|Вестник Московского университета. Серия XXIII. Антропология.
Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia
2014. N 3
HUMANS ARE NOT COOPERATIVE BREEDERS BUT PRACTICE BIOCULTURAL REPRODUCTION (p. 15)
Bogin Barry1, Bragg Jared2, Kuzawa Christopher2
1School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
2Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
Alloparental care and feeding of young is often called ‘cooperative breeding’ and humans are increasingly described as being a cooperative breeding species. We critically evaluate whether the human offspring care system is best grouped with that of other cooperative breeders. We find that human reproduction and offspring care are distinct from other species because alloparental behaviour is defined culturally rather than by genetic kinship alone. This system allows local flexibility in provisioning strategies and ensures that care and resources often flow between unrelated individuals. This study proposes the term “biocultural reproduction” to describe this unique human reproductive system. Human biocultural reproduction lowers the lifetime reproductive effort of individual women by 14–29% compared to expectations based upon other mammals. This efficiency could help explain lifespan extension beyond menopause. There are risks and trade-offs from the evolution of biocultural reproduction, including childhood neglect, social brain malfunction, and diseases of aging.
Key words: alloparenting, human life history, childhood, lifetime reproductive effort, longevity
Global growth charts: new concepts of generating national and regional references for height, weight, and BMI from 0–18 years (p. 15)
Hermanussen Michael1, Karol Stec2, van Buuren S.3, Meigen C.4
1Aschauhof, Altenhof, Germany
2University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics Group, Potsdam-Golm, Germany
3TNO Prevention and Health, LEIDEN, The Netherlands
4Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, Bonn, Germany
Background: The world-wide variation in human growth has long been documented. The present work was undertaken to re-analyse the between-population variance in growth, and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating growth references. Material and methods: We meta-analyzed 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831 using Preece-Baines analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Maximum Likelihood Principle (MLP) for non-linear optimization was used to generate synthetic growth references for any desired population. Results: PCA revealed five components that explain 98.4% of the between-study variance in mean height, 99.2% of this variance in mean weight, and 93% (females) and 94% (males) of this variance in mean BMI. Combining PCA and MLP improves generating synthetic growth references, with average residuals for mean height of 0.92 cm when registering at 2 age groups, and 0.45 cm when registering at 5 age groups. Conclusion: PCA provides global descriptions of height, weight and BMI for the full age range (0–18 years). Combining PCA and MLP can be used for plausibility checks in growth investigations, and for generating synthetic growth references for any population that lacks autochthonous growth references, e.g. modern African populations, migrants, or ethnic minorities.
Key words: auxology, growth studies, meta-analysis, national and regional references, synthetic growth charts, 0-18 age range
CRANIOMETRY OF THE BRONZE AGE STEPPE POPULATIONS OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE (WITH REFERENCE TO THE INDO-EUROPEAN PROBLEM) (p. 16)
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Archaeological and linguistic data suggest that Chalcolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants of the Russian and Ukrainian steppes were mostly Indo-Europeans. Which of the theories concerning the Indo-European (IE) homeland – “Kurgan”, Central/Western European (СWE) or Anatolian – shows a better agreement with the cranial evidence? What can cranial data tell us about the dispersal of filial IE groups such as Indo-Aryans and Iranians? My database includes more than 250 male cranial series. Measurements were processed using canonical variate analysis and Mahalanobis distance.
Most Early and Middle Bronze Age series (all Pit-Grave and 20 of 22 Catacomb as well as Poltavka and Potapovka) are closer to the pooled local Chalcolithic (Sredni Stog and Khvalynsk) group than to the pooled Chalcolithic and Bronze Age groups either from CWE or the Near East, indicating population continuity in the steppes but, in contrast to what most EU homeland theories predict, few migrations either to or from the steppes. Exceptions are Maikop, Kemi-Oba, Tamar-Utkul, two early Catacomb, Babino, and one Sintashta group. They are closer to the pooled Near Eastern series than to the steppe Chalcolithic. Three early Catacomb groups and Babino deviate also toward the pooled CWE series.
A more detailed analysis reveals CWE parallels to certain Pit-Grave and Catacomb series. An especially close analogy is the Ostorf group, northern Germany, representing the Tiefstichkeramik variant of the Funnel Beaker Culture, which may be proto-EU. Apart from steppe parallels, this group has a geographically remote parallel in Central Asia – the Bronze Age Okunev group from Aimyrlyg, Tuva, which also resembles certain Pit-Grave and Catacomb people. This might evidence a long-distance eastward migration of Indo-Iranians along the steppes. The Aimyrlyg skeletons, like the Xinjiang mummies, possibly mark the easternmost reaches of that migration. Among the later (Early Iron Age) people, the Aimyrlyg population is very similar to European steppe Scythians, supporting the archaeological theory of their Central Asian origin. If this theory is correct, then Scythians may have acquired their Iranian language not from their predecessors in the steppes – the Timber-Grave people – but from an early group of Iranian migrants from Europe to Central Asia.
