|COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES (p. 99)
Department of Anthropology and Ecology, Institute of History National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Comparative analysis of the main indices of physical development of children, teen-agers and youth at the age of 7–17 years from Belarus, Russia, Poland, Serbia, Bulgaria and Estonia was performed. All samples were examined in the late 1990’s – early 2000’s. Through decades and from one generation to another, changes in physical development of children and youth, in different territorial and ethnic groups are important to study. In Belarus, studies of children and youth physical development were conducted by the team of the Department of Anthropology and Ecology, Institute of History, National Academy of Sciences, from the beginning of 1980’s till the beginning of the 21st century. Studies in Belarus were held in different parts of the Republic. Total number of the examined was 5744 persons (2900 males, and 2844 females). It was shown that the positive secular trend was going on in the populations of towns and villages in the 1990’s, and that urbanization is an important factor influencing the age of puberty. The study also demonstrated local variations in growth patterns under extreme environmental conditions, and exposed different growth rates in Belarusian schoolchildren at the age period from 7-17 years. Annual growth rates in stature have been also analyzed in schoolchildren from different countries. On the whole, the variations of main physical parameters in children and youth showed similarities and differences in the examined ethno-territorial groups. Belarusian children of both sexes showed closest tendencies in growth dynamics with Russians and Poles, and boys also with Bulgarians. The tallest children are Serbians and Estonians. As in the case with height, Belarusian children of both sexes are similar in body weight to the Russians and Poles. Similar to height, the biggest differences are seen between Belarusian and Estonian children. According to the rates of growth, Belarusian children of 7 to17 years old are similar to the other ethno-territorial groups, as maximal growth and weight gain is seen in similar age periods.
Key words: physical development, schoolchildren, comparative analysis, ethno-territorial groups
HEALTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS IN BELARUS POPULATION (ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIEW) (p. 100)
Tegako Lidija, Zhavnerchik E.
Department of Anthropology and Ecology, Institute of History National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Health is a great value for every human and society as well. Knowledge of health is multidisciplinary, and takes a great part in different areas of contemporary science. This knowledge concerns not just medicine, but the range of biological and humanitarian sciences, including demography, psychology, sociology, and ecology as well. Anthropology is in the front row as a science, integrating biological and social knowledge about humans. Anthropology also covers the complex mechanisms in health support by adaptation, homeostasis. It also uses data of somatotype, physiology and biochemistry. Methods of health quantitative evaluation were produced by anthropology on the basis of those criteria. Anthropological researches of Belarusian population health status are held through decades by the staff of the Department of Anthropology and Ecology, Institute of History, NAS of Belarus. Relevance of those studies even increased after the Chernobyl disaster, which had a substantial influence on the economics as well as on individual and public health. State and national efforts were directed to minimize the effects of Chernobyl disaster through the 25-year period, past after it. Radioactive nuclides contamination of the territory was registered in every region. But Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions suffered most. A number of 2402 settlements, with 1,141,272 inhabitants are now situated in the zones of radioactive contamination. Environmental damage has its negative influence on health and biological status of the population. It caused local changes in morbidity situation, physical development and processes of growth in children. Health decline is marked in the last decades as is evidenced by increasing morbidity in children and teen-agers, illnesses in newborns, reproductive health decline. That contributes to negative population growth. Difference in male and female lifespan also shows poor health state of the population, which is 12 years in the Republic. A new national Belarusian demographic security program for 2011–2015 was approved in the context of public and individual health decline.
Key words: health, physical development, ability, morbidity, life span
THE RELATION BETWEEN NEWBORNS’ BODY WEIGHT, POPULATION INCOME AND NUTRITION IN RUSSIAN REGIONAL STATISTICS (p. 100)
Vershubskaya Galina1,2, Kozlov Andrew1,2
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Perm, Russia
We analyzed regional average body weight at birth, monetary income and food related data in 42 regions of the Russian Federation for the period 2006–2010. The regional statistics were obtained from the database of the Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation (annual average body weight at birth), and the Federal State Statistics Service (income and food related data). The regions where the percentage of ethnic Russians exceeded 85% were chosen to participate in the study. Despite the economic indicators (monetary income, level of inflation and total food expenditure) and food composition had been changing during the study period, the national average weight at birth had remained stable. The regional statistics do not reveal any connection of birth weight with either per-capita monetary income, total calorie intake, or the daily consumption of each of the major nutrients. We suppose, that is natural under the conditions when dietary energy supply is sufficient in general. Birth weight, however, significantly correlates (p < 0.05) to the proportion of the animal-derived proteins, fats and dietary energy (r = 0.52, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). The fact testifies that, even when caloric intake is sufficient, the quality of nutrition, and in particular, the proportion of foods of animal origin, is essential for the status of the newborn. Supported by 026-F grant of the Perm State Pedagogical University.
