|Neanderthal remains in Altai are identified in locations subdivided by hundreds of kilometers. The purpose of this study is to considertheir postcranial morphological patterns. Okladnikov Cave. Several specimens shared a combination of archaic and unique characteristics. While the totality of postcranial morphological traits suggests that those humans were Neanderthals, certain archaic traits link them with Homo erectus (Mednikova, 2011a). They were least similar to early anatomically modern humans of the Skhul and Qafzeh group and most similar to Near Eastern Neanderthals such as Tabun C1 and partly Shanidar. Denisova Cave. Recently studied high-quality genome sequence of a woman indicated Neanderthal presence in “home cave” of Denisovans (Prufer et al., 2014). The proximal pedal phalanx of DNA owner from Denisova Cave is broad relative to its height (Mednikova, 2011b). This opposes the Denisova individual to most modern members of the genus Homo. The specimen is even broader and more robust than the phalanges of Neanderthals or early modern humans. The extraordinary inner robusticity of that bone was atypical even for many Neanderthals.A distal phalanx of the left (?) hand of Homo, found in level 12 of Denisova Cave in 2011, resembles Neanderthal phalanges in terms of length, width of apical tuft, and relative flattening, differing from them by a somewhat greater transversal hypertrophy of the shaft (Mednikova, 2013a). Recent finds from Chagyrskaya cave were more “Neanderthal-like”. E.g., based on dimensions, proportions, pathological changes, and indicators of habitual activity of ulnaits owner was apparently a Neanderthal – a robust male similar to certain Near Eastern Neanderthals such as Shanidar (Mednikova, 2013b). Altai caves became homeland for Neanderthals who seemed to be various from morphological point of view. The results can reflect different waves of Neanderthal migration or/and different level of hybridization with another inhabitants of Central Asia, like Denisovans. The study was supported by RFBR ofi-m 13-06-1224.
Key words: Altai Neanderhals, postcranial morphology, Chagyrskaya, Okladnikov, Denisova caves
GENDER PECULARITIES OF HUMAN POPULATIONS (p. 94)
Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Analysis of the chromosomes on archeological material has shown that the X chromosome is roughly 80 000 years older than the Y chromosome. Thus it turns out that the male sex chromosome appeared later than the X chromosome.The most widespread model of the origin of the Y chromosome is from the autosome (a nonsexual chromosome). As a result, the X and Y chromosome don‘t recombine correctly and this leads to the degradation of the Y chromosome. Some researchers have concluded that the period when there was no Y chromosome yet mankind was made up of only women. However there were different categories of women: the usual normal women who had children, but also hermaphrodites with female phenotypes. Men developed from the latter category of women. One of the X chromosomes gradually lost fragments and turned into a Y chromosome containing less than 100 genes.It has been found out that a polluted environment especially affects the Y chromosome.There are fewer and fewer normal men. There is a female illness that the doctors call prolapsus of the uterus. We think that this isn’t an illness but a stage of evolution when women begin to acquire male signs. The existence of hermaphroditic people in ancient times is confirmed by the analysis if several drawing in which people with female breasts and a male sex organs are depicted. The degradation of the Y chromosome is bringing about the modification of the male gender. Because of the degradation of the Y chromosome the number of boys being born may go down.
Key words: human populations, gender peculiarities, origin of Y-chromosome
STUDY OF THE VARIATION OF THE DEGREES OF SUPRAORBITAL RIDGE EXPRESSION IN ADULT HOMO SAPIENS (p. 94)
Nowaczewska Wioletta1, Kuźmiński Łukasz2, Biecek Przemysław3
1Department of Human Biology, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland
2Department of Quantitative Methods in Economics, Wrocław University of Economics, Wrocław, Poland
3Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
A large sample of human crania, which included geographically different populations, was examined (adult individuals only). The grades of supraorbital ridge (ST) expression were assessed – separately in the male and female cranial samples – using a quality scoring scale (from 1 to 4 – from the lowest degree of ST development to the highest degree of ST development). Several metric traits describing the shape and size of the whole neurocranium and the shape of the frontal bone were also collected. Canonical variate analyses were used to establish the sets of variables that best discriminate the groups of ST grades in the cranial samples analyzed, and also to determine which of those variables most strongly differentiated the groups of ST grades. The results indicated that the same set of variables most discriminated the groups of ST grades in both the female and male samples, and they also strongly suggest that the size and shape of the neurocranium influence the ST degree of development. However, in the case of the female cranial sample, the most discriminating variables were the size of the cranium and angle describing the shape of the frontal bone, while in the case of the male cranial sample, the most discriminating variable appeared to be the relative breadth of the cranial vault. The results of this study add some important data to the disscusion of the relationship between the morphology of the neurocranium and the variation in the grades of supraorbital region development in Homo sapiens crania.
