Вестник Московского университета. Серия XXIII. Антропология. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia

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Key words: craniometry, Mound of Van Fortress, Karagündüz, ancient Anatolia

Yepiskoposyan Levon1, Khachatryan Zaruhi1, Hovhannisyan Anahit1, Hovhannisyan Hrant1, Khudoyan Armine1, Hrechdakian Peter2

1Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia

2Armenian DNA Project, Family Tree DNA, Armenia

We intended to evaluate the rate of genetic signals from Turkic tribes in the gene pool of various groups of modern Armenians and compare it with the corresponding rate in neighboring populations. The most frequent Y-chromosomal haplogroups in Central Asia were considered as genetic markers of Turkic expansion. The rate of Turkic genetic signal in different territorial groups of Armenians representing almost the whole area of historical Armenia varies in the range of 0–1%, with 0.5% on average for the general population. Comparable rate of Turkic genetic input is also detected in Georgians and non-Turkic speaking ethnic groups of Iran. This level contrasts sharply with that found in other neighboring populations: 6% in modern Turkey, 10–12% in Iranian Azeris, and 10% in Lezgins. These results are consistent with the historical records indicating the main routes of Turkic expansion south of the Caspian Sea and along its western coast. In many cases, the expansion has also resulted in language replacement through the elite dominance model. The virtual lack of Turkic genetic traces observed in Armenians or Georgians as well as the preservation of their language indicates the conservation of their genetic structure despite the centuries of Turkic expansion in southern Caucasus. This genetic evaluation raises questions about the reasons that have impeded genetic contact of Armenians with Turkic tribes. The reason that is most likely a priori is the adoption of Christianity and the formation of a strong ethnic and cultural identity long before the Turkic migration into the region.

Key words: Armenian population, Turkic expansion, genetic signals

Yudina Anastasiya1, Slavolyubova Irina1, Shpak Larisa2

1Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
This paper analyzes digital dermatoglyphics of the Volga-Kama populations: patterns, bilateral variation, correlation between patterns; also, an attempt was made to investigate the potential of one of the least studied trait systems – patterns on middle and proximal finger phalanges – for group differentiation. The material consists of fingerprints of males from the archives of the Department of Anthropology: Bashkirs, Tatars, Mari, Udmurts (Bashkortostan), Chuvashes (Chuvashia) as well fingerprints of Mordovian and Russian males from southeastern Mordovia (copyright property, A. Yudina, 2013). The total number of individuals is 558. Frequencies of patterns on distal phalanges of the Volga-Kama people are generally typical of Caucasoids. However, the complication of skin relief and an increase in the number of deltas on distal phalanges as well as the accumulation of simple patterns on medial and proximal phalanges may evidence a Mongoloid tendency. The comparison of groups by pattern frequencies on all the three phalanges enabled us to single out populations with a minimal Mongoloid tendency or none at all (Mordovians, Russian), a group with the strongest Mongoloid tendency (Bashkirs), and intermediate groups (Mari, Chuvashes, Tatars, and Udmurts). The first cluster is characterized by the increased share of patterns without orientation on medial and proximal phalanges. The structure of within-group correlations between the traits is similar in all samples. Patterns within each phalangeal system and among the systems show a weak correlation, with rare exceptions. Multiple discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling jointly demonstrate the diagnostic importance of the medial and proximal phalanges, indicating the expedience of their further use along with traditional features in the study of group differentiation.

Key words: dermatoglyphics; digital phalanges, peoples of the Volga-Kama region


Baykara İsmail

Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Letter, Anthropology Department, Van, Turkey

Most scientists agree that modern humans left Africa relatively recently, and it was traditionally thought that the route taken was northwards, overland through the Middle East and beyond. However, there is growing disagreement about the route or routes taken by humans and when they migrated out of Africa. In this article, we will discuss about Middle Paleolithic archaeological evidence from Üçağızlı II Cave in order to assess the timing and geographic origins of Upper Pleistocene human colonization. Üçağızlı Cave II is a Middle Paleolithic locality situated on the Mediterranean coast of south-central Turkey. Üçağızlı II contains higher densities of lithics and bones as well as residues of hearth features, indicating a higher intensity or frequency of human frequentation. The Cave Lithic technology is dominated by Levallois production and hard-hammer percussion used to reduced the cores. All of the layers systematic reducing of the core is considered with mainly unipolar, secondary centripetal Levallois production. Orientation of the production is mainly flakes and scarcely seen blades manufactures. Typological feature is characterized with higher proportion of Levallois flake, Levallois points, Mousterian points, side scrapers types and lower proportion of upper Palaeolithic tool types. Those technological and typological evidence shows the cave is in Levantine Middle Palaeolithic assemblages.