Key words: birth weight, income, nutrition, diet, animal-derived foods
EATING HABITS OF TEACHER CANDIDATES (p. 101)
Vitályos Gábor Áron1, Dancs Gábor2, Darvay Sarolta1
1Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Primary and Pre-School Education, Department of Natural Sciences, Hungary
2Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Primary and Pre-School Education, Department of Mathematics, Hungary
Apart from parents, teachers have a determining role in forming students’ attitude to health. Consequently, creating and forming a health attitude that meet modern principles has to have a great emphasis in teacher training. The research includes measuring body composition, evaluating results and consultation of first-year students of primary, pre-school and nursery education. Our aim is to screen students belonging to a risk group because of their nourishment. After investigating the students’ family relationships, we had a questionnaire about their family anamnesis, health status, eating habits and free time activities. Their physical status was examined by the In Body 720 body composition analyzer. The survey sample is 820 female students. With the semi-longitudinal survey we tried to find out whether students belonging to the risk group accepted our advice and changed their lifestyle. Their different physical status would prove that during their second examination, two years after the first one. The health status of the students is estimated, including their self-evaluation about their body shape, their nutritional habits, fitness index, obesity diagnosis, the relationship between parents’ education level and students’ nutritional status, and correlation between parents’ and students’ BMI. The practical relevance of our survey is that the possible positive change in students’ health comportment attitude will have a good effect on the lifestyle of the future generations.
Key words: BMI, healthy lifestyle, obesity, In Body 720 body composition analyzer
A CASE STUDY OF HOMO SAPIENS MANDIBLE VARIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH HABITAT (p. 101)
Vorontsova Elena, Pupykin Vadim
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Intraspecific variability of a modern human mandible was determined using a principal component analysis following by a varimax rotation. Individual standardized data for the following series were included in the analysis: Eskimo from Ekven, 4-7 centuries AD, – 61 jaws; Eskimo from Naukan, 19-20 centuries AD, – 23 jaws; Anglo-Saxon from Dunstable, 5-6 centiries AD, – 40 jaws (Dingwall, Yaung, 1933); Ancient Egyptian series, IX dynasty, – 37 jaws (Woo, 1930); series of Badari culture, Egypt, 5-3 centuries BC, – 32 jaws (Stossiger, 1927); Hokiens, southeast China, early 20 century, – 38 jaws (Harrower, 1928); Hylams, island Hainan, China, – 39 jaws (Harrower, 1928); Tamils, India and Ceylon, – 33 jaws (Harrower, 1928). During the analysis three principle components (PC-1, 2, 3) were determined. The first PC describes the overall size of a bone and is not associated with angular dimensions. PC-2 characterizes the variability of a mandibular angle (M-79) and a height of branches (M-70). PC-3 strongly correlates with a height of a symphysis (M-69) and an angle of a chin protrusion (
Key words: craniology, mandible, Homo sapiens, environment, principal components method
THE ANALYSIS OF METHODS OF GENDER DIMORPHISM ASSESSMENT BY EXAMPLE OF ADULT BELARUSSIAN POPULATION (p. 102)
Zimina Sofya, Goncharova Natalia
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
According to the hypothesis widely spread in the scientific literature, the male sex is more sensitive to unfavorable influences of exogenous and endogenous factors. For confirmation of this hypothesis, a lot of works is devoted to the analysis of the degree of gender dimorphism. Parameters used for the assessment of the degree of gender dimorphism are often interchangeable and demonstrate certain limitations in practice. Thus, it is important to compare different methods of assessment in order to reveal the most convenient/informative parameters. We chose four different indices from the most frequently used ones in the studies aimed at the investigation of gender dimorphism. Namely: coefficient of gender dimorphism (GDC), t-criterion, D-index and Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion (K-S). A sample from a native Belorussian population described in the 1970’s served as a study material. The data were accumulated in accordance with the complex anthropometric program. We distributed all examined subjects in three age groups. All four indices were calculated for separated parameters in each age-specific category. All assessment methods have demonstrated age-dependent increase of the degree of gender dimorphism in case of circumferential parameters. The most prominent differences in the degree of gender dimorphism between age-specific cohorts have been revealed for signs connected with fat development. The degree of gender dimorphism on these parameters increases significantly in the senior age group. Based on the results of the our study, the following conclusions can be made: 1. The t-criterion is different from the GDC criterion by the multiplication factor connected with the sample size, and it is not suitable for comparison of groups differing in the number of subjects; 2. In case the curve of theoretical distribution is incorrect, a calculated value of D-criterion does not correspond to empirical data. 3. Among all the studied methods, the most universal parameters of gender dimorphism are the GDC and K-S.
