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SOUTHERN FACE JUGS – grades 3-5

Ceramic Face Jugs: A Southern Tradition

UNIT OVERVIEW:

Students will gain an understanding and appreciation for the sculptural art of face jug, a tradition originally begun by slave potters. Art can be both realistic and abstract. Students will improve their ceramic skills and create their own face jug~ a container with human facial features on it. After constructing a jug with a neck, students will add the human features to their pots. The features should be distorted/ exaggerated in a similar style to the ones observed in the PowerPoint presentation. There will be a class display for students to evaluate, judge, discuss the artworks of their peers based on personal preference, craftsmanship, and creative. We will finish with an opening night exhibit to share the face jugs with family and friends.
LEARNING GOAL

I will be able to show my hand-building skills with clay by creating a ceramic face jug with distorted and exaggerated facial features found in traditional southern face jugs.


I will understand possible reasons why potters added faces to their jugs in the mid 1800s.
OBJECTIVES:

The student will create a jug with distorted and exaggerated facial features using their imagination.

The student will use hand-building techniques to create their pot: pinching and coil techniques.

The student will use relief techniques (additive) to create their face jug.

The student will use the tools and materials properly.

The student will use good craftsmanship.

The student will demonstrate an understanding of balance and proportion in their sculpture.

The student will identify and explain his/her intentions in their sculpture.

The student will demonstrate and communicate an understanding of how the elements and principles of design are used effectively/ ineffectively in the sculpture to communicate an emotion or idea.

The student will compare and contrast various face jugs.


NGSSS: Next Generation Standards for 3-5 grades that are covered are at the end of lesson.

SSS: Sunshine State Standards (original)

The student will create a jug with distorted and exaggerated facial features using their imagination. VAA121

The student will use hand-building techniques to create their pot: pinching and coil techniques. VAA121

The student will use relief techniques (additive) to create their face jug. VAA121

The student will use the tools and materials properly. VAA122

The student will use good craftsmanship. VAA124

The student will demonstrate an understanding of balance and proportion in their sculpture. VAA123

The student will identify and explain his/her intentions in their sculpture. VAB123

The student will demonstrate and communicate an understanding of how the elements and principles of design are used effectively/ ineffectively in the sculpture to communicate an emotion or idea. VAA123; VAB122; VAB124

The student will compare and contrast various face jugs. VAB121; VAC121; VAD123; VAE121; VAE122
MATERIALS:


  • Arts & Activities Magazine: February 2006~ Face Vessels: Original African-American Folk Art

  • PowerPoint presentation of southern face pots; printed images of show for display

  • Video clip of PBS Antique Road Show- Antique Face Jug

  • Websites/ Visuals/ PowerPoint of Southern & African American slave face pots

  • Tokens – paper die cuts of hearts and blue ribbons for critique of student face pots

  • Plenty of Georgia red ceramic clay or other “open” brown/ dark clay

  • White ceramic clay- wet for eyes; slab and allow to dry then break into pieces for teeth

  • Kiln

  • Index Cards (cut in half) for name tags for clay

  • Permanent markers for writing names on cards

  • Clay tools: large paper clips- straighten on one end, popsicle sticks, forks, pencils

  • 18x24 or 12x18 Manilla paper for placemats/ table covers to roll clay on; (optional) can dry clay out

  • Slip, water, and small containers for water & slip – cups from one serving applesauce or cups used for ketchup in fast food restaurants

  • Towels/ Rags for cleanup

  • Spray bottle of water

  • Large plastic bags or old shower curtains & clothes pins to cover pots between classes and keep them moist

  • Bread trays to store clay on carts

  • Glazes – blues, greens, browns, clear

  • Paintbrushes for glazing

  • Vinegar- adhesive for clay; smelly but I add to water bottle; breaks down mildew

RESOURCES:



  • PBS: History Detective: Face Jug (Aired: 08/16/2010; 14:48 min) – Edgefield , SC slave face jugs http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/educators/lessonplan/face-jug/

    • Video only http://video.pbs.org/video/1918318256/

    • The date of earliest face jugs? Why is it important? Year of Civil War (end)?

