. Discussing this matter we concluded that the 15th of September 1960 is the correct day of Petralona human skull discovery. On the other hand, according also to the shadows observed on the other two photos, as well as according to a recent oral communication of Dr. Aris Poulianos (a father of the second author), the discovery time of about 10-11 p.m. is the most probable. The above evidence approaches with more accuracy the exact day and time of Petralona skull discovery, reconfirming once more the very point where it was found within the Petralona cave underground surroundings.
Key words: Petralona skull, discovery day, Khalkidhiki, Central Macedonia, Greece
NEW UNIQUE MUSCLE OF THE ELBOW JOINT IN HOWLER MONKEY (ALOUATTA SENICULUS) (p. 107)
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
In this study, we are investigating the group of muscles located on the preaxial aspect of a forearm in howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus). All primates, including humans, usually have three muscles in this area: m. supinator, m. brachioradialis, m. extensor carpi radialis longus and m. extensor carpi radialis brevis. However, some mammals do not have m. brachioradialis and have mm. extensores carpi radiales joined in one. During dissection of a young specimen of the howler monkey, we discovered a supernumerary muscle. This muscle originates at the condylar ridge of humerus distally of the m. brahioradialis, runs medial to it and inserts on the proximal part of the radius. To our knowledge, in the literature there are no references to such a muscle either in howler monkey, or in other monkey species. On the other hand, in human surgery there are reports on the reduplication, anomalous structure and topography of the four typical preaxial muscles of the forearm occurring at high frequency (up to 50%). A research of such anomalous muscles is very important for the use of their tendons in ‘hand surgery’. To determine the homology of the unusual muscle that we found, we compared it with the known abnormal and extra muscles of the preaxial aspect of forearm in humans and other primates, as well as some other mammals and reptiles. In this area of forearm, in some lower tetrapods there is a fifth muscle called m. tractor radii, which is most similar in its position to the supernumerary muscle of the howler monkey, but differs from it, as well as from all the other muscles considered, by its innervation. Since the unique muscle that we describe here in howler monkey does not have any clear homology with the known forearm muscles, we suggest calling it the m. contrahens cubiti. This term corresponds to its function as it decreases the angle in the elbow.
Key words: primates, forearm, extensors, anomaly
CARNIVORES FROM THE LATE MIOCENE LOCALITY OF HAYRANLI (HAYRANLI, SIVAS, TURKEY) (p. 107)
Ozkurt Sakir Onder1, Güleç Erksin Savas2, Erkman Ahmet Cem3
1Department of Science Teaching, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kırsehir, Turkey
2Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, University of Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science and Literature, Ahi Evran University, Kırsehir, Turkey
The locality of Hayranlı-Sivas is one of the few known late Miocene localities in Turkey with the presence of large mammals. Thus, the study of Hayranlı is very important to understand the mammal evolution in Turkey. The locality is situated in the central Anatolian plateau (Sivas, Turkey) and includes many fossil remains including carnivores. Aim of this study is contribute to carnivore evolution in Turkey based on the fossil findings in Hayranlı-Sivas. The study findings indicate the presence of the following taxa: Hyaenictitherium wongii, Ictitherium intuberculatum, Lycyaena dubia, and Machairodus giganteus. L. dubia is the first record from the Anatolia. The material of each taxon was described and determined by comparing with other materials from various Eurasian localities. During Early or Middle Turolian 9-7 Ma. (MN 11–12), shrubland and open savanna grassland landlife might contribute to rich faunal diversity in Hayranlı location Moreover, carnivores of area represented by four taxa bio-chronologically, have been adapted to this ecology during the evolutionary processes. M. giganteus in closed ecosystem locality HAY-91 and H. wongii, I. intuberculatum, and L. dubia in open ecosystem locality HAY-2 are probably the most dominant carnivores of the survey area.
Key words: carnivore, fossil, evolution, Sivas, Turkey
THE FIRST PHOTOS ON THE DAY PETRALONA SKULL WAS DISCOVERED (p. 108)
Poulianos Dimitris1, Poulianos Nickos2
1Anthropological Association of Greece, Athens, Greece
2Ministry of Culture, Greece
Since September 15th, 1960, when the Petralona human skull was found (cf. also another Greek communication to the 19th EAA Congress, concerning the exact day and time of discovery), several controversial publications have appeared in the international bibliography. According to the authors of the present announcement a full re-examination of the available data is necessary. Towards this direction the first eight photos (some of which have never being presented in front of a scientific Congress) are shown here. During the above mentioned discovery day, these photos were taken by the agronomist Ioannis Malkotsis, who was one of the six men involved. Thus, on one hand, the pictures regarding the group of the Petralona cave “explorers” during that same day, and on the other hand, five of the skull’s views (enface, right profile, above, right profile at ¾ and view from below for its basicranion) are visualized for the Congress participants. The photos were mainly taken keeping the skull on a flat surface (such as a table), but the basicranion view must have being taken when holding it, probably in hands of an unknown woman. The 1st photo that the Petralona man has become worldwide known is that from the front-page of the Thessaloniki “Macedonia” newspaper, September 18th, 1960. In this front-page the view of the right profile at ¾, along with the six persons is presented in a photomontage by an unknown photographer as well as an unknown journalist of the newspaper. Thus, (standing) Kostas Sariannidis, Ioannis Malkotsis, Bassilis Avramis, Ioannis Stathis (with the skull), as well as (sitting) Stavros Hatzaridis and Christos Sariannidis are shown. All eight photos, scanned at a high digital analysis are also presented and discussed herewith.