Key words: anthropometry, gender dimorphism, coefficient of gender dimorphism, D-index
ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SOME FEATURES OF MORPHOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY AS THE GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE GROUP (p. 103)
Bakholdina Varvara1, Titova Elena2, Bobrova Ksenya1, Shimanovskaya Anna1,
1Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
In this work, data on correlations between anthropometric and psychological features in four samples are compared: 1) Moscow high school students (25 boys and 50 girls at the age of 16 - 17); 2) Chinese students studying in Moscow (24 boys aged 19 to 27); 3) the students from different countries of the Peoples Friendship University of Russia – PFUR (15 boys aged 21 to 31 and 10 girls aged 21 to 24); 4) the elderly women from one of the villages of the Ryazan region (27 women aged 41 to 85). It is revealed that the trends of associations between somatic and psychological features in the studied samples vary considerably. For high school students and for students from China significant negative correlations between absolute body size and self-esteem were found, but the reasons for such associations in both samples are different. Foreign students studying in the PFUR, in contrast, are demonstrating a positive relationship between high self-esteem, body length, body weight and BMI. In the sample of the elderly Russian women links between self-esteem and somatic features are not detected. In two samples gender differences in the level and direction of morphological and psychological ties were also detected. It can be assumed that the associations between somatic features and self-esteem largely depend on the ethnicity, age and gender and can be considered as an important general characteristic in the anthropological description of a particular group.
Key words: somatic and psychological features, trends of associations, gender differences, self-esteem
ANTHROPOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY AND HUMAN DIVERSITY IN ITS COLLECTIONS (p. 103)
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Last year we marked the 130th anniversary of the Museum of Anthropology. The idea of its creation belongs to a famous Russian scientist – zoologist and anthropologist A.P.Bogdanov. He devoted 20 years of his life to overcome difficulties, connected with the organization of the Museum. First, he established the Society of Amateurs of Natural history, Anthropology and Ethnography in 1864, then - three exhibitions – Ethnographical (1869), Polytechnic (1872) and Anthropological (1879). The key goals of the latter were to acquaint society with essential natural principles of anthropology, to establish Anthropological museum and to obtain studying materials for the chair of anthropology. The materials of this exhibition formed the founding collection of the Museum of Anthropology. The collection united paleoanthropological, archaeological and ethnographical objects, to serve as a base for studying ancient history of mankind. The Museum opened its doors in 1883 and D.N.Anuchin became its director and main implementator of the Bogadanov’s idea. He continued to hold office for 40 years and created curatorial departments that remained unchanged till nowadays. They are: Morphology and Human Evolution, Paleoanthropology, Archaeology, Ethnography and Illustrations. The department of Morphology and Human Evolution possesses originals and copies of fossil discoveries of ancient humans across the territory of Russia and neighbouring countries (Teshik-Tash, Staroselie, Afontova Gora etc.). There are high-class copies of the main fossil hominids from Africa, Europe, Asia, skeletons and stuffed models of modern primates also. The department of Paleoanthropology unites the collections of skulls and skeletons from Upper Paleolithic to 17-18th centuries across the territory of our country. The collections of Archaeological department embrace the whole history of mankind from prehistoric past to the Slavic antiquities, including ivory figurines from the Avdeevo site. The department of Ethnography houses the collections from Africa, the Americas, the Pacific and Siberia that were gathered in the second half of the 19th century and demonstrates native cultures at the period of the first contacts with Europeans. The department of Illustrations contains photos, glass negatives, drawings, death masks and busts of the peoples from different parts of the Earth, including pencil drawings of the famous Russian scientist N.N. Miklukha-Maklay, made during his voyage to the New Guinea. The collections of the Museum of Anthropology are deeply involved in the research process, serving as a base for preparing scientific articles, term papers, diplomas and theses.