Key words: supraorbital ridge development, canonical variates analyses, neurocranium
Section HUMANS and ENVIRONMENT
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE GOLDEN HORDE CITY AZAC’S POPULATION (p. 95)
Institute of Arid Zones, Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
In total from the Azac’s necropolis (the territory of current Azov) 814 skeletons containing 263 male ones, 260 female ones and 268 children’s (32.3%, 31.9%, 32.9%) were researched. Besides the research of the summary samples, comparative analysis of the bone material was carried out, the data was taken from different parts of the necropolis that were differentiated by territory, by rites or by peculiarities of a burial (mass graves). The examined samples demonstrate differences not only in the anthropological content but also in paleodemographic and paleopathological aspects. Specific features of the analyzed group were mostly connected with the level of people’s well being, professional occupation as well as with the existing rites and gender roles. Among the examined Golden Horde samples, the wealthiest one appears to be a group that was in a possession of the central part of the Azac’s necropolis and of the part on the current territory of Moskovskaya street, 95. The central necropolis was covering the richest districts during the whole time the city existed. The burial ground in Moskovskaya str. stands out among other Azac’s necropolises due to its specific features of rites and abundance of tools. These groups have the highest ratings of average lifespan and relatively low percentage of episodic stress markers. It should be noted that these groups differed in the types of traumatism in males and apparently in the quality of life for females. In the central burial ground (and only there) there were recorded intravital combat skull traumas, and for the male burials in Moskovskaya str. multiple traumas to the top part of the skull are characteristic. The rate of episodic stress markers and traumatism in female burials in the central burial ground is significantly higher than in the Moskovskaya’s burial ground, but the lifespan is shorter.
Key word: Golden Horde, Azac, peculiar parts of the necropolis, paleodemography
BRONZE AGE FAUNA FROM SALAT TEPE, SOUTH EAST ANATOLIA: COMPARISONS WITH FAUNA FROM UPPER TIGRIS REGION (p. 95)
Baykara Derya Silibolatlaz
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Letter, Anthropology Department, Van, Turkey
This article is mainly concentrated on the changes or continuity in patterns of animal exploitation over time. Salat Tepe is 30 km to the west of Batman in the modern town of Yukarı Salat, ca. 90 km to the east of the provincial center of Diyarbakır and ca. 5 km to the north of the Tigris River. The Upper Tigris Region will be flooded by the lake which will be formed by the Ilısu Dam, thus, it is important to study the animal bones assemblages in order to complete missing information before the dam reservoirs would begin to fill with water. Salat Tepe is a multi-period site and only Bronze Age materials were evaluated in this article. This study addresses the question how faunal remains could add to our understanding of the social and economic organization of the region. In this article the faunal data from several archaeological sites were used, situated in Southeast Anatolia Region and Northern Syria. General view of a faunal assemblage in the Bronze Age indicates occurrence of shift in exploitation across the region throughout the periods, especially for the faunal remains from Southeast Anatolia and Northern Syria. Therefore, faunal analysis is essential to the understanding of both local and regional dietary strategies spanning a Bronze Age and contributes to interpretation of human-animal interaction within the period.
Key words: Salat Tepe, animal bones, zooarchaeology, Bronze Age, South-East Anatolia
ISOTOPIC AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS DATA FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE MOBILITY OF THE BRONZE AGE STEPPE SOCIETIES (p. 96)
Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Study of the lifestyle of the most ancient of pastoralists from skeletal evidence is the important direction in anthropology. Isotopic and elemental studies allow reconstructing the landscape and climatic characteristics of human environment. Importantly, these analyzes allow the options to obtain individual characteristics describing the living space of human or animal specific past, and in certain cases - even during their lifetime. The stable isotope ratio 13/12C and 15/13N of bone tissue collagen of humans and animals is used to determine the main components of everyday diet. 87/86Sr (strontium) in biological objects reflects the local geological rocks and is used to identify indigenous and immigrant individuals. Values of the standard deviations for isotopic parameters for the twelve groups of buried mounds from the Northern Caucasus area were calculated. Minimum values were determined for a group of sedentary population of the Early Bronze Age burials of Velikent (0.23). Maximum values were obtained (1.3 - 1.4) for the Early Catacomb groups of burials (Peschany, Temrta). Thus, the statistical analysis suggests that during the arid periods the population could take over large areas. Obviously, in the more arid pastures biological productivity was low, and pastoralism provoked large-scale seasonal migrations. So isotopic indicators show regions of considerable stability in seasonal nomadic populations associated with the culture of the Early - Early Middle Bronze Age, as well as the significant impact of climate change on the expansion of pastureland. The study was supported by RFBR, grant # 13-06-00792.