Key words: Indo-Europeans, indo-european homeland, indo-european migrations, Indo-Iranians, Aryans, Iranians, Scythians, physical anthropology, craniometry
GENETICS, GENOMICS AND METABOLOMICS OF HUMAN BODY COMPOSITION (p. 16)
Human Population Biology Research Unit, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, Division of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, KCL, UK
A chronic degenerative disease is a disease in which irreversible degenerative changes occur in the affected anatomical structure(s) and/or physiological function(s) and which progressively deteriorate over time. This disease may affect virtually any organs’ system and function, including body composition, which will be in the focus of the present talk. Basically, body composition components include lean, fat and bone body mass. All three components are highly important for normal physiology and metabolism, and deviations from normal values are often associated with various pathological conditions. They include age related loss of muscle and bone mass (sarcopenia and osteoporosis respectively). However, despite extremely high incidence of both these conditions in the developed countries, often considered as new epidemics, and well established major contribution of the genetic factors, identification of the specific genetic polymorphisms is far from the completion. Huge effort is now invested in study of various candidate genes and potential specific polymorphisms selected from functional genomic data-bases and implementing bioinformatics tools. Numerous whole genome linkage and currently association studies identifying hundreds of new suggestive polymorphisms and dozens of new genes are also waiting for approval from the same sources of functional genomics. These results if confirmed could be of considerable basic scientific and clinical significance, in particular for the personalized medicine. The present talk will illustrate this status of affairs in our research, focused on bone strength/fragility and sarcopenia related phenotypes. In particular, this presentation will show the main results of our research implementing modern “omics” methods including whole genome and metabolome studies to identify specific genetic factors and endogenous molecules associated with muscle mass and sarcopenia related phenotypes in general population. I will present some selected results of the GWAS and functional genomics analysis of the muscle mass variation obtained in largest up-to-date international consortium.
Key words: muscle mass, BMD, GWAS, candidate genes, association analysis
Epidemiological and Nutrition transition: the double burden of malnutrition (p. 17)
Mascie-Taylor Christopher Guy Nicholas
Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, UK
The theory of the epidemiological transition focuses on the complex changes in patterns of nutrition, health and disease and on the interactions between these patterns and their demographical, economical and sociological determinants and consequences. The theory was first put forward by Abdel R. Omran based on his analyses and comparisons of mortality patterns.
The Epidemiological Transition is obviously linked to demographic and nutrition transitions. As far as nutrition is concerned changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are partly responsible for the secular trend in average stature and alterations in body composition. However many modern societies have a diet high in saturated fat, sugar, and refined foods and low in fibre (this diet is often referred to as the “Western diet”) and this diet is associated with high levels of pre-obesity and obesity as well as increased risk of chronic and degenerative diseases e.g. diabetes.
Many countries are suffering from both undernutrition as well as overnutrition (i.e. the double burden of malnutrition).
This paper reviews these concepts and considers how aid programmes can impact on these transitions.
Key words: Epidemiological Transition, demography, malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition
MITOCHONDRIAL PSEUDOGENES, GENE FLOW AMONG AFRICAN HOMININS AND HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS (p. 18)
Department of Biology and Forensic Science Program, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA
Mitochondrial pseudogenes or nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) represent the fossils of vanished mtDNA molecules. Recent numt sequences have been inserted into the human nuclear genome after the reproductive separation of the hominin and chimpanzee lineages. In 2010 I characterized a 5841-bp numt on the human chromosome 1p36.33, called mtAncestor-1, and made a conclusion that it is likely to be a molecular relic of the mtDNA of Homo heidelbergensis. MtAncestor-1 was transferred into the nuclear genome of a common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans approximately 620,000 (440,000–820,000) years ago. In 2010 and 2014 the mtDNA sequences were published from the hominin remains found in Denisova Cave (Siberia, Russia) and Sima de los Huesos (SH) Cave (northern Spain). Phylogenetic analysis placed both sequences in the same group as mtAncestor-1 with a strong statistical support. This group diverged 840,000 (610,000–1,100,000) years ago from another cluster composing of the modern human and Neanderthal mtDNA sequences. The subsequent divergence of the human and Neanderthal mtDNAs starting 450,000 (320,000–600,000) years ago as well as the evolutionary radiation of the heidelbergensis-like (mtAncestor-1, Denisova and SH) mtDNAs approximately 570,000 (390,000–790,000) years ago demonstrated a deep division of mtDNA lineages that existed among African hominins in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. The transposition of the heidelbergensis-like mtDNA to the modern human and Neanderthal nuclear genomes provided for the first time the genetic evidence of gene flow from one African hominin group to another. This mtDNA illustrates the evolutionary connections between the African H. heidelbergensis, the Denisova and SH hominins of Eurasia, and the ancestral African population of modern humans and Neanderthals. Assuming that the SH hominins belonged to the Neanderthal lineage, it is plausible to suggest the broad distribution of the heidelbergensis-like mtDNA outside Africa among the Eurasian hominins, including the daughter lineages of H. heidelbergensis and the primitive forms of Neanderthals. Hence, this type of mtDNA cannot serve as an evolutionary marker identifying new hominins in Eurasia in the absence of their remains. Instead, the ancient genome data should be considered in conjunction with paleoanthropological record.