Key words: Petralona skull, first photos, Khalkidhiki, Central Macedonia, Greece
ANIMALS IN THE FUNERAL RITE AND RITUAL PRACTICE OF THE ANCIENT POPULATION OF GONUR-DEPE (p. 108)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
On the Bronze Age settlement Gonur-depe, ways of ritual use of animals can be divided into three main groups. The first group of animal remains from burials includes: 1) some dissected parts of animal carcasses placed in the burial as a farewell food; 2) full and uneviscerated animal carcass placed in the burial as an offering to the higher powers; 3) animals placed entirely in the burial, buried next to it or in concomitant construction, to accompany the deceased to the underworld and become part of its property; 4) full animal carcass in a cenotaph replaced the deceased and buried according to the existing burial rites; 5) some carcass parts of one or more different animals placed in the burial and laid out in a certain order; 6) grave goods from animal bones (including unprocessed isolated corneous rods and astragals). Thus different forms of animal use are often combined. The second group includes separate animal burials or their parts: 1) animals were completely buried in a specially prepared pit or ditch (with grave goods or without); 2) the full animal carcass buried in a specially prepared pit in the dissected form, laid out in a certain order; 3) buried isolated animal parts (mainly the head or horns); 4) parts of the carcasses of animals (or meat food) put in a vessel. The third group includes burials of the cremated animals or their parts: 1) entirely cremated animal carcasses left by the burning; 2) the cremated animal remains placed in specially arranged and issued poles; 3) the remains of burned animals placed in a specially arranged structures in the form of cysts.
Key words: Bronze Age, Gonur-depe, animal remains, burials
PLANTS IN LIFE OF THE POPULATION OF GONUR-DEPE (ANCIENT MARGIANA) (p. 109)
Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa, Russia
This research is devoted to results of the study of plant remains from excavations of a Bronze Age site Gonur-depe (Turkmenistan, Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex or Oxus Civilization). Plants were widely used in both utilitarian and rituial purposes. Agriculture was developed in the settlement. Several kinds of wheat, barley, millet, legumes, fruit trees, grapes were cultivated. Saxaul, arboresced thistle, tamarisk, djuzgun, and camel-thorn were used as fuel. Poplar (Populus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) were used in the buildings structures (beams in the palace, roofs of the external walls of the Kremlin). Some types of wood were brought from afar, and used for making of the artifacts: maple, elm, sumac or smoke tree (Cotinus corrygria), Vitex sacred (Vítex agnus-castus) and others. Plants theme is often found in cult things (pottery, seals, amulets, mosaics). Different images of the “world tree” were found. Among the finds, there is a unique figure of “the goddess of vegetation” with accurately executed ears of wheat. On the seals and amulets floral images which can be interpreted as “tulip”, “poppy”, “cannabis” are seenb. Furthermore, large vats and baths for pre-soaking plants, stone graters, pestles, mortars and strainers (conical vessels with holes in the center of the bottom) were found. It is assumed that they could be used for making a ritual drink – like Soma – Haoma.
Key words: archaeobotanical researches, Oxus Civilization, Gonur-depe, Bronze Age
PALEOANTHROPOLOGY OF KAZBURUN FUNERAL-SETTLER COMPLEX OF SOUTHERN URALS (p. 109)
Shuteleva Iia1, Shcherbakov Nikolai1, Leonova Tatiana1, Gorshkov Konstantin2
1Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akhmulla, Russia
2Forensic Medical Examination of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia
The Late Bronze Age in the Southern Transurals (Beta Analytic: 1890–1750 BC) is characterized by uniformity of obsequies of barrow burials and Srubnaya culture settlements. In the basin of Urshak river, having area of 23.4 km2, Kazburun archeological region was identified, which monuments materials were used as a base for a complex of natural science investigation methods. The Kazburun archeological microdistrict belongs to homogeneous in archeological material interfluve of Urshak river and Dema river. A group of investigated sites included the monuments of Kazburun burial and settlement complex (Kazburun I–III barrow mounds, Muradymovsky settlement, Usmanovsky I, II and III settlements). They carried out paleopedology investigations of the Late Bronze Age settlements, belonging to one cultural tradition – Usmanovsky II settlement (Usmanovo–2, settlement), Usmanovsky III settlement (Usmanovo–3, settlement), located at the Urshak river bank, Muradymovsky settlement – at the bank of a small brook. As may be supposed, people of this culture came to the Urals from the south, from dry steppes, almost semi-deserts and brought traditions of house building of gypsum (Sherbakov, Shuteleva, Obydennova, Balonova, Khohlova, Golyeva, 2010). In the biggest settlement various anthropologic material was found. In the mound of the settlement there was a grave of a child (1.2–1.5 years old). A study of the Kazburunovsky I burial mound provided the following anthropological materials: two adults buried at the age of 50–59 years. After anthropological analyzes carried out by K.A. Gorshkov, the cause of death of one of them was found out: a fracture of the skull base. In addition, the buried human had traces of paleo-disease that led to the complete merging of the large pelvic bones and femurs, as well as to the complete immobilization of the spinal column. Also, the remains of two boys, aged 7 and 14 years, were found in the studied mounds. The 14-year-old boy was diagnosed with a fractured left femur, most likely during his lifetime, and that could be a possible cause of death. This teenager also had “stress marker” on his teeth, which leads to a conclusion about food irregularity in the diet of human groups in the Late Bronze Age. The traces of paleo-disease with similar symptoms were revealed in one of the buried adults in Muradymovskoe settlement (Obydennova, Sherbakov, Shuteleva, 2006). At present this requires further research.
