Use of clean, renewable and/or alternative energy technologies in rural districts of Kyrgyzstan Shamil Dikambaev Bishkek 2015 Contents


Issues of power supply to rural and remote districts of Kyrgyzstan



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1.2. Issues of power supply to rural and remote districts of Kyrgyzstan

More than 60% of population in Kyrgyzstan lives in the rural districts. Some settlements in such rural districts are deprived of elementary conveniences; the most significant one is power supply, it results in impossibility to exercise the main rights of the population for proper health care and education. Although, the National strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic “Complex development of village till 2010” [30], approved by the Decree of the President in 2004, for provision of sufficient level of power supply and arrangement of proper conditions for living and self-development of the population, stipulated as follows:



  • Involvement of population funds for construction of transmission networks with capacity of 6.10-0.4 kW by means of “ashar” method, as well as individual construction;

  • Development of networks for reliable power supply to each rural administrative district;

  • Provision of villages with the projects for construction of power supply networks;

  • Development of financial, lending and investment mechanisms for purchase and construction of power supply networks and transformer substations;

  • Implementation of measures for formation and mobilization of local communities and population participating in the activities on improvement of power supply network;

  • Provision of uninterrupted power supply to the population of rural districts and other consumers located in the rural areas, including farm households;

  • Development of alternative ecological methods of heat supply to the rural districts;

  • Introduction of cost-effective power-saving technologies of construction and operation of gas supply systems, highly-efficient and ecologically safe equipment for use of gas fuel.”

Topicality of this issue still remains very acute. The current system of power supply to agricultural districts is a structure, which has been operating without any changes for several decades. Insufficient rates of development and reconstruction of power distribution systems, physical depreciation of equipment, constant overloading results in emergency shutdowns. The first fall of temperature in November 2014 detected issues in the power supply sector of the country. Power cutoffs were observed in the remote districts; according to power distribution companies the number of emergency shutdowns within 12 months of 2014 in the power supply systems with capacity of 6/10 kW made 9,216 cases, this indicator decreased by 652 cases or by 6.6% compared to the same period of 2013.

Despite the fact that Kyrgyzstan sometimes exports power to the neighboring countries, there are rural settlements, which are not provided with power supply. For example, Jaz-Kechuu village of Bazar-Korgonskiy district, Jalal-Abad region has never been connected to power supply system, people live here since the beginning of the XX century, and their style of living has not been changed within the years. More than five hundred people live in this small village in the mountains, in the cold winter months these people are disconnected from civilization. Jaz-Kechuu village is surrounded by mountains; local people are primarily engaged in animal breeding, rarely in agriculture.

Tiurdiuk village of Aksyiskiy district, Jalal-Abad region was provided with power for the first time within 70-year period. M. Aidaraliev, akim (governor) of the district told about it to news agency “24.kg 08.04.2014”, Tiurdiuk is a small village currently inhabited by 70 households, it was established in the Soviet Union period, people of this village had been living for more than 70 years without electricity.

“Ken-Suu village of Jumgalskiy district, Naryn region, which consists of 40 households, has not been provided with electric energy since the Soviet period”, - said experts of the working group on improvement of legal framework of the Kyrgyz Republic for attraction of investments to small HPPs.

Kyzyl-Beiit and Kyrgultu villages of Ak-syiskiy district are located close to Kurpsaiskiy HPP; power is not supplied to these villages although they are located at the distance of 8 km from the largest HPP of Kyrgyzstan.

Table 2 gives more complete list of non-electrified settlements and supposed improvement measures.

Due to lack of sufficient power supply, development of rural districts of Kyrgyzstan slowed down, as well as such key sectors as primary health care and education. Health of population in Kyrgyzstan and their possibilities to be educated are rather restricted without necessary conditions for vaccines and other medicines storage, lack of elementary diagnostic equipment, means of communication and mass media, which depend on power supply.

Acuteness of issue settlement related to power supply, including rural districts, increases due to growth in the quantity of population, as well as increase in the number of new families, transformation of land plots for individual housing construction.

