Key words: Bronze Age, Southern Urals, Sintashta-Arkaim, Potapovka, Indo-Iranian origins
FINGER LENGTH RATIO IN CHUVASHIANS (p. 73)
Kobyliansky Eugene1, Kalichman Leonid2
1Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
2Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
In a Chuvashian sample (803 males and 738 females) we evaluated the mean values of 2D:4D ratio, the contributions of phalanges and metacarpals to the 2D:4D ratio; the symmetry between right and left 2D:4D ratios. Age, sex, anthropometric data and radiographs of both hands were collected. Each hand was visually classified with the x-ray method as either Type 1 (index finger longer than ring finger); Type 2 (equal); or Type 3 (shorter than the ring finger). The following measurements were obtained from the index and ring fingers: (1) midpoint of base of the proximal phalanx to midpoint of tip of the distal phalanx; and (2) midpoint of the base to midpoint of tip of the metacarpal. Visual classification was significantly associated with the measured 2D:4D length ratio. Women had a higher prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2, but lower prevalence of Type 3 ratio in both hands. Men had lower measured 2D:4D phalangeal, metacarpal and ray (combined) ratios than women. Symmetry between the right and left hand measured 2D:4D ratios were significant in phalangeal (r=0.657, p<0.001), metacarpal (r=0.638, p<0.001), ray (r=0.682, p<0.001) ratios and visual classification types (contingency coefficient = 0.559, p<0.001). No sex dimorphism was found between the right and left hands. Correlations between age and visual classification were significant on both sides before and after adjustment for sex. This is probably a sign of a secular trend and should be replicated in other samples. Evaluation of the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age and length of reproductive period was done. Retrospective data on the age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 (mean 46.32±15.42). We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure were associated with a later menarche and shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
Key words: hand, 2D:4D, finger length ratio, menarche, menopause, Chuvashians
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF KAZAN TATARS (p. 74)
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Kazan Tatars are the largest group of the Volga-Ural Tatars. They reside in the Republic of Tatarstan and other parts of the Volga-Ural region. The report deals only with Tatars living in Tatarstan. New archival and field dermatoglyphics materials were used (six samples). For the first time in Russia, dermatoglyphic data were analyzed in the diachronic aspect. Four samples were collected during the expedition of the Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology MSU in 1937–38 headed by S.A. Shluger, V.M. Shapkin, and I.N. Elistratov. The total sample size is 1147 (845 males, 302 females). The sample was divided with regard to four districts (northern, eastern, southern and western). Two samples were collected by the author during the 2012 expedition in Zelenodolsk district (northwest) and Elabuga district (northeast) of the Republic of Tatarstan (83 males, 80 females). Altogether 928 males and 382 females were investigated. Dermatoglyphic data suggest that Kazan Tatars are a heterogeneous Eastern European population which includes southern European and hybrid Caucasoid-Mongoloid components. The 1937–38 samples (males and females) are more Mongoloid than those collected in 2012, and the tendency is more prominent in males.The decrease of the Mongoloid component over the last 70 years can be related to extensive population immigration of Slavic people to the region caused by its industrial and agricultural development. All female samples were more heterogeneous already in 1937–38. There is also a pronounced Southern European component in one of the modern samples (Tatars of northwestern Tatarstan).