    • Edgefield, SC; illegal slaves from Congo, Africa; 50yrs after Civil War

    • Emancipation Proclamation

  • Jim McDowell: the Black Potter - http://www.blackpotter.com/

  • MEADERS FAMILY TRADITION - History of pottery making in N.Georgia: MEADERS family- famous face jugs/ decorative pottery

    • Folk Pottery of N. Georgia- great YouTube video of the basic utilitarian ceramic pots & jugs to decorative pottery & face jugs

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3itAd5TMII&feature=PlayList&p=2E69058026B8F350&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=11

        • Jugs needed for food storage; thing changed with the invention of electricity & glass btls; Hewell family began making flower pots; Meaders family began decorative pottery & face jugs; Lanier Meaders most famous for his face jugs made the most face jugs of all the Meaders (made 12 a day)

      • Museum website - http://www.folkpotterymuseum.com/

    • Images of Lanier Meaders face jugs/ pottery w/ links to other Meader family members http://www.folkpottery.com/lanier/lanier.htm

    • Interview w/ Annette Meaders about family history; childhood memories (first 4min is good) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5JM9343rEI

    • Antique Roadshow: Lanier Meaders Interview/Appraisal *Very Good*

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/archive/200701A28.html

    • Antique Roadshow: Vase w/ grapes – Appraisal http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/archive/200502A33.html

    • Interview w/ Welchel Meaders pottery (lot of background noise) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTKlFDwValM

    • Dirty Jobs w/ Mike Rowe: Pottery Maker- season 3; shown with the “Leather Tanner” episode

      • Visits and makes a face jug w/ David Meaders: southern face jug

      • http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001PNZGG4/ref=dv_dp_ep15 (for purchase episode)

  • Robin Rodgers- Raku animal pots, face jugs and Indian pottery (makes replicas for Mission San Luis)

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Robin-Rodgers-Pottery/227976843884136#_=_

  • Additional Face Jug images and information - http://www.newton.k12.in.us/art/3d/images/facejugs/

DAILY PROCEDURES:


Day 1: Critique/ Discussion of Southern Face Jugs (may last another day)

  • Watch video clip of PBS Antique Road Show - a critique of a face jug

    • Discuss her first response “ugly”; what she paid for the jug and what the jug’s estimated value was; how can an item can still be worth a lot even though it may be damaged; age sometimes increases the value of artworks

    • Why are jugs worth so much money?

  • Students will observe a PowerPoint presentation of sculptures of African-American slave face jugs, and other face jugs made in the southern tradition.

    • Give students questions ahead before reading written information:

  • What were the face jugs used for? What did the face jugs hold?

  • What parts were made with white clay?

    • Discuss slavery and the connection between slavery and the making of face pots by slaves. Discuss answers to questions.

    • Observe various face jugs. Compare and contrast the various styles of face jugs.

  • What are the noticeable exaggerated features on the face jugs? Identify distorted/ exaggerated facial features. How are the features different from realistic facial proportions? Are the features symmetrical?

  • What kind of expression do some of face jugs show? Are the face jugs funny, scary? Compare and contrast various face jugs

  • Students were informed that they would create a jug with distorted/ exaggerated facial features in a similar manner. The jug should express an emotion or evoke an emotional response from the viewer. The jug should have 2 eyes, 1 nose, and 1 mouth. The features should reflect or give the impression of human features rather than animal or alien (no devil/ vampire like creatures).

  • After being inspired and given the objectives, students sketched a design or idea for their ceramic face jug. Drawings of jugs should have a neck and have a face with distorted/ exaggerated facial features.

  • Next week, teacher will demonstrate how to create a ceramic jug and the week following students will practice making their own jug.


Other Variations or Additions for Critique / Historical emphasis

  • Refer to RESOURCES

Meaders Family – from making utility jugs to decorative jugs & face jugs

Other Ceramic Artists: Jim McDowell (influenced by slave pots)

Compare and contrast face jugs by Jim McDowell and Lanier- discuss similarities/ differences of style and influences.