According to sociological research “Assessment of power distribution system” conducted by the Public fund “YUNISON” in 2013, demand for connection to power supply system by the regions is as follows:


  • there are 52 housing estates in the suburbs of Bishkek city (there are more new housing develoments in the Chui region compared to the other regions, as migration to the region is more large-scale);

  • there are 8 new housing developments around Osh city (Furkat, Yuzhnyi, Tashlak, Zhapalak, Dacha community, Ak-Tilek, etc.);

  • there are 10 new housing developments around Jalal-Abad, the number of new housing developments is not clarified;

  • Issyk-Kul region: Karakol town – 6 new housing developments, Balykchy town – 4, all shall be electrified, additionally by regions: Issyk-Kulskiy – 13, Tonskiy – 9, Dzhety-Oguzskiy – 15, Aksuiskiy – 10, Tiupskiy – 181;

  • Naryn region is characterized by migration to other regions, however, despite this fact, insignificant new housing developments in the region can be seen in all settlements due to growth in the quantity of population and creation of new families. The total number of new housing developments is approximately 100;

  • In Batken and Talas regions, the issues of half-official new settlements are accompanied by the aspects of boundary sharing with other country, where such issues are more topical,

or in percent to the total number of new housing developments:

  • suburbs of Bishkek city – 32.7%;

  • Jalal-Abad region – 28.7%;

  • Chui region – 13.9%;

  • Osh region – 8.9%;

  • Naryn region – 5%

  • Issyk-Kul region – 3%;

  • Batken region – 3%.

Table 2 – List of non-electrified settlements and measures taken for their electrification




№№

Name of settlement


Obligatory measures

Estimated cost, mln. KGS

Note

HV line 10 kW, km

HV line 0.4 kW,

km


PTS 10/0.4 kW, package

Capacity of PTS, kVA

Naryn region 

1

Ken-Suu (Dzhumgalskiy district)

12.0

1.0

1

100

12.59

 

2

Kotur-Suu

(Dzhumgalskiy district)



16.0

2.8

2

63

18.16

 

3

Chontalga (Dzhumgalskiy district)

17.0

1.6

1

100

17.85

 

4

Kara-Unkur (Narynskiy district)

15.0

2.6

1

63

48.00

Construction of substation is obligatory

110/10


5

Orto-Syrt

(Ak-Talinskiy district)



60.0

1.0

1

63

58.00

 

6

Ak-Kol (Dzhumgalskiy district)

14.0

1.0

1

63

14.40

 

Issyk-Kul region

7

Bel (Tonskiy district)

28.2

4.0

6

63

33.00

 

 Jalal-Abad region 

8

Kyzyl-Beiit

(Aksyiskiy district)









 




 

Villages are located on the right bank of the Naryn river. Taking into account mountain, rocky relief, construction of HV lines is impossible. The issue of wind-driven generators application is studied.

9

Kurp (Aksyiskiy district)

 

 

 

 

 




10

Kurkoktu (Aksyiskiy district)

 

 

 

 

 




11

Shynsai (Nookenskiy district)

12.0

2.0

1

100

7.70

 

12

Sary-Kamysh

(Nookenskiy district)



8.0

2.0

1

100

5.70

 

13

Shaidan (Nookenskiy district)

23.0

3.0

1

100

13.90

 

14

Zhazykechuu (Bazar-Korgonskiy district)

 

4.6

1

100

1.66

 

15

Kotormo (Toktogulskiy district)

6.0

2.0

1

250

6.50

 

16

Esh-Sai (Toktogulskiy district)

3.0

1.0

1

160

4.30

 

17

Bekechal (Toktogulskiy district)

2.0

0.4

1

100

1.50

 

Batken region

18

Zardaly (Batkenskiy district)

20.0

0.8

1

100

18.00

 

19

Sary-Kamysh

(Kadamzhaiskiy district)



8.0

3.0

1

160

12.00

 

20

Teskei (Kadamzhaiskiy district)

2.5

1.9

1

160

2.30

 

Osh region

21

Kyzyl-Oi (Alaiskiy district)

1.2

1.0

1

100

0.86

 

New housing development of Chui region 

 Yssyk-Atinskiy district 

22

Novo-Pokrovka

 

3.55

5

250

5.473

 

23

Milianfan

 

6.24

6

250

7.285

 

24

Luxemburg

 

1.6

1

250

1.95

 

25

Budenovka

 

1.43

1

160

0.792

 

26

Krasnaya rechka

 

1.11

 

 

0.514

 

27

Ivanovka station

 

4.76

1

160

2.679

 

28

Ken-Bulun

 

2.92

 

 

1.548

 

 

Sokulukskiy district

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

Voenno-Antonovka

0.1

2.0

1

250

2.34

 

30

 