Key words: Tatars, dermatoglyphics, Volga-Ural region, ethnic history
THE ANCIENT POPULATION OF LCHASHEN AS A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE BRONZE AGE ARMENIAN POPULATION (p. 74)
Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia
The settlement and cemetery of Lchashen are located on the southwestern shore of Lake Sevan. Lchashen is one of the most significant sites representing the Middle and Late Bronze Age culture of Armenia. The excavations of the cemetery were started by H. Mnatsakanyan in the 1950s and continued by L. Petrossyan until the 2000s. The skeletal collection at the State Historical Museum of Armenia totals over 300 cranial samples and over 100 postcranial skeletons representing people associated with the Middle and Late Bronze Age Sevan-Artsakh and Lchashen-Metsamor cultures. The Bronze Age sample from Lchashen is the most representative among the published contemporaneous samples from Caucasus. Cranial measurements of this sample were published by V. Alekseev. Those people were dolichocranic and had broad faces and robust skeletons. The precise dating of the funerary complexes, conducted by P. Avetisyan and A. Piliposyan has made it possible to subdivide the sample into three main periods of the Middle and Late Bronze Age (MBA––17th-16th/15th centuries BC; LBA I – 15th-13th centuries BC, LBA II – 13th-12th centuries BC) and to evaluate the changes of physical type over several centuries. Late Bronze Age crania turned out to be more gracile. This transformation was assessed in the cultural context and interpreted as resulting from the consolidation of the Late Bronze Age Lchashen-Metsamor culture and gracilization caused by admixture and other microevolutionary processes. Sex and age data on the Lchashen sample are representative and can be used for the reconstruction of demographic patterns. Mortality indexes indicate relative longevity of the Middle and Late Bronze Age people of Lchashen relative to other contemporaneous populations of Eurasia. The distinctive feature of this longevity is the predominance of elderly males in relation to females of the same age. This disproportion is likely related to the high social rank of patriarchs. Another demographic feature is the high mortality of females in the reproductive age. Owing to the large size of the Lchashen sample, its average craniometric and osteometric parameters can in some sense be regarded as standard. The Late Bronze Age Lchashen-Metsamor culture was also named after the Etiuni ethnonym uncovered in the Urartian cuneiform inscriptions (P. Avetisyan, H. Avetisyan). If so, the Etiuni people were moderately robust, tall, and quite long-lived.
Key words: Bronze Age, Sevan-Artsakh culture, Lchashen-Metsamor culture, robusticity, gracilization, microevolution, longevity
ON THE ORIGIN OF MEDIEVAL EAST SLAVIC TRIBES (p. 75)
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Nonmetric cranial trait frequencies in medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. The aims of the study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to reveal their genetic affinities with the autochthonous (Baltic and Finno-Ugric) populations of northeastern Europe; and (3) to see if a genetic continuity existed between people of the Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. Analyses of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei’s standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow but, more importantly, to their common population history. Evidence of gene flow between the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was revealed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the preceding Chernyakhov population. These findings support a “generalizing” hypothesis of East Slavic origin whereby the Slavonic community was formed in a particular ancestral area and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe.
Key words: East Slavs, Balts, Finno-Ugrians, Chernyakhov culture, cranial nonmetric traits
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ADMIXTURE BETWEEN BAYASH ROMA FROM NORTHWESTERN CROATIA AND THE GENERAL CROATIAN POPULATION (p. 76)
Novokmet Natalija1, Galov Ana2, Marjanović Damir3,4, Škaro Vedrana3, Projić Petar3, Lauc Gordan3,5, Primorac Dragan6,7,8, Rudan Pavao1,9
1Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
2Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
3Genos Ltd, DNA Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia
4Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
5Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
6Medical School, University of Split, Split, Croatia
7Eberly College of Science, Penn State University, University Park, USA
8University of New Haven, New Haven, USA
9Anthropological Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb, Croatia
The Roma are a minority group that do not share a common homeland, speak different languages and consist of individuals of various religions. Population-genetic studies of Roma as a transnational isolate have mostly sought to compare their genetic affinities with proposed parental populations. The aim of this study is to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia, and of the general Croatian population, and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. Population differentiation and structure were analyzed using a set of genetic microsatellite data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population). Results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure. Most individuals of the Bayash Roma population were assigned to a single genetic cluster and most individuals of the general Croatian population were assigned to another. Admixture analysis revealed that the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in the general Croatian population is approximately twice higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in the Romani population. Higher percentages of admixed and non-Croatian individuals found in the general Croatian population and lower percentages of admixed and non-Roma individuals found in the Bayash Roma population are in line with the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.