Robin Rodgers (influenced by Meaders pots)



Student examples of face jugs
Day 2: Teacher Demonstration- Construction of jug with 2 pinch pots

  • Teacher demonstrates how to make a jug with two pinch pots:

    • Roll 2 spheres (balls) of equal size; QUICKLY, clay will dry out and crack

    • Create 2 pinch pots: poke your thumb into the center of the sphere and with fingers around the outside pinch and turn, begin by pinching the bottom spiraling around the pot upward; form the pot by pulling up instead of out, pay special attention to the bottom and inside corners; the thickness should be about the width of your palm; repeat directions for the second pinch pot; edges need to be wide enough to support the other pinch pot

    • Attach 2 pinch pots together: place one pot on top of the other; make sure both pots fit together well without a large dent- gently widen top of pot so they fit smoothly together; using 2 fingers, apply water along the top ridge of the pot; SCORE edges then place one pot on top of the other

    • SCRATCH over the seam of the two pots; long strokes/ stitches; opposite direction of seams

    • SMOOTH the seam with fingers

    • Roll the pot on the placemat to further smooth the pot and REFORM (reshape) the pot

    • Cut hole at the top of the pot with a straighten paper clip about the size of your finger; insert finger into opening curl finger and pinch up top when it is too thick and smooth opening

    • Add neck to jug- using practice clay, grab medium amount of clay/hand full; squeeze & roll clay in fist to get in a crude cylinder form; roll fat coil (about size of cocktail dog); flatten slightly w/ palm (thick/ flat coil) and wrap around finger; form around finger lightly like a “clay ring”; cut ends, add water and rub/attach seams together; check size by placing the ring to the opening; add 2 finger water to the top of the opening and attach clay ring/ neck by SCRATCHING with popsicle stick and SMOOTHING with fingers- rub the seams away; S&S the outside of the neck and the inside of neck; REFORM neck by pinching, if necessary

    • OPTIONAL : ADDING A HANDLE- using practice clay, roll a larger fat coil (about size of the hot dog) and longer length; flatten slightly and form the handle in the way you would like; scratch with fork where the handle will be attached at the bottom and top; add slip/ water and reattach handle; SCRATCH with popsicle stick and SMOOTHING with fingers- rub the seams away; S&S inside the handle and underneath; add additional coils around the attachments and blend in completely to give the handle additional support

<< Remind students that they will not be adding handles until their face on their jug in complete; Handles will dry more quickly and often split from jug; may want to cover the handle so it can dry more slowly >>


  • Teacher stress IMPORTANT RULES & PROCEDURES :

    • Paperclips are used for cutting clay only- NO PLAYING around with them (stabbing, sword fights)

    • Water- do not use too much or too little; 1 or 2 fingers of water; rub water in like lotion

    • Do not LEAN pot back when working on it; will round off the bottom edge and the pot will rock instead being stable

    • Stress the importance of smoothing and proper attachment


Day 3: SKETCH & Jug Construction- student practice (two days, if needed)

  • Teacher reviews REQUIREMENTS for Face Jug: 1) jug w/ a neck; 1 nose; 1 mouth; 2 eyes w/ lids and brows; 1 extra feature (ears, teeth or other)

    • OTHER DETAILS/ FEATURES/ Extras- hair, chin, moustache, beard, hair bows, wrinkles, moles, neck, earrings/ nose rings, handles, etc. (kids have great ideas)

    • Students can have pointed teeth but no vampire looking teeth and zombie features; no bloody anything (esp. eyes/ teeth)- so red glaze cannot be used in those areas

  • Teacher reminds students that sketch must be completed before the make final face jug

  • Teacher will review and write down steps for making a jug; asking students how & what the steps are (refer to day 2)

  • Review important rules (refer above)

  • Students will practice making their own jug with 2 pinch pots as demonstrated last week; using practice clay

  • CLEAN UP: Put all clay in clay recycle tub; teams organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; quiet teams will clean hands in clay rinse/ wash (5 second rinse/ 2 paper towels)


Day 4: Teacher Demonstration- adding distorted facial features

  • Teacher demonstration ~ shows students how to make exaggerated human-like features using the face jug made during the last teacher demonstration of the face jug; Introduce “ADDITIVE” techniques- ask for definition; just like in math; we are adding clay

  • Making a nose (DISTORTED/ EXAGGERATED)

    • Create a nose from a small flat slab of clay (pre-cut); cut into a large triangle; folding it over your finger like a taco –pointed at one end and fatter at the other end; decide on placement on jug- nose can be tilted/angled, remembering to leave room for mouth & optional-chin/ beard; if nose look like bird beak, you have placed the nose onto pot incorrectly, place on other side of the triangle; remove, scratch surface of jug where nose will be attached with fork (SCORING); add water or slip/attach nose; SCRATCH with popsicle stick around the outside of nose; SMOOTH seams/scratching with fingers; to seal inside the nose, use q-tip and rub the seams inside the nose- should make a “gross & disgusting sound”; REFORM nose to desired shape; do not close nose

