1Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
2Gazi University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Ankara, Turkey
3Gazi University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Dentomaxillofacial and Radiology, Ankara, Turkey
Morphological aberrations of the sella turcica were assessed in Turkish adults, modern and those of past centuries. Lateral cephalographs taken from 32 adult (23 male, 9 female, Group 1), dry skull base specimens (Late Ottoman Period), and pretreatment cephalographs of 35 adult patients (21 male,14 female, Group 2) scheduled for orthodontic treatment at Gazi University Orthodontic Clinic were studied. Both samples had Angle Class I relationships. Prevelance of six different morphological types was determined. These include oblique anterior wall, sella turcica bridging, double contour of the floor, irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of dorsum sellae, and pyramidal shape of dorsum sellae. Normal morphology of sella turcica was found in 40.6%, 54.3%, and 47.8% in Group1, 2, and total, respectively. Sella turcica bridging (15.6%) and irregularities of the posterior part of dorsum sellae (18.8%) were more common in dry skulls, while the double contour of the floor (14.3%) and irregularities of the posterior part of dorsum sellae (14.3%) were more common in Group 2. Sella turcica bridging (15.6%) occurred more often in Group 1. There is a noticeable variation in the morphology of sella turcica in this population of normal adults. In approximately one half of the cases, sella turcica was rated as normal and a variety of dysmorphological types was detected. The results can be important when compared with data concerning patients with craniofacial aberrations and syndromes. As bridging of the sella has suggestive associations with disease entities, deviations from the normal anatomy should be evaluated.
Key words: Sella Turcica, cranium, radiography, morphology, lateral cephalometrics, Turkish adults
THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE GENE POOL OF RUSSIA AND THE CONTIGUOUS COUNTRIES (p. 80)
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Wide opportunities of the geographic method in physical anthropology have been demonstrated by many Soviet anthropologists such as V.V. Bunak , A.I. Yarkho, G.F. Debetz, M.G. Abdushelishvili, V.P. Alexeyev, T.I. Alexeyeva , Yu.G. Rychkov, O.I. Ismagulov, I.M. Zolotareva, etc. Owing to Russia’s vast territory, its population is quite diverse in terms of race (two of the 3-5 geographic races – European and Asiatic) and language (six linguistic families). A three-digit number of ethnic groups and scores of anthropological types and linguistic subgroups contribute to a huge genetic diversity. Different attributes of the gene pool and all the variation accumulated over the previous phases of development will be discussed in the multivariate space and in the geographic context of northern Eurasia. The principal component analysis was based on the correlation matrix of independent traits (morphological and genetic) co-varying with economic and cultural attributes. Data were subdivided according to two chronological stages spanning the time from the Paleolithic to the present, and integrated patterns of genetic variation were assessed based on the covariation of independent traits (“historical correlation”). A correlation between the age of the trait and its distribution area has been established. A marked difference between the gene pools of modern populations of northern Eurasia living west and east of the Urals, reflected in both genetic and morphological traits and prevailing over most part of ancient history (two chronological stages – 26–16 and 15–12 thousand years ago), is unrelated to recent changes in ethnic structure. The results are presented as distribution maps of single traits and of the first principal component.
Key words: Northern Eurasia, genetic polymorphisms, principal component analysis
TO THE QUESTION OF DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIFIC INFECTIONS AMONG RURAL MEDIEVAL POPULATION IN RUSSIA: THE CASE OF ROZHDESTVENO CEMETERY (15TH–16TH CENT. AD) (p. 81)
Shvedchikova Tatiana1, Berezina Natalia2
1Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Our study was based on the osteological material from a rural cemetery of the settlement Rozhdestveno I (Odintsovo, Moscow region). The material was obtained due to salvage excavations in 2006-2007 under the direction of Mikhail Gonyanyi. The burial site could be dated by the 15th-16th centuries AD according to the mass material and specific artefacts. Totally, 152 burials have been studied. Most of them were redeposited. This fact argues for the prolonged use of the same cemetery clusters partly due to the limitation of the dwellings existing on the border. High percentage of children’s mortality (42%) and the analysis of the stress markers on the skeletons of adult individuals permit to suppose the unfavorable living conditions in the community. Both among males and females (totally in 12.6% of cases), there is a complex of features which allows us to speak about a specific infection (treponemal). The most remarkable manifestations were found on the female skeleton (20-29 years old, burial 122). In spite of partial preservation and in some cases taphonomical destruction of the compact bone layer, we found substantial changes of the bone tissue on the long bones of extremities, scapulae and ribs. Proliferate changes of the surface are noted on almost all preserved bones. Acromial processes of the scapulas and outer surface of the 12th rib are covered by porous layers. Also on the upper and lower extremities the regions of periosteal inflammation are marked. On the tibial and femoral bones the process is more manifested. Deep lesion focus (12.6 mm) in the distal part of the left tibia involves the medullar canal and differs from the gummatous destructions on the right tibia. Probably it is a complication of the syphilitic gumma by secondary pyogenic infection, which led to syphilitic osteomyelitis. The presented case is the most expressed and typical for the tertiary syphilis among the investigated material of the Rozhdestveno I site. Written sources testify to the extensive expansion of this disease on the territory of Europe at the end of 15th–16th centuries. It can be confirmed by synchronous findings in Rostov Velikyi, Vologda, Mozhaisk and serves as an evidence of the appearance of venereal syphilis on the territory of Eastern-European lowland.