Key words: mitochondrial pseudogenes, mtAncestor-1, Homo heidelbergensis, mtDNA, gene flow
Section AGEING and SENESCENCE
FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF A HAND IN POLISH AND CZECH FEMALE SENIORS LIVING DIVERSIFIED LIFESTYLE (p. 19)
Ignasiak Z.2, Přidalová M.3, Skrzek A.1, Sebastjan A.2, Harásková D.3, Fugiel J.2, Sławińska T.2, Rożek K.1
1Faculty of Physiotherapy, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Polan
2Faculty of Physical Education, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland
3Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Involution as physiological and multi aspect changes in human body, can worsen the functioning of the elderly. Those changes concern not only the deterioration of motor performance, but influence also other body parts and by that they may cause self-care problems. Weakening of hand performance may be a result of a sarcopenia, the decline of strength and endurance or changes in the peripheral nervous system, such as a reduction in nerve conduction velocity, sensory perception or excitation coupling and contraction of motor units. Involution changes also cause minor disturbances of movement, handling and the eye-hand coordination. These factors may affect elder people daily activities, self-care, and thus result in considerable independence loss. The aim of this study was to analyze the involutional changes in the field of precise motor skills of a hand in older women living in different environmental conditions. There were 486 women included in the study, aged over 60 years recruited in Poland and Czech Republic. Research in Poland was part of the research project # N N404 MNiSzW 075337 at the Academy of Physical Education in Wroclaw, study in the Czech Republic was a part of the research project MSM 6198959221 at University in Olomouc. Both projects were approved by the Ethics Committee for Scientific Research. The measurement was conducted, using the Vienna test system. Aim, hands shaking, precision and speed of movements of arms and hands, dexterity of hands and fingers, the speed of the wrist and fingers were investigated The best results in coordination and movement of hands has been observed in women from Universities of the Third Age in Poland. It is very probable that it is effect of physical activity programs realised by these institutions. The study confirmed involutional changes in the analyzed precise motor movements of the upper limbs in all groups of older women. These changes were the greatest in the group of seniors presenting non active lifestyle, which indicates the important role of prevention programs in gerontology.
Key words: fine motor skills, involution, seniors, Vienna test system
VARIABILITY OF BODY CONTENT PARAMETERS AS AN INDICATOR OF BIOLOGICAL AGE IN HUMANS: INTRA- AND INTER-GROUP ASPECTS (p. 20)
Lapshina Natalia, Negasheva Marina
Department of Anthropology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Biological age assessment is a commonly used method for investigation of ageing processes in contemporary populations. In our study, we have used the method suggested by Gorelkin A.G. and Pinkhasov B.B. (2008) based on parameters of the stature, with the help of which, using the multiple regression equation, individual determination of the biological age and ageing rates in men and women can be performed. Anthropometric examination (total body sizes and body mass components) of 423 people (239 men and 184 women) at the age from 52 to 104 years old has been carried out in the three cities (Moscow, Barnaul, Tiraspol) with different ecological and socioeconomic conditions. Moscow is a megalopolis with population density maximal for Russia (more than 11.5 mln people). Barnaul is an administrative and scientific (research, medical, educational) center of Altai Region, one of the largest Siberian cities (633,000 people). Tiraspol is a capital of Trans-Dniester Moldavian Republic (in the south-east of Europe) with the population about 156,000 people. When biological age parameters (BA) were compared with the calendar age (CA), groups with slowed (BA < CA – 7 years), medium (BA = CA ± 7) and accelerated (BA > CA + 7) ageing rates have been detected in the examined subjects. In women and men with the slowed ageing rates, lower values of body mass index (BMI), decreased amount of total body mass and higher level of specific metabolism (kcal/m²) have been seen. Fat accumulation in the area of hips is more characteristic for women (based on the ratio of waist/hips circumferences), and for men – on the trunk. All long-livers (36 women) appeared in the group with slowed ageing rates in accordance with their stature and based on biological age. In the group with accelerated ageing rates, disharmonic variants of fat topography have been observed: for women – android, for men – gynoid. Regional differences in the distribution of prevalence of different versions of ageing rates have been revealed: in Moscow, a slowed variant of development of involution age-specific changes is the most common (both in men and women). The study has been performed at financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant #12-06-00265.