Key words: Üçağızlı II Cave, Middle Paleolithic, Anatolia, Hatay

Bulygina (Stansfield) Ekaterina, Pezhemsky Denis, Rasskazova Anna

Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
We carried out a morphometric analysis of cranial vault and upper face in Mesolithic populations of Eastern Europe (Oleniy Ostrov, Zvejnieki, Popovo, Peschanitsa, Vasilievka III, Murzak-Koba, Fatma-Koba). A comparison was made with a newly discovered cranium from Lokomotiv (R-8), Irkutsk, Eastern Siberia. The total number of individuals is 36. Our methods included 3D geometric morphometrics as well as conventional distances. Measurements were taken according to R. Martin. Data were subjected to the principal component analysis. We examined trends of similarity in the neurocranial and upper facial morphology among these individuals. The structure of the upper face is determined by how flat the region immediately below the brow ridges is. Upper facial flatness is usually regarded as a feature differentiating Asian Mongoloids from other populations of the world. However, V. Yakimov (1957, 1960) described the same feature among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic people of Europe. Given that the most ancient individuals from Siberia do not have exceptionally flat upper faces, this characteristic can no longer be regarded as specifically Mongoloid, in keeping with Yakimov’s view. Lokomotiv-R-8 cranium was found in 1995. So far this is the earliest complete human skull from Northern Asia, dating to the 7th millennium BC (8690±120 cal. BP, TO-10507). It has very pronounced ‘Asian’ features in its frontal bone structure. Hence, its comparison with other ancient individuals from Eastern Europe is especially interesting. Results of our multivariate statistical analysis differentiate individuals with short parietals, short and wide braincase, narrow forehead and large naso-malar angle from those with the opposite trait combination. Although Lokomotiv-R-8 fits within the range of variation of Mesolithic individuals from Eastern Europe, its large naso-malar angle separates it from the rest of the sample in some of the analyses. Surprisingly, Lokomotiv-R-8 reveals affinities with Oleniy Ostrov individuals, whose geographical position is the most distant from Lokomotiv-R-8 within the research area. In conclusion, our results show that upper facial flatness, which is marked among modern Mongoloids, appears among some of the earliest individuals from Russia and Eastern Siberia. However, the patchy geographical distribution of this feature precludes any inferences about its origin and evolution. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; Grant # 13-06-00045a

Key words: cranial morphology, craniometry, 3D-morphometry, Mesolithic populations

Butovskaya Marina1, Lazebny Oleg2, Vasiliev Vasily3, Dronova Dariya1, Karelin Dmitry4, Shibalev Dmitry3, Mabulla Audax5, Ryskov Alexsey3

1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

2Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

3Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

4Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

5Department of Archaeology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
In this paper we test the association between aggression, AR gene polymorphism and reproductive success as expressed in the number of children born in males from two African societies (Hadza, nomadic foragers) and (Datoga, pastoralists). The data on 439 adult African males (210 Hadza and 229 Datoga males, respectively) were collected between 2007 and 2013 in Northern Tanzania, Lake Eyasi region. Men with lower number of CAG repeats of the AR gene rated themselves as more aggressive. Age and the number of CAG repeats were significant predictors of the number of children born. Men with lower number of CAG repeats started reproduction in earlier age and were generally more successful in reproduction in both ethnics. Men with higher numbers of CAG repeats start to reproduce later in Datoga. Supported by RFHR, # 12-01-00032, RFBR # 12-04-31869 and # 13-04-00858.