      • OPTIONAL: nostrils- make 2 small balls of clay dip in water and add to the side of nose, SSR to the bottom side of the nose; bend the nose by adding finger inside nose and bending the nose on the outside

    • ALTERNATE TECHNIQUE to Make a NOSE - Take a piece of clay push onto placemat to flatten back and form a nose any way you chose; once you like the form; decide where to place it on jug; score the flat/ back of the nose and the placement area on the jug; add slip and attach to jug; SSR (Scratch seams, Smooth away seams/ stitches, Reform if necessary); using you pinky, finger, pencil or similar tool to push in nostrils- using a finger is kind of like “picking his nose”

  • Adding eye sockets- by pressing thumbs into clay jug in the place where you are going to put the eyes later; DISTORTION/EXAGGERATION; they can be uneven (one high/ one low), too close to nose, too far from nose one can be vertical/ one horizontal; eyes should not be lower than the nose so there is room for the mouth;

  • Making lips; tongue

    • Make a medium with/ length coil; pinch ends together into ‘teardrop’ shape; then pinch other end to make mouth; decide on placement on jug and check for size; pinch shorter, if needed; scratch surface of jug where the mouth will be attached with fork (SCORING); add water or slip/attach; SCRATCH with popsicle stick around the outside of mouth; SMOOTH seams/scratching with fingers; use q-tip and rub the seams inside the mouth; REFORM into the desired shape of lips- pinching them out to make the lips fuller or adding more clay; pressing/ blending more of the lips into the jug to make smaller/narrow lips

    • OPTIONAL: Tongue should be added before teeth- roll fat coil; flatten and form into tongue shape; flatten & pinch back of the tongue; dip in slip and attach between lips; use q-tip to blend seams around the tongue; REFORM shape and direction of tongue




  • Remind students that one of the most important things to do on your jug is SMOOTHING- w/ fingers/ hands; using pressure more than water; very little water- rub into clay like lotion

  • WHITE CLAY- WASH HANDS FIRST so that you keep the white and brown clay from mixing

  • Adding teeth with white clay

    • Choose pieces of bone dried pre-made slabs of white clay for teeth; use pieces as is or take the pieces outside and sand on the sidewalk in a designated area (marked w/ blue tape on the sidewalk outside the back door of the art room)- watch not to scrap you fingers and use broom to sweep clay dust onto the grass/ dirt; decide on placement of teeth inside mouth; remove teeth and dip top of each tooth into slip and replace between lips; gently press lips on to teeth slightly to further support teeth

  • Making eyeballs with white clay; eyelids with brown clay; eyebrows

    • Eye balls- Get small amount of soft white clay and small white clay placemat; roll 2 small balls of clay for eyeballs-do not have to be of equal size (distortion); slightly point the ball so it can be easily dipped into slip and pressed into the eye sockets on the jug; gently press into socket but do not flatten; return white clay placemat and extra white clay so it does not get brown clay on it;

      • DO NOT SCRATCH & SMOOTH the WHITE CLAY EYEBALLS

    • Eyelids- USE BROWN CLAY; make small coils; dip into water and surround the eyeballs; blend clay coil away from the eyeballs just like the skin of our eyes go away from the eyes all around the eyes; coils can be shaped all around the eyes to keep the eyes round or can be shaped into a football shape similar the shape of realistic eyes; SCRATCH coil with popsicle stick AWAY from the eyes; SMOOTH seams/scratching with fingers; use q-tip and rub the seams that are in tight corners; ; “Scratch/ Smooth brown clay to brown clay.”Do NOT press the lids onto the white eyeballs; REFORM into the desired shape- thick eye lids can be gently pressed but not blended toward to eyes; smooth well

    • Eye brows- add a lot expression depending on their direction and placement; make coils for eye brows; uni-brow or 2 eye brows; SCRATCH with popsicle stick or q-tip depending on the size/ shape of brow; SMOOTH using fingers or q-tips

  • Making Ears (optional)