Key words: palaeopathology, 15th-16th centuries, treponemal infection, medieval Russia
THE ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE PROCESSES IN THE POPULATION OF ELISTA (p. 82)
Spitsyna Nailiya1, Spitsyn Viktor2, Balinova Natalia1
1Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Research Centre of Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
This paper presents the results of the analysis of reproductive processes in the urban population of Elista, Kalmykia, and comparative data on other urban populations of the Volga-Ural region. Within the new context of changes in demographic processes, it is interesting to assess their effects on reproduction. The study was carried out in Elista as a sample survey of 460 women older than 45 by measuring indices of potential selection (IТ) and its components following Crow’s method (1958). On average, there were 5.8177 pregnancies, 2.1448 births and 3.3224 abortions per one post-reproductive woman. The variance in the average number of children (Vf) is below the average itself, evidencing stability of reproduction. The share of obstetric pathologies (spontaneous abortions, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies and stillbirths) amounts to 0.27, which is slightly higher than in the Kazan population (0.22). Thus it could be stated that only 37% of all pregnancies ended in delivery; and accordingly 57% of pregnancies were artificially or spontaneously terminated. The study of potential selection indexes in urban populations revealed a sharp increase in the contribution of non-biological factors to the selection coefficient value: the force of social pressure is 2.9412 in Stavropol, 2.7399 in Kazan, 2.5418 in Cheboksary, 2.0595 in Saransk, 0.9930 in Syktyvkar, and 1.3092 in Elista. The employment of different methods for the calculation of the total index allowed, for the first time ever, to quantify the contribution of the social component to the value of selection coefficient in a population (Spitsyna, 2006). It is shown that artificial control of reproduction has different effects on reproductive processes in populations by diminishing individual differences in fertility selection and fitness. These results enhance our understanding of the influence of biological and environmental components on reproductive processes in human populations. The study was partly supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for the Humanities # 12-01-00063a.
Key words: population, potential selection, reproduction, fertility, obstetric pathology
THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL MAP OF BULGARIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY: CORRECTING A CONSCIOUS ERROR (p. 82)
Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
In 1938–1943 the famous Bulgarian academician, physiologist and genetic Methody Popov, who opposed Nazi racial theories, collected a large anthropological material. This is the second and the widest ethno-anthropological survey of the Bulgarian population. The material has been elaborated and the results were published only after M. Popov’s death (1954) by his student Georgi Markov in 1959. However, because of political reasons Markov had to make a conscious error in the text (not in the numeric data), to ensure the publication of the results. This error has been repeated in some later Bulgarian works about the anthropology of Bulgarians for inner use. In this paper the material of M. Popov’s survey is analyzed by region and by county, using methods such as cluster analysis, which have not been applied to those data. The results are compared with those of three other nationwide ethno-anthropological surveys of Bulgaria carried out in the 20th century. This analysis shows that the anthropological map of Bulgaria is very patchy. Northern Bulgaria is an area of predominance of the Dinaric type (in combination with Alpine and East Baltic types), which is characteristic of Central Europe. Southern Bulgaria is the area of Atlanto-Pontian (Atlanto-Mediterranean) type. There are few areas of intrusion of Dinaric forms in southern Bulgaria – in the eastern part of Sofia region, in the Rhodopes, and in Eastern Thrace. There are also areas of Atlanto-Pontian intrusions in North Bulgaria – along the Black sea coast and along the Danube. However, the Atlanto-Pontian type (which is the most frequent anthropologic type in Bulgarians) is concentrated mostly in southeastern, not northeastern Bulgaria, as in the text published by G. Markov. This confirms the opinion of anthropologists such as J. Czekanowski, C. Coon, A. Poulianos, V. Alekseyev, etc., that modern Bulgarians descend mainly from ancient populations living in the Balkans before the Great Barbarian Migration. This conclusion is confirmed by dermatoglyphic and genetic studies.