Key words: aggression, androgen receptors gene, reproduction, Hadza, Datoga

Buzhilova Alexandra

Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The much more interesting results of new coming investigations for the emergence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia are the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence retrieved from few anthropological samples excavated in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. The individuals from Denisova cave represent an unknown type of hominin that shares a common ancestor with anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals. While both Denisovan mtDNA sequences from different individuals represent individual archaic hominin lineages, the Denisovan nuclear genome from one of them appears less divergent, forming a sister group with Neanderthals. An almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos (Spain) was quite recently published. The site became famous due to the largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils dated about 300,000 years ago. According anthropological investigations, the skeletal remains and teeth share a number of morphological features mostly closed to Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal derived traits. Data of mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of individuals from Denisova cave. Paleogenetics explained that the background of Denisova genome derives from a population that lived before the separation of Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans. This component may be present due to gene flow, or to a more complex population history (Krause et al., 2010; Reich et al., 2010; Meyer et al., 2012; 2014). Nowadays odontological studies provide additional criteria for comparing morphological data, because teeth are preserved in greater numbers than are other parts of the skeleton, they are a closer reflection of the genotype, they are more directly affected by the forces of naturals election, and they are easily treated by quantitative methods. The morphological data gave possibility to stress that two upper molars of Denisovans preserved some archaic morphological features, and that is why they are separated from the odontological morphological complex of Homo neanderthalensis and Homo heidelbergensis, both as AMH. In context of genomic data Denisovans received gene flow from a hominin whose ancestors diverged deeply from the lineage leading to Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans. Who is this general ancestor of all the taxa? Data on odontology allow assuming that Homo erectus sensu lato can be the most probable applicant for the role. The investigation was done in frame of the Project of RFBR # 13-06-12035.

Key words: paleolithic, emergence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia, Denisova cave, Neanderthals and Modern Humans

Güleç Erksin Savaş

Ankara University, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
Üçağızlı Cave is located on the Mediterranean coast in the Hatay Province, about 10 km South of the point where the Asi River empties into the sea. The cave is on a steepslope at about 18 m above the current sea level and was discovered and first investigated in the late 1980s by Angela Minzoni-Deroche. The current excavation began in 1997 and has been led by Prof. Dr. Erksin Savaş Güleç, from the University of Ankara. Two principal cultural components are represented in Üçağızlı Cave. The first, more recent component closely resembles the Ahmarian complex known from other sites in the Levant. The second, earliest of these, corresponds to the so-called Initial Upper Paleolithic phase. The Initial Upper Paleolithic is considered a technocomplex transitional between Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Paleolithic deposits preserved within Üçağızlı Cave span a period of approximately 12,000 years; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 29,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (circa 31,000 to 43,000 calendar years). In all layers of the cave abundant amount of shell beads which used as ornaments, have been found. Advanced lithic technology and coordinated ornament use found in the cave indicate the presence of the first modern humans in Anatolia.

Key words: Anatolia, first moderns, Initial Upper Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic, ornament using

Kaynak Oktay

Independent Researcher, Izmir, Turkey
Human are very special and very different. These are the only living being on earth endeavoring in self investigation. Then one can ask if the evolution processes regarding human are specific to this species only, or not. My answer is “yes”. This species had to experience three consecutive and important leaps before becoming modern human. 1. The Leap of Bipedalism. 6–7 mya as a result of Rift and plateau formation in east Africa, a primate made an adaptive response to that formation. This adaptive response was hunting and gathering food in shallow waters on two legs. This shallow water made a selective pressure on that primate to walk bipedally. 2. The Leap of Mental Overturning. When about 2 mya the body erection reached a certain angle, the embryo made an adaptive response to this vertical body posture. The embryo turned upside down. This is the mental overturning that started the growth of the cranium as well as the brain. 3. The Leap of Mental Threshold. After chasing its enemy, the chimp throws the stick and does not say to itself: “This stick has served me effectively; I better keep it for another occasion”. If the chimp had a brain of 500 cc, would it say: “I better keep this stick and even improve it”. The chimp may not think so with 500 cc brain, not even with a 550 cc or even a 600 cc brain. But there will be a time and a brain capacity that such a thought will occur. I call that point “Mental Threshold”. Once this mental threshold was transcended, the hominid that held a stone in one hand and a stick in the other; had the courage to intrude into the hunting zone of any animal including the worst predator.