Key words: Late Bronze Age, Southern Transurals, Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures, paleo-disease
PALEOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SKELETAL REMAINS FROM A 10th-12th CENTURY AD CEMETERY FROM HUNGARY (p. 110)
Spekker Olga, Pálfi György, Bereczki Zsolt, Molnár Erika
Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
The aim of our study is to present results of the paleopathological investigation of a 10th-12th century AD cemetery from South-East Hungary. The examination of the skeletal remains of 59 individuals was performed using standard macromorphological methods of bioarchaeology. Before the paleopathological analysis of the series, sex and age at death of individuals and state of preservation of the observable skeletal elements were also recorded. In spite of the poor state of preservation, the examined osteoarchaeological series showed a wide range of paleopathological alterations: skeletal traces of degenerative articular changes, traumas and infectious diseases were observed. This presentation focuses on infectious lesions. On the basis of the detected alterations (rib lesions, superficial vertebral changes / hypervascularisation, endocranial alterations and potential stress indicators or infection markers, such as cribra orbitalia and long bone periostitis) the diagnosis of probable early-stage TB was supposed in five cases. Although a positive correlation seems to exist between these alterations and TB, they are not always pathognomonic to tuberculosis. In order to confirm the assumed diagnosis, further biomolecular investigations are planned. A mature female individual showed signs of severe destruction of the right maxilla most probably as a result of periodontal inflammation. The same skeleton revealed skeletal evidence of symbolic trephination on the middle of the sagittal suture. It cannot be excluded that this intervention was made for medicoritual purposes. Our results contribute to improving the knowledge on health status in historic populations of Hungary at the time of political and cultural transition from Eastern traditions to feudalism and Christianity. The support of the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, OTKA NN 78696 and OTKA N° 78555 is greatly acknowledged.
Key words: paleopathology, Hungary, 10th-12th century AD, tuberculosis, periodontal inflammation, symbolic trephination
COLOR AND CONSTITUTION: EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING AESTHETIC PREFERENCES (p. 110)
Vergeles Marina, Shpak Larisa
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
It is impossible to draw clear interdisciplinary boundaries in the study of color concept regarding interactions between human and color-light environment, and anthropology may be used as a complex approach to this study combining both science and humanities. In this case we can define color preference as part of the general human constitution along with morphological and psychological features. Using a sample of 157 Moscow students (80 males and 77 females) we examined correlations between color attitude and somatic (somatotype, pigmentation, dynamometry) and psychological (anxiety and neuroticism level, extraversion–introversion trait) features. Color attitude was measured verbally and projectively by coloring graphic tests with simple and complex shapes. On the basis of verbal color tests’ results we calculated coefficient of color preference and general color attitude index. Coefficients of harmonious color combinations are based on the results of graphic tests. Sex differences in neuroticism, state and trait anxiety levels are valid: females are more restless and anxious while males are more emotionally stable. Most of the examined individuals do not have a disliked color or colors, having one is strongly correlated with higher level of both neuroticism and state anxiety, correlation is slightly stronger for females. The most common choice of a favorite color is blue and green. There are sex differences in the preference of black, white, purple, yellow and turquoise colors: males prefer achromatic colors relatively more. Most of morphological features are uncorrelated with color choice; however there are some certain correlations with eye and hair color. There are some correlations between color attitude and somatotype: athletic males and mesoplastic females have a negative color attitude significantly rarely and thus emotionally are less dependent on color environment. Choice of harmonious color pairs is psychosomatically determined only for a test with simple shapes. Complex shapes coloring reveals color associations defined rather by social and cultural aspects of color perception. However, the amount of harmonious choices is two or three times bigger than the amount of inharmonious, and females tend to select harmonious color pairs more often than males. Prevalence of harmonious color choices to some extent indicates possible biological expediency of this behavioral adaptation that formed human aesthetic color perception.