    • Ears- roll 2 balls, may be different sizes (distortion); flatten like a thick cookie; tap one side of clay ‘cookie’ to create a flat side to attach to jug; decide on placement on the jug; remove, scratch pot with fork; dip into slip and attach to jug; SCRATCH back and front of the ear; SMOOTH seams of the ear: REFORM the ear into desired shape

    • Demonstrate other features at student request

    • Discuss other suggestions for additional details and additions

    • Stress the importance of smoothing

  • Additional Features / EXTRAS

  • This is the time to add handle (optional) instead of earlier as teacher demonstrated

  • SMOOTHING - Use of sponge on a stick for smoothing inside & some areas outside the jug; put sponge in water; squeeze out all water; stick handle into jug opening to see if it easily fits, if so then gently twist the sponge into the inside of the jug and smooth the inside- rubbing up & down and around; gently twist out of the jug; sponge the outside of the jug only the brown clay areas; DO NOT sponge over the white clay areas; exception- to make dirty teeth

  • Pupils - Use pencil to gently press into the center of the eyeballs for pupils; placement will determine direction the eyes are looking- cross-eyed, looking up, down, side to side

  • SUBTRACTIVE (textures)- Pencil or other tools can be used to create textures for hair and/or other details; subtractive just like math, taking away clay w/ texture, holes, carving

  • SIGN NAME- Use pencil to write first name and code on the bottom of the jug to finish face jug


Day 5: Constructing a jug with a neck

  • Teacher will review and write down steps for making a jug; asking students how & what the steps are (refer to day 2);

  • Emphasis: pinch pots matching well and not curving inward, scratch using a popsicle stick not a fork, and roll the jug BEFORE cutting the opening

  • Review important rules (refer to day 2)- safety of tools and proper use of clay

  • Students must complete sketch of face jug before beginning final jug; design may change from sketch; let it evolve on its own, sketch is only your starting point or it can be your plan

  • Teacher will explain- making student name tags to keep with their jug to identify each week

  • Students may practice making their own jug with 2 pinch pots or may use fresh clay and begin their final jug; all students will make a name tag

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot with a name tag on clay tray for cleanup; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


Day 6: adding a neck, nose, eye sockets, and mouth

  • Teacher will give a quick overview review of written steps for making a jug (individual help, if needed); more detailed review of making neck, nose, eye sockets, and mouth - asking students how & what the steps are (refer to day 2 & 4);

  • Teacher will emphasize these main points:

    • scratch all attachments to jug using a popsicle stick not a fork;

    • SCORING, scratching surface of the jug with fork to roughen the surface for better attachments with water or slip;

    • good SMOOTHING

    • neck should be thick, smaller than the jug and a good height;

    • nose attachment right direction should no look like a beak

    • for those making final jug, pinch pots matching well and not curving inward & roll the jug BEFORE cutting the opening

    • careful of leaning/ rocking the jug while working on the attachments- it makes the bottom unsteady

  • Teacher will give assistance to those that need more help especially those that are behind

  • Students will complete the jug with a neck and begin adding nose, eye sockets and lips; blending and smoothing well

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot with a name tag on clay tray for cleanup; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


Day 7: adding a white clay for teeth and eyeballs

  • Teacher will give a quick overview review of written steps for making a jug/neck, nose, eye sockets and lips (individual help, if needed); more detailed review of using white clay for teeth and eyeballs - asking students how & what the steps are (refer to day 4);

  • Teacher will emphasize these main points:

    • Wash hands! Before using the white clay and after if necessary

    • Where to do sidewalk sanding- marked area not on the brick walls

    • NO SSR (scratching, smoothing and reforming) with white clay at all- you will mix the white onto the brown clay; UGH!

    • If making tongue & teeth, must make tongue before teeth

    • Dip white clay teeth and eyeballs into brown clay slip before attaching to jug

    • Use a small white clay placemat for the eyeballs/ teeth; put away all extra white clay and teeth before using brown clay again

    • Lips should be properly added and attached before adding the teeth- both outside and inside the mouth

    • good SMOOTHING

    • careful of leaning/ rocking the jug while working on the attachments- it makes the bottom unsteady

  • Students continue working ~ creating and adding their facial features to their jugs; washing hands before adding white clay; adding teeth (optional) and eyeballs

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot with a name tag on clay tray for cleanup; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


Day 8: adding eyelids & brows and other features

  • Teacher will review to make sure students have completed jug/neck, nose, eye sockets and lips (individual help & written steps are available, if needed); an overview of review of using white clay for teeth and eyeballs - asking students how & what the steps are (refer to day 4); review of making eyelids and brows; teacher will provide individual/ team demonstrations; review making ears & handles (optional); individual assistance/ demonstrations for optional features

  • Teacher will emphasize these main points:

    • Wash hands! Before using the white clay and after if necessary

    • NO SSR (scratching, smoothing and reforming) with white clay at all- you will mix the white onto the brown clay; UGH!