Key words: population substructure; admixture; Bayash Roma, ethnomimicry
POSSIBLY THE FIRST CASE OF AGENESIS OF SECOND AND THIRD MOLARS IN HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS FROM KENDIRCI HELLENISTIC PERIOD GRAVES, TURKEY (p. 77)
Özer Ismail1, Sağır Mehmet1, Özer Başak Koca1, Güngör Kahraman2, Ozbulut Zehra3, Güleç Erksin1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Languages, History and Geography, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Turkey
2Gazi University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Ankara, Turkey
3Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Anthropology, Van, Turkey
Human dental studies spanning the period from the Paleolithic to the present revealed an extremely high variation in the occurrence of agenesis in different populations. The aim of the present study is to study agenesis in the ancient population of Kendirci, Izmir, Turkey. The site is located on the western coast of the country – the Aegean region – and dates to the Hellenistic Period. Nineteen graves with 11 adult skeletons (7 males and 4 females)were excavated. Images of mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Results revealed skeletal lesions including joint and infectious diseases, and mild and severe lesions of jaws and teeth. Possibly the first case of the agenesis of eight molars (congenitally missing four second molars and four third molars) was recorded in an adult male. Congenitally missing teeth other than the third molars are rarely observed in ancient human skeletal remains. Our results contribute an additional information on this rare trait in western Anatolians during the Hellenistic Period.
Key words: human skeletal remains, agenesis, Hellenistic Period, Anatolia
AN ANALYSIS OF PATRILATERAL KIN INVESTMENT BIASES IN TWO PATRILOCAL KIPCHAK TURK POPULATIONS FROM KIRGIZSTAN AND BASHKORTOSTAN (p. 77)
Pashos Alexander1, Kinjabaeva Gulnazira2, Ismailbekova Aksana1, Yuliya Absalyamova3, Niemitz Carsten4
1Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Halle/Saale, Germany
2Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia
3Institute of History, Language and Literature, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia
4Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Kinship network structures are an important part of the human family and of nepotistic helping behavior. Matrilineal kinship links are universally stronger than patrilineal ones, at least in urban or modernized societies. In Sociobiology, the higher kin caregiving by matrilateral relatives, especially by the maternal grandmother and maternal aunts, is explained by the kin selection theory in combination with the paternity certainty hypothesis. A mother always knows that her child is genetically related to her, whereas in the male family line there is uncertainty of genetic relatedness and therefore more reluctance in child-care. Nevertheless, in some traditional societies (e.g., rural mainland Greece), patrilateral kin caregiving seems to be stronger than matrilateral one. This cannot be explained by the paternity certainty hypothesis; however, it might be a result of son-biased child investment. We focus on two Kipchak Turk populations, which are both patrilocal and assumed to still have a more or less traditional patriarchal family structure, in order to test the universality of kin caregiving structures and its evolutionary interpretation. In Kirgizstan, we found very strong patrilateral and patrilineal kin caregiving ties, in keeping with the patrilineal structure of the society. In Bashkortostan, by contrast, both matri- and patrilateral tendencies existed side by side. Overall, Bashkirs appear to be at an intermediate modernization level, characterized by stronger matrilineal family ties and matrilineal child-care.
Key words: asymmetric kin caregiving, kin selection, paternity certainty, matrilineal investment, patrilateral bias, Kirgizstan, Bashkortostan
CRANIOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF MODERN MANKIND (p. 78)
Pestryakov Alexandr, Grigorieva Olga
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
To assess the patterns of human cranial differentiation we used characteristics other than those traditionally employed in racial studies. Based on the size and shape of the skull three modern craniotypes were established – Tropids, Holarctids, and Pacifids. Differences between them concern three major dimensions of the braincase (Martin 1, 8, and 17) and their ratios, as proposed by V.V. Bunak (1922). In addition to standard ratios (8:1, 17:1, 17:8) the following generalized parameters were used: ORV (total growth dimension) = (12+82+172)1/2 and indexes of form: dolichoid = (1/8*1/17)1/2*100; brahioid = (8/1*8/17) 1/2*100; hipsioid = (17/1*17/8) 1/2*100. The Tropids originated in the tropical zone of the Old World. They have the smallest crania with ORV=262.6, with the largest longitudinal diameter and the smallest transverse diameter. Holarctids, who originated in northern Eurasia, are characterized by the largest crania ORV=266.7, the largest transverse development, and the smallest cranial height. The Pacifids originated in East Asia and spread on both sides of the Pacific (in Asia and America). They are characterized by large crania (ORV=265.7), which are high and broad but short. Apart from these groups, there are also local ones such as Capoids (Bushmen and Hottentots) and Tropical Pacifids (Andamanese and Aeta). This classification is based on general cranial shape, not on “racial” traits. Therefore certain disagreement between geographic races and craniotypes is predictable (Pestryakov, 1995; Pestryakov, Grigorieva, 2004).