Novo-Pavlovka


 

12.74

3

250

22.323

 

 

 

3

160

 

 

31

Kashka-Bash

0.3

2.0

2

160

2.60

 

32

Dzhal (southern side)

0.4

1.2

1

250

1.95

 

33

Sarban

 

0.8

 

 

0.624

 

34

Selektsionnoye (buffer area)

1.5

0.6

5

160

4.355

 

35

Ismail (eastern side)

 

0.6

 

 

0.468

 

36

Kuntuu

0.15

0.9

1

250

1.599

 

37

 


Shalta


 

3.0

1

250

3.848

 

 

 

1

160

 

 

38

Ak-Jol

0.3

0.95

 

 

0.975

 

39

Uchkun

 

0.4

 

 

0.312

 

40

Romanovka

1.0

0.1

1

160

1.261

 

41

Sokuluk

 

1.5

1

250

2.574

 

42

Milling plant behind railway

 

7.5

6

250

10.062

 

43

Depovskaya str.

 

0.5

1

160

0.793

 

44

Shkolnaya str. behind filling station

 

0.4

1

160

0.715

 

45

Unnamed str. (towards north)

 

0.4

1

160

0.715

 

46

Pogranichnaya str., Western str.

 

0.4

1

160

0.715

 

47

V-Orok (northern side)

 

1.5

2

250

2.574

 

48

Druzhba str.

 

3.92

1

250

3.759

 

49

Frunze farm

0.3

0.8

1

250

1.56

 

 Alamudunskiy district

50

Kok-Dzhar

0.25

0.2

2

160

1.183

 

51

Kara-Dzhigach

0.3

0.4

2

160

1.534

 

52

Koi-Tash, Zapadnaya str.

0.03

0.1

1

250

0.978

 

53

Besh-Kungei

0.3

0.05

1

100

0.707

 

54

Arashan

 

0.1

1

100

0.481

 

55

Baitik

0.2

0.1

1

250

0.936

 

56

Kashka-Suu

0.25

0.15

1

250

1.014

 

57

Lebedinovka, new housing development

6.0

18.0

4

250

21.528

 

58

Mayevka new housing development, 23 ha

1.0

6.0

4

250

8.268

 

59

Mayevka new housing development, 12 ha

0.8

3.0

2

250

4.368

 

60

Mayevka new housing development, 7 ha

3.0

2.0

1

250

4.602

 

61

Mayevka new housing development, 8 ha

1.0

1.0

1

250

2.262

 

62

Mramornoye new housing development, 20 ha

0.3

6.0

4

250

7.722

 

63

Mykan

0.4

2.0

1

250

2.574

 

64

Leninskoye

0.3

1.2

1

250

1.872

 

65

Lugovoye

0.4

0.2

1

250

2.574

 

66

Konstantinovka

0.3

1.0

1

250

1.716

 

67

Prigorodnoye

1.3

3.5

3

250

5.85

 

 Chuiskiy district

68

Birimdik

0.4

1.57

2

160

2.392

 

69

Karoi

0.3

1.13

1

160

1.674

 

70

Burana

 

0.8

 

 

1.365

 

71

Chui

1.0

0.4

1

160

1.495

 

 Moskovskiy district

72

Aleksandrovka

(eastern side)



 

 

4

400

2.683

 

73

Stretenka, 3 sheep sheds, 3 houses

1.5

2.3

1

100

3.289

 

74

Petrovka, 27, Partsyezd str.

 

0.6

 

 

0.468

 

75

Chon-Aryk dacha community

0.5

0.9

1

100

1.417

 

 Keminskiy district

76

Kaindy

 

2.3

1

250

2.464

 

77

Tarsuu

 

2.3

2

160

2.6

 

78

Shabdan

 

0.55

1

100

1.183

 

79

Kemin, Gagarin str.

 

1.0

1

100

0.832

 

80

Kichi-Kemin, Tursun-Osmon str.


 

0.6

1

100

0.832

 

81

Beisheke, new street

 

0.3

1

160

0.871

 

82

Kichi-Kemin, Bektenova str.

 

0.5

1

100

0.905

 

83

Chym-Korgon

 

0.6

1

100

0.793

 

84

New housing development, Osh city

30.0

58.0

32

3.200

58.4

 

 

Total

301.8

218.4

155

16.325

516.615

 

These issues shall be settled by means of complex state approach, particularly on the part of the government and government body authorized for development of policy in the sphere of power sector.