Key words: Bronze Age, South Russia steppes, mobile population, paleodiets, stable isotopes, strontium isotopes
RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION DECLINE (p. 96)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
In demographic processes whose principal characteristics are birthrate decrease and mortality growth, sharp shifts have been noted in the Russian Federation starting from the 1990’s. Mortality grew from 10.4‰ to 15‰ in 1986–1994. The birthrate fell from 2 to 1.3 children in 1987–1993. The mortality reached to 1.807.400 people in 1992, with the birthrate falling to 1.587.600 people. The process of depopulation which was called “the Russian cross” began. Nearly 2 million people died annually in the country according to the official data of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service in 1993–2013. A special and a very serious problem is a middle-aged men mortality that is 7–8 times higher, than in the developed countries. The present study considers some social-economic and ecological processes, which promoted the growth of negative indicators in the population dynamics. We compared the mortality and decline of the population in different regions of Russia and showed that there is a correlation between alcohol mortality and decrease of population. A confessional factor is very important also. The mortality rate is far below the average for the country in those territories of Russia, where the population is predominantly Muslim. The demographic transition in Russia is characterized not only by a drop in fertility, as in the other developed countries, but also by increase in mortality. The mortality is a real indicator of the socio-economic and demographic situation for this or that region of Russia and it should be used by the authorities of different levels for the development of the area.
Key words: population decline, life expectancy, dynamics of mortality, birth rate, adaptation, Russia
SECULAR CHANGES IN MORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE ABKHAZIANS FOR THE LAST 30 YEARS (p. 97)
Kokoba Elizaveta, Godina Elena, Chizhikova Tatiana
Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The paper presents the results of anthropological studies of the adult Abkhazian population (aged 20 to 90 years old) of three villages for 30 years. The data were collected in 1980, 1990 and 2010. Secular changes of stature were examined in the pooled data. The results show that Abkhazians, born between 1920 and 1990, reveal the existence of secular trend in stature, with the rate of 0.24 cm for men and 0.85 cm for women for each decade. Secular dynamics of stature for men is not even, whereas for women - it is a gradual increase over the entire historical period. Maximal average values are found in women born in 1981-1990. For men, minimal average values of stature are found for those born in 1931–1940, as a consequence of a difficult period of social upheaval (collectivization, purges, the Great Patriotic War), maximal values - for those born in 1961–1970, as a result of the acceleration process. Men born in 1981–1990 are characterized by a slight decrease in their height as a result of the unfavorable growth conditions in the 1990’s. Analysis of the distribution of individual values for stature indicates the continuation of acceleration process and its stabilization for women. Comparative analysis of the skinfolds in the Abkhazians of different generations was also performed, and body mass components (subcutaneous fat and total body fat) were calculated with J. Matiegka’s equations. The findings show a marked increase in the skinfold thickness (subscapular, chest, abdominal) in men and women of the 2010 survey, as well as high rates of age-related changes in these traits. The same is true for the fat mass. With each subsequent survey, the younger generation of the Abkhazians is characterized by weaker physical development as demonstrated by hand grip strength. The results of the study show that environmental factors have a strong effect on the physical status of the genetically stable population of rural Abkhazians. In the former longevity population of Abkhazians there is a trend towards acceleration of the age-related changes. This may be explained by the unfavorable socioeconomic processes of the 1990’s in Abkhazia.
Key words: physical anthropology, stature, body weight, body-mass index (BMI), fat mass, secular trend, age changes
VITAMIN D STATUS IN NORTHERN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF RUSSIA LEADING TRADITIONAL AND “MODERNIZED” WAY OF LIFE (p. 97)
Kozlov Andrew1,2, Khabarova Yulia3, Vershubsky Galina1,2, Ateeva Yulia2
1Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Perm, Russia
3Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia
Vitamin D status in the groups of Northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (semi-nomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or “modernized” (in towns) way of life was analyzed. The study groups consisted of 328 Nenets and Komi aged 18-60 years living in the Arctic (66-67ºN). Urban Komi (n=101) living in non-Arctic area (57-61ºN) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25OHD, as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by the enzyme immunoassay analysis. The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of the values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7- 47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in the Indigenous Arctic people. Mean ± standard deviation of 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative center (a big settlement) with a population of 1460 (32.2±12.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6±14.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4±13.45 nmol/l). Komi people living in towns had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7±12.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7±25.20). The transition from semi-nomadic to post-traditional and “modernized” way of life has lead to a decrease in consuming traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the “western” type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration. Supported by 026-F grant of the Perm State Pedagogical University.