Key words: bulgarians, ethnic anthropology, Dinaric type, Atlanto-Pontic type, political misuse of anthropology
ANGULAR MORPHOMETRY OF SKULLS OF THE ABORIGINES OF LOYALTY ISLANDS, MELANESIA (p. 82)
Sviridov Alexey, Vasilyev Sergey
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
The purpose of this work was to study a series of 67 crania from Loyalty Islands, Northern Melanesia, housed at the Musée de l’Homme in Paris. The main tasks are to reveal specific features of morphogenetic parameters of male and female crania and to calculate primary statistical characteristics. This series was collected mainly in the first half of the 19th century, after the islands had been colonized by the French. Other specimens come from archaeological excavations in the mid-20th century. The series was measured according to the cranio-trigonometric program elaborated by the authors and tested for homogeneity using standard deviations and coefficients of variation. Crania from Loyalty Islands are generally dolichocranic and often higher than wide. The face is relatively low and wide with alveolar prognathism, very wide nose, low orbits, sharp horizontal profile, and flat nasalia. This combination is observed among both males and females. Based on the principal component analysis of the angular parameters of the braincase, we can conclude that males from Lifou and Maré islands are distinguished by sagittaly curved parietal bones. Braincases of females are less variable. When females and males are analyzed simultaneously, their braincase shapes show few differences, though absolute dimensions reveal some sexual dimorphism. In terms of facial angles, males fall into two groups regardless of the islands. Facial skeletons of females are more uniform. Their simultaneous analysis with the principal component method revealed no sexual dimorphism in angular parameters.
Key words: craniometry, Melanesia, Loyalty Islands
PALAEOANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE POPULATION OF ABASHEVO CULTURE, WHICH LEFT THE SECOND LIPETSK BARROW (p. 83)
Tyurin Ruslan1, Borutskaya Svetlana2, Vasilyev Sergey3
1“Terra”, Voronez, Russia
2Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
In 2011 employees of the State directorate for protection of cultural heritage of Lipetsk region under the guidance of Golotvin A.N. (PhD) performed rescue excavations of the partially destroyed archaeology site – the “Second Lipetsk barrow” situated in the southern outskirts of Lipetsk, in the watershed plateau of the Voronezh and Belokolodets rivers (the right bank of the Voronezh river). The excavations revealed three grave pits arranged along the North-South line. The grave pit 1 was situated in the southern part of the barrow, had subrectangular shape, and was oriented along the North-South line. On the bottom of the pit, the archaeologists recorded five human skeletons on the organic bedding. All the buried people were lying on their backs, with their heads oriented eastwards and their hands in the pelvis area. All the skeletons were more or less disrupted. The grave pit 2 was situated in the central part of the barrow, had subrectangular shape, and was oriented along the North-South line. On the bottom of the pit, the archaeologists recorded fragments of four human skeletons on the organic bedding. The skeletons were completely disrupted, only leg bones of two individuals were lying in situ – they suggest that the buried people were lying with their heads oriented eastwards (as in the pit 1). The grave pit 3 was situated in the northern part of the barrow, had subrectangular shape, and its long axis was oriented along the East-West line. On the bottom of the pit, there was a human skeleton on the organic bedding. The skeleton was lying in situ, on the back, with hands in the pelvis area and with head oriented eastwards. According to the author of excavations (Golotvin A.N.), the graves of the “Second Lipetsk barrow” belong to the burials of aristocratic warriors of the Don-Volga Abashevo culture. Moreover, Golotivin A.N. and Pryakhin A.D. find there some features characteristic for the Catacomb culture (flinty arrowheads, individual elements of knives). The С14 dates allow preliminary dating of the complex to the 3rd-2nd millennia BC. Thus, the burials of the “Second Lipetsk barrow” contained about 10 individuals. We have performed the craniological reconstruction and measured the skulls. Moreover, we have studied the osteological materials, examined the body proportions, calculated the intravital statures (about 170 cm for males and 162 cm for females), estimated the muscular texture (which is well-marked among the males) and revealed stress markers and palaeopathological changes (enamel hypoplasia, dental calculus).