Article 14 of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On power sector” [4] stipulate, that “license holders shall be liable for provision of power supply to all clients located on the territory of their activity, who forward a request for power supply, including provision of power to the clients located in remote districts.” Despite the corresponding article on power supply to the customers, power distribution companies either don not comply this regulation, or interpret thereof otherwise (power distribution companies consider that Article 14 covers only existing consumers), or this regulation is openly ignored due to lack of funds.

According to current legislation, the authorities of state agencies, including power distribution companies and self-government (SG) bodies, on arrangement and provision of power supply to new consumers are not clearly described, which is reflected on citizens, who are not provided with power supply. Thus, the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On local self-government” [5] stipulates that the local self-government bodies shall be liable for social and economic development of the territory and shall contribute to settlement of local issues. However, the local issues comprise only arrangement of public facilities lightening; provision of power supply to population is not included in the category of local issues and is not envisaged in the delegated state authorities. Thus, the issue of power supply to the new consumers was not taken into account by the legislators.

Due to complicated financial conditions of SG bodies, which are generally subsidized and require additional financing from the republican budget, it is too early to impose full responsibility on SG bodies regarding power supply to new consumers.

On December 26, 2014, the Committee of Jogorku Kenesh on fuel, energy complex and subsoil use together with the Project of the Institute for Policy Development (IPD) “the Voice of citizens and the accountability of SG bodies: budgetary process”, financed by the Government of Switzerland, in cooperation with the United Kingdom Department for International Development conducted a round-table conference devoted to the topic: “Problems of the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic in the sphere of power supply provision to new consumers.”

 Discussion concerned the issues of power supply to the new consumers, who are not provided with access to power, as well as the bill aimed at settlement of this issue, which was initiated by K. Bokoev and K. Ryspaev, the deputies of Jogorku Kenesh. The bill is provided with particular importance due to its connection with the section about power sector of the National strategy for sustainable development of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2013-2017 (regarding provision of reliable and uninterrupted power supply, primarily, to internal consumers) [6]. Deputies have submitted amendments introduced in the Laws “On power sector” and “On town-planning and architecture of the Kyrgyz Republic” for public discussion.

This discussion has become more acute due to participation and position of the Minister of Energy and Industry, K. Turdubaev: “Electrification of new housing developments is a very topical issue, which has not been raised at such high level yet.” He acknowledged with much regret, than nowadays power distribution companies are not capable to electrify new housing developments, as funds for such purposes are not included in their budgets. “Expenditure budget of power distribution companies amounts to KGS 4 billion 412 million. Currently, according to our preliminary estimates, the amount of KGS 4 billion 474 million is necessary to provide power to new housing developments. Therefore, the funds of power distribution companies are sufficient only for keeping existing systems in working order. It is obvious that these companies will not be able to settle independently the issue related to power supply to new housing developments,” – said head of the Ministry of Energy and Industry. He also added that it was not “fair” to impose all expenses on the budget, thus they shall be partially included in the tariff.

Head of Kol-Tokskiy aiyl-okmotu (village council) of Tonskiy district, Issyk-Kul region, K. Azimov said that “due to lack of clearly set rules and authorities responsible for settlement of this issue, SG bodies find themselves in a difficult situation, as quantity of population increases, new housing estates are built and finally the issue of their electrification is raised. Population turns to district power supply authority (DPSA), however, DPSA considers this problem as an issue of local significance and directs people to aiyl-okmotu. If this issue is settled by means of local budget, one can get pulled due to inappropriate use of funds of the local budget, if some authority rejects resolving this issue, people and deputies of the local kenesh will hate it. Endless circle!”

The necessity of full-scale electrification of rural areas in Kyrgyzstan is obvious, the current situation and physical characteristics of the country favor to use of various types of renewable energy. Such technologies have been developed and are widely used around the world contributing to implementation of development projects, and they are affordable for small settlements of rural areas.

Prospects of renewable energy sources (RES) use in Kyrgyzstan are more significant; the population living in mountains suffers from frequent stoppage of power supply, 50 % of demands could be satisfied by means of RES, currently less than 1% thereof is used.

However, despite increased interest of the population to alternative energy sources (primarily due to continuous power crisis) the state energy providers do not provide the possibility to stimulate development of autonomous power supply systems. The prices for power in Kyrgyzstan are the lowest in all Central Asia.






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