Key words: anthropology, museum, museology, history, collections
ANTHROPOLOGICAL METHODS AS A WAY TO ANALYZE THE ART IMAGE OF ANCIENT GREEK SCULPTURE (p. 104)
Belikov Anton1, Goncharova Natalia2
1Department of Aesthetics, Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Ancient sculpture is one of the best examined objects in the world culture so it can be used for the verification of some hypothesis in anthropology and art history. Applying of anthropological methods to analyze art objects creates a new methodology and reveals tendencies in the evolution of the image. The essential distinctions between the archaic and classical images in spite of the paradigm of the anthropological type stability lead to the search of the reasons for such considerable differences. The purpose of this study is to detach the anthropological content from its ideal content determined mostly by the canon of proportions. The author’s photos of ancient sculptures and the archaic sculptures photographs by Gisela Richter are used. Such characteristics as height and width proportions of faces, size and disposition of the eyes, lips and nose were subjected to statistical analysis. The anthropological methods denote the typological features of different periods. The differences between the archaic and classic sculptures appear in the inclination of the eyes, in face proportions, and lips thickness. The variability of the facial proportions in archaic period is higher due to the lack of the canon. The differences between the facial proportions of two periods are the result of the proportional schemes evolution. The study allows us to mark out the characteristics of the image related to the proportions regulated by the canon from real anthropological features such as a structure of the periorbital area and facial horizontal profile. The stability of the reproduction of these features through time and space suggests the influence of real anthropological environment on the images. The change of the image in the VI-V cc. BC presumably reflects the change of the anthropological type, which took place in the remote past. In art this change became apparent later. The study of the faces of sculptures reveals the proportional similarity of the Palmyra funerary sculpture and the Greek archaic images. However, the structure of the periorbital area of these two groups differ which can probably be explained by the differences between the anthropological types of the population.
Key words: ancient Greek sculpture, face proportions, evolution of art image
ROMAN MEDICINE VS. CRANIAL SURGERY OF THE BARBARS (p. 105)
Bereczki Zsolt1, Paja László1,2, Madácsy Tamara1, Pálfi György1, Sóskuti Kornél2
1University of Szeged, Department of Biological Anthropology, Szeged, Hungary
2Hungarian National Museum, National Heritage Center, Szeged, Hungary
Surgical trephination is a tradition known worldwide and it has been practiced since the Upper Paleolithic. Its earliest written evidence dates back to the ancient Egypt. Mostly as a method of wound treatment, surgical trephination was also known in ancient Europe following the works of Hippocrates, Celsus, Heliodorus and Galenus. Despite the written sources and the abundance of bioarcheological remains from the era, very few trephined skulls have been unearthed so far from the territory of the Roman Empire. More than 130 surgically trephined skulls have come to light in the territory of today’s Hungary. The earliest evidence derives from the Neolithic. The history of Hungarian trephination research was discussed in details in the works of Lajos Bartucz (1966), Tamás Grynaeus (1996), Péter Tomka (2000) and László Józsa and Erzsébet Fóthi (2007), but none of these works cite any Roman relics from the province of Pannonia (today Western Hungary). A recently published article (Tóth-Kiss, 2008) describes a possible case of surgical trephination from the Roman Age, but the evidence introduced in the paper better corresponds to the diagnosis of enlarged parietal foraminae. However, earlier publications have already mentioned 3 cases from Barbaricum, the Sarmatian territory partly enclosed by Roman provinces (today Eastern Hungary). 3 other Sarmatian cases of surgical trephination have also come to light during the excavations and the osteological research of the last decade. The authors wish to give a detailed description of these 6 Sarmatian cases, compare them with accessible evidence of Roman trephinations from other imperial territories, and put forward a possible explanation of the controversy between the written resources and the osteological evidence.