Key words: craniometry, cranial differentiation, cranial types
FROM BIOLOGICAL HISTORY AND DEMOGRAPHY TO LINGUISTICS AND DNA ANALYSIS: A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO POPULATION STRUCTURE STUDIES IN THE ADRIATIC AREA (p. 78)
Rudan Pavao1, Sujoldzic Anita2
1Anthropological Centre of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb, Croatia
2Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
Anthropological research of modern European populations indicates pronounced diversity between and among various groups, confirming the complexity of interactions of the components of the “eternal triangle” (heredity, environment and culture). Such studies require an interdisciplinary approach and a large scale of diverse data: sociocultural, linguistic, archeological, anthropo-genetic, biological, and biomedical. For several decades, holistic anthropological research, based on the belief that human evolution and variability can be understood only by the simultaneous study of biological and socio-cultural phenomena, has been conducted in the Eastern Adriatic and in the Balkan region as well. Detailed characterization of historical events, population movements and migrations, demographic peculiarities, family structure, linguistic peculiarities, and various biological and genetic traits were investigated, revealing possible routes of peopling of this geographic area. Within the context of this research, this paper will address various scenarios of microevolution, including factors such as population exchange, demic diffusion, short-term and long-term migration movements and population mobility, possible founder effects, the form of selection of reproductive partners, the effect of possible settling and population reflux and the dependence of demographic characteristics of various historical groups. Current findings concerning mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome lineages of the population of Eastern Adriatic will be analyzed and interpreted with an emphasis on the fact that historical processes are the laboratory in which modern human populations were created.
Key words: anthropology, population structure, bio-cultural evolution, migrations, history
THE SCYTHIANS AND SARMATIANS IN THE STEPPES OF SOUTH RUSSIA: CHANGE OF EPOCHS – REPLACEMENT OF GENE POOLS (p. 79)
Rychkov Sergey1, Morozova Irina1, Batieva Elena2, Kullanda Sergey3, Kovalevskaya Vera4, Afanasieva Alexandra5, Zhukova Olga1
1Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Arid Zones, Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
3Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
4Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
5Centre for Egyptological Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
The Russian steppes, due to their geographic location, have always served as a meeting place of cultures and peoples. It seems likely that contacts of Iranian-speaking nomads, i.e. Scythians and their successors Sarmatians, with the sedentary population in the beginning of the Early Iron Age influenced not only cultural traditions but also the genetic diversity of both parties. Comparative analysis of data on the nomads’ genetic diversity implies that in spite of certain linguistic affinity, they are by no means similar genetically. The gene pool of the Scythians, i.e., Scythian nomads of the Volga-Don interfluve of the 6th – 3rd centuries BC) contains two distinct components, East Eurasian and West Eurasian, the latter amounting to 70 percent. As to Sarmatians, i.e. the nomads roaming the left bank of the Don in the Middle-Sarmatian time, their gene pool is 94 percent West Eurasian. Comparative analysis of the gene pool components showed that mtDNA lineages belonging to the West Eurasian component common to these groups were nevertheless different by origin, and their affinity seems to be rooted in the early stage of the West Eurasian gene pool formation. Thus, the main waves of Iranian-speaking nomads introduced very different gene pools into the Southern Russian steppes. The genetic diversity of the early wave, the Scythians, is associated with Central Asia and Southern Siberia; while the later wave, the Sarmatians, carried the gene pool of Middle Eastern origin. Interestingly, the genetic conclusions are in accord with linguistic data implying that contrary to the predominant view, Scythian and Sarmatian languages belonged to different East-Iranian subgroups. It is worth noting that genetic traces of the two nomadic groups differ considerably. The Scythian gene diversity cannot be revealed either in ancient sedentary or in modern population of the Azov steppes. Meanwhile Sarmatian genetic influence can still be traced both in the ancient sedentary and modern population of the Russian steppes and the neighboring regions.
Key words: Scythians, Sarmatians, gene pool
MORPHOLOGY OF SELLA TURCICA IN TURKISH ADULTS FROM PAST TO PRESENT (p. 80)
Sahin Serkan1, Taner R. Lale2, Güngör Kahraman3, Uzuner F. Deniz2, Sağır Mehmet1, Özer Başak Koca1, Özer İsmail1, Güleç Erksin1