Key words: mentis eversionis, bipedalism, mental overturning, mental threshold, human evolution

Khaldeeva Nataliya1, Vasiliev Sergey1, Zubov Alexander , Kharlamova Natalia1, Borutskaya Svetlana2

1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

2Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The lower jaw from the Mesolithic burial ground, Samara region, village Sidelkino, “Gora Mayak” (2001 year’s excavations, leaded by archaeologist Dmitry Stashenkov) was studied. mandibular teeth remained constant change, including the third molars. The study of the dental morphology features was conducted according to the russian odontological program (Zubov, 2006). Permanent dentition was present completely, including third molars. The description was divided into grades diagnostically significant for determining the evolutionary status of the specimen, its place in the anthropological intraspecific differentiation. Among archaic features are the following: continuous edge ridge (med-end) on the left LM1, differentiation of the end, hyd, prd on the left LM3, vestibular position of the hld on the left LM1, tami on the right LM1, tuberculum centrale on the right LM3, retromolar space, index of foramen mentale (62.3% – right side of the mandible). Evolutionary progressive features: shallow intertubercular furrows, left LM2 – smooth occlusal surface without additional elements and +4 pattern, 2end (IV) variant on the left LM3, axial position of hld on the left LM1, poor differentiation of LM1 surface, prd> med, the absence of developed cingulum, index of foramen mentale (54% – left side of the mandible), moderate/weak deep of molars’ furrows, parallel furrows on the hypoconid of the right LM3. “Western” odontological complex expresses in the following features: pattern “x”5 on LM1, 2med (II), 1hyd (IV), type 1 of the 1med/1prd contact, variant T (1prd-2prd/II), enamel extention score 3 on the LM2, absence of dw, dtc, tami, protostylid / and its pit on some molars. Feature of the «Eastern» odontological complex: pattern “+” on the LM1. Thus, the odontological type of the Sidelkino specimen can be defined as specific to modern humans with a certain level of archaic/dearhaization along with the significant predominance of the evolutionary progressive traits. It belongs to europeoid odontological complex with the manifestation of a single east/mongoloid element. Some metric characteristics of Sidelkino molars bring it together with modern European populations, but according to some archaic metric graduations Sidelkino specimen is associated with the Upper Paleolithic European groups.

Key words: Sidelkino, Mesolithic, dental anthropology, physical anthropology, human evolution

Lepeshkin Artem, Kharitonov Vitaliy, Buzhilova Alexandra

Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
This study aims to integrate the child craniofacial morphology of Staroselie into the developmental context of Neanderthals and modern humans. The fossil remains of the child are from the archaeological site of Staroselie, which is not far from town Bakhchisarai (Crimea). The site was excavated by A.A. Formozov in 1952–1956 with the burial exhumed in 1953. The biological age of a child is 1–2 year old. The craniology of the child appeared to show mixed Neanderthal and modern characteristics, and since it was considered to be in situ in a Middle Paleolithic context, the site has attracted considerable international interest since its discovery (Roginskiy, 1954). New excavations were conducted by a joint American-Ukrainian team in 1993–1995. The team was highly critical of Formozov’s inexact recording methods. Thus, they stressed that the burial of child is unquestionably modern dating to the 18th century AD (Alexeeva, 1996). The authors ignored that the radiocarbon dates for cultural levels upper and lower of the burial gave the interval 35,510±1170 – 36,160±1250 BP, because of absent of direct radiocarbon (AMS) dates from the human remains (Gvozdover et al., 1986)]. Morphologically the skull cap is large, there is an absence of a thick brow, and the projection of the head is modern. There is no doubt that the burial of Staroselie is Homo sapiens. The child of Pech de l’Azé is the same biological age as Staroselie one, thus we used both of them to study craniofacial morphology into the context of Neanderthals and modern humans developmental trajectories. The Pech de l’Azé child was first described by Patte and then by Ferembach et al. The geological age of the specimen is 51–41 cal kya BP (Soressi et al., 2006). The individual is similar to other Neanderthals by it craniofacial morphology. Craniofacial morphology analysis is considered as a complex of three anatomically separated modules of neurocranium, face and mandible [Kondo et al., 2005]. We compare growth profiles (changes in size) and allometric relationship of each module for 28 nonadult Neanderthals, 21 nonadult Paleolithic AMH and 470 modern children. Comparative data show the close allometric relationship of Neanderthals and Staroselie child only in neurocranium/face developmental trend. Investigation was done in frame of the grant RFBR 13-06-12035.

Key words: Paleolithic, Neanderthals, Modern Humans, ontogenesis

Mednikova Maria

Institute of archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

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