Key words: nutrition, lifestyle, vitamin D, 25OHD, indigenous people, circumpolar regions, Arctic
TO THE BIOARCHAEOLOGY OF CHILDREN’S BURIALS FROM GONUR-DEPE BRONZE AGE SITE, TURKMENISTAN (p. 98)
M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa, Russia
The aim of this communication is to discuss the results of bioarchaeological investigations of the remains from Gonur-depe tombs, where sub-adult human beings were buried. Gonur-depe is a well-known Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex site (Southern Turkmenistan, III–II mill. BC). The skeletal remains of 37 individuals received from 36 tombs in 2009–2010 excavation are analyzed. The sample has such an age structure: 8.3% belongs to the fetus and newborns, 30.6% - to children less than 1 year, 30.6% - to 1–3 year-olds, 8.3% - to 4–6 year-olds, 11.1% - to 7–9 year-olds, 8.3% - to 10–12 year-olds and 2.8% - to 12–15 year-olds. Cribra orbitalia was the most common stress marker. Distribution of this indicator shows significant differences between the infantilis I and infantilis II age subgroups. Variability of the long bones was considered separately for each age interval. Deviations from the M. Maresh standards were calculated by dividing the individual values of the parameter to the age standard ones. Individual deviations from the age standards vary in the range of 0.73–1.02 (average value – 0.90). Proximal segments of the extremities reveal a greater delay in growth rather than the distal ones. The infants aged 0.2–2 years demonstrate the smallest “lag” from age standards of longitudinal growth rates. Primary distal growth in the sub-adult sample is connected with the dolicho- and mesomorphic types of body proportions (relatively elongated forearm and calf). Overall, the results of bioarchaeological research of the sub-adult burials from Gonur-depe confirm once more the thesis about good adaptation of this ancient group to the local environmental conditions and show that main body proportions of the adaptive types according to Tatyana Alexeeva (in this case – the Arid one) are formed in the early childhood. The investigations are supported by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (project 13-06-00233а).
Key words: bioarchaeology, children’s burials, Arid adaptive type, Turkmenistan, Bronze Age
CROW’S INDICES OF DIFFERENTIAL FERTILITY IN RUSSIA’S TWO LARGEST CITIES: INTERETHNIC VARIATION AND SECULAR TRENDS (p. 98)
Kurbatova Olga, Pobedonostseva Elena
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Using Russia’s 2002 census data, population replacement parameters and Crow’s indices of the opportunity for selection have been analyzed in Moscow and St.-Petersburg in 7 cohorts of females with completed fertility (years of birth from the early 20th century till 1962). During the whole time period, average number of births per female (kav) in 5 ethnic groups under study (Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tatars and Jews) was less than 2, that is not enough even for simple population replacement. In female 1953–1957 birth cohort kav varies from 1.33 (Jews) to 1.61 (Tatars). Proportion of infertile females (having no births) in two megalopolises is considerably larger (up to 20% in the senior age cohorts) than in populations with traditional culture. Selection component due to differential fertility (If ) was high in female cohorts born before the 2nd World War, and later kept stable at 0.3–0.4, mostly due to relative stabilization of interfamily variation in fertility (family planning and birth control, predominantly by means of medical abortions). Component due to differential prereproductive mortality, Im, has shown a 50-fold decrease during the 20th century as a result of social progress and improvements in medical care, and nowadays attained negligible values (<0.03). It means that in these urban populations process of selection relaxation, with respect to both components – If and Im, has been almost completed. An important predictable consequence of selection relaxation is an increase of population genetic load, which implies further development of genetic counseling. Intensity of intergroup selection (based on interethnic variation in birth rates within each megalopolis), is many times lower than that of intragroup selection (interfamily variation), and also tends to decrease, presumably, as a result of demographic transition – changes of migrant’s reproductive behaviour in urban environment. Judging by 1926 census data, at that time interethnic differentials in vital statistics in Moscow were much more significant than now, and almost all ethnic groups demonstrated a positive natural increase.
Key words: Crow’s indices, fertility, mortality, selection relaxation, urban populations, interethnic differentials