Key words: stature, body composition, biological age, ageing rates, long-livers
ALLOSTATIC LOAD AND FRAILTY MEASURES AMONG POLISH URBAN AND RURAL 55+ SUBJECTS (p. 20)
Nowaczyk Paulina Malgorzata1, Wozniewicz Malgorzata1, Jeszka Jan1, Crews Douglas E.2, Sone Yoshiaki3
1Department of Human Nutrition and Hygiene, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland
2Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
3Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
During life span human body is exposed to numerous stressors, which force changes in internal environment, in order to adapt to present conditions. Allostatic load concept was created to measure the cumulative effect of those stressors on the body. The aim of the study was to compare allostatic load (AL) and indicators of frailty between urban and rural elderly from Greater Poland province. In all 216 female and male individuals aged ≥55 years were enrolled into the study. To determine AL following variables were measured: WHR, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, ratio of total to LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, serum dihydroepiandosterone-sulfate, overnight urinary cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Measures of frailty included time to walk 15 feet and maximal grip strength. Results were analyzed and compared between eight groups according to: place of residence, gender and age subgroups. In general, rural elderly were characterized by higher AL values compared to their urban peers, and males had greater AL values compared to females. Significant gender-related differences were noted among rural individuals (55–69 years: 3.43 males vs 2.18 females; ≥70 years: 2.88 males vs 2.52 females). It was observed that younger urban and rural females had lower AL values compared to their older peers, opposite relation was noted in case of male participants. It was noted that rural females in both age subgroups had significantly stronger hand grip then urban peers. However, rural females needed more time to walk 15 feet compared to urban females. No age- or place of residence-differences in grip strength and time to walk 15 feet were found in case of males. To conclude, conditions of life and exposure to external stressors seemed to vary in a great extent between females and males from rural area, but not urban area. Differences in physical performance due to the place of residence were pronounced only in studied females.
Key words: allostatic load, frailty, Polish elderly, urban, rural
EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL FITNESS BY USING SENIOR FITNESS TEST AND THE ANALYSIS OF BODY COMPOSITION IN SENIOR WOMEN OF U3V (p. 21)
Podzimková Tereza, Přidalová Miroslava, Síbrová Lucie
Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Optimal physical fitness is an important factor which limits the progression of senior fragility and contributes to the prevention of falls. Body composition, together with the optimal growth of muscle strength and bone density, contribute to the prophylaxis of senior fragility and accident prevention for seniors. The research group consisted of senior women attending University of the Third Age at the Faculty of Physical Culture of Palacky University in Olomouc. The research sample was divided into groups according to age (≤ 60 years; > 60 years). Physical fitness was assessed by a set of “Senior Fitness Test”, which includes six tests: chair and stand test, arm curl test, step test, chair sit and reach test, back scratch test and walk test. Muscle strength was evaluated in the flexors of the arm, forearm and hand by digital pinch grip (MIE Medical Research). Body composition was determined according to the method of bioelectrical impedance by InBody 720. Out of the characteristics of body composition, the health indicators of obesity will primarily be used for evaluation of the health risks – Body Fat Mass (kg), Body Fat Mass Index (kg/m2), Fat Free Mass (kg), Fat Free Mass Index (kg/m2), Skeletal Muscle Mass (kg), Body Cell Mass (kg) and the amount of visceral fat (cm2) indicative of the risk of abdominal obesity. Bone density was determined at the heel and wrist area by local densitometer (EXA 3000). Visceral fat in the younger group of women was on average lower than in the older women, but both groups exceeded the value of risk (100 cm2). Values in amount of Body Fat and Fat Free Mass between the groups did not differ significantly. In Senior Fitness Test, both groups of women achieved similar results, the difference was significant only in step test (better results in the older group), and in walk test (better results in the younger one).