Key words: palaeoanthropology, craniology, osteology, Abashevo culture
FORENSIC GENETIC DATABASES FOR MIXED POULATIONS (p. 84)
Udina Irina1, Tsibovsky Iosif2, Veremeichik Vera2, Kurbatova Olga1
1Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Science Practical Center of the State Committee of Forensic Expertise of Belarus Republic, Minsk, Belarus
A genetic and demographic study of the Minsk, Moscow and Kharkov populations was performed using questionnaire and census data. Three megalopolises, differing in population size, are characterized by heterogeneous ethnic composition, high migration coefficients ranging from 0.40 to 0.55, long average migration distances (564–921 km) and a high proportions of interethnic marriages (up to 33%) resulting in intensive gene flow between ethnic groups. These populations can therefore be considered as mixed in the genetic and anthropological senses. In samples from the most numerous ethnic groups of the three megalopolises – Byelorussians of Minsk (N=370), Russians of Moscow (N=205), and Ukrainians of Kharkov (N=115) – comparative analysis was carried out using the frequency distribution of 18 autosomal forensic STR loci (vWA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D7S820, D13S317, D16S539, F13B, D18S51, D8S1179, D21S11, FGA, PentaE, PentaD, D2S1338, D19S433, D3S1758). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was demonstrated in all three samples. No significant differentiation was observed in the total loci set, indicating close genetic relationship between the three Eastern Slavic peoples in forensic autosomal STR loci. The three samples demonstrate a low level of genetic differentiation: estimates of genetic distance (Nei, 1978) between the samples lie in the 0.9968–0.9990 interval, and average Fst equals 0.0240 for the 18 loci. The estimates of expected and observed heterozygosity by 18 STR loci are as follows: Byelorussians (Minsk) – He = 0.7942, Ho = 0.7730; Russians (Moscow) – He = 0.7926, Ho = 0.7719 and Ukrainians (Kharkov) – He = 0.7895, Ho = 0.7761. Lower values of observed heterozygosity compared to expected heterozygosity are caused by migration flow within the main ethnic group to the population of the megalopolis from other subdivided populations, demonstrating the Wahlund effect. Peculiarities of genetic and demographic parameters of the three megalopolises are discussed in the context of the problem of forensic genetic databases formation (autosomal STR, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers) for mixed populations. A more intense male migration suggests more significant dynamics of genetic markers of Y-chromosome, compared to mitochondrial DNA markers. For the forensic genetic database of Minsk it is important that the main migration flow comes from the territory of Belarus and consists of ethnic Byelorussians with low migration from Russia or Ukraine.
Key words: forensic genetic database, STR loci, megalopolis, mixed population, genetic-demographic parameters, migration, gene flow
EARLY MEDIEVAL COPTS OF THE FAYOUM OASIS, EGYPT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY (p. 85)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
This study deals with skeletal remains of the early medieval Copts from the necropolis of Deir el-Naqlun, the Fayoum Oasis, Egypt. That these skeletons and mummified bodies are indeed Coptic follows from the fact that they were found during excavations at the territory of a Coptic monastery and there were some elements of Coptic monastic garments on many of them. The study was performed together with the Center of Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2002. We studied 30 skulls using the standard craniological program. Twenty of them belonged to males and ten to females. The cranial index is average and most male skulls tend to mesocrany. Height indices of the braincase suggest that male skulls are medium high. The facial skeleton of males is relatively narrow (lepten). The orbital index is average and so are nasal dimensions. The horizontal facial profile in males is very sharp, especially at the middle level. Such profiles are characteristic of Caucasoids. The cephalic index characterizes female skulls as mesocranic with a tendency to dolichocrany. According to height indices, they are relatively high. The facial indices suggest that females had relatively narrow faces, high orbits, and average nasal dimensions. Their faces are more sharply profiled than those of males. Postcrania are represented by skeletons of six males and two females and by more than fifty isolated long bones from collective graves. Preliminary studies showed that the average stature of males, calculated after V.V. Bunak’s formula, equaled 164.8 cm and that of females, 156.2 cm.
Key word: physical anthropology, craniology, osteology, Copts, Egypt
CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF ANCIENT ANATOLIAN POPULATIONS: MOUND OF VAN FORTRESS AND KARAGÜNDÜZ SAMPLES (p. 86)
Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Anthropology, Kırşehir-Turkey, Turkey
This study aims to compare craniometric traits of Van-Karagündüz and Mound of Van Fortress (MVF-Christian and MVF-Islamic) populations which lived during the Middle Ages, and to assesss biological relationships between these groups and their affinities with other Anatolian populations. We used 8 measurements (maximum cranial length, maximum cranial breadth, basion-bregma height, porion-bregma height, bizygomatic breadth, upper facial height, nasal height, nasal breadth) and 3 indices (cranial index, upper facial index, nasal index) on crania of 191 skeletons belonging to three populations. SPSS 19 was used for calculating biological distances and for cluster analysis, from which phenograms were derived. Results of cluster analysis separate MVF-Christian and MVF-Islamic populations even though they lived in the same place and at the same time. In addition, we recognized two distinct subgroups within the populations (MVF-Christian and Karagündüz) and (MVF-Islamic and Tepecik). Both subgroups lived in Van. These populations were similar to other contemporary eastern and western Anatolian populations such as Dilkaya, Panaztepe, Datça, Nikolaos, Truva 2. However, they were distinct from Çatalhöyük, Boğazköy, Çayönü, Hisarlık, İznik and even farther from Tilkitepe, Sardis, Alişar and Lidar. The results suggest that contemporaneous groups tend to be closer to one another than chronologically diverse ones.