    • Eyelids maybe small or large (looking like the eye is partially closed)- lids help to hold the eyeballs in like the lips help to hold teeth in

    • Eyebrow may 3D or may be drawn after sponge smoothing

    • good SMOOTHING with FINGERS by rubbing

    • remember to blend away seams of attachment

    • careful of leaning/ rocking the jug while working on the attachments- it makes the bottom unsteady

  • Students continue working ~ creating and adding their facial features to their jugs; washing hands before adding white clay; add eyelids; brows and other features; smoothing

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot with a name tag on clay tray for cleanup; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


Day 9: sponge smoothing & added textures

  • Teacher will review finishing techniques: adding clay to unsteady bottoms of jugs, sponge smoothing the SUBTRACTIVE techniques- adding texture for hair, pencil pupils, other textures, name/ code on bottom (refer to day 4)

  • Teacher will explain grade sheet process for individuals that finish early

  • ALL Additive Clay techniques finished; then Smoothing; Subtractive techniques added to jug last before jug is finished and left to dry;

    • w/ exception, of using GARLIC PRESS to create HAIR – press clay through press, cut desired length, decide placement, dip ends into slip and attach, scratch w/ pencil tip onto jug (look like continued pattern/ texture on jug); Garlic Press hair is fragile; either look great or awful; students can get carried away with process quickly; require students to ask permission and communicate their intent/ purpose for the Garlic Press Hair before using it

  • Teacher will emphasize these main points:

    • Eyelids maybe small, medium or large (looking like the eye is partially closed)- lids help to hold the eyeballs in like the lips help to hold teeth in

    • Eyebrow may 3D or may be drawn after sponge smoothing

    • good SMOOTHING with FINGERS by rubbing

    • RUB AWAY SEAMS- score and slip the areas before adding your features to help them stay better attached

    • careful of leaning/ rocking the jug while working on the attachments- it makes the bottom unsteady-- Add clay to the bottom of jugs that have bent outer corners- SSR

    • squeeze out all the water out of sponge before using

    • pencil pupils- choose direction and press pencil firmly into the white eyeballs

    • when writing name/ code on the bottom- spread letters slightly apart and press firmly

  • Students finish adding the final details ~ the finishing touches; smoothing

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot with a name tag on clay tray for cleanup; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash



Day 9: Evaluation of Face Jug

  • Teacher discussed and explained the grade sheet for students to fill out and complete using a point system for each item; students will do self and peer evaluation

  • Teacher will discuss the drying an firing process in the kiln

    • The pots must completely dry –BONE DRY

    • Once pots are bone dry, they are fired in the kiln – BISQUE

    • Once bisque fired, jugs can be glazed

    • Glazed jugs are fired in the kiln a second time

  • CLEAN UP: Place jug with a name on pot to dry for weeks; put extra clay in clay recycle tub; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


~ After bisque fire~

Day 1o: Glazing

  • Teacher will review the glazing process; limit the choice of colors available

    • Students should limit the number of colors to one or two colors on the jug; the facial features are lost when you add too many colors

    • Use black underglaze for pupils (preferred); regular black glaze will work if use only one coat but will mix with other glaze colors; underglaze will not mix

    • For shiny colors paint 2 coats (layers) of a single color

    • To coat inside of jug- pour clear glaze inside the jug and pour out

    • Do not paint glaze on the bottom of the pot and lid– the parts that touch the table; if you paint these areas they will attach to the kiln shelf permanently

    • Cover the entire surface clay surface, if you desire a shiny colored surface; clay spots that are not covered with glaze will not be colored or shiny unless you paint it

    • Good painting techniques make for a well finished pot

    • Always look at the example tiles before choosing your colors; the glaze color changes when it is fired in the kiln; the color of the glaze in the jar is often very different from the color after the firing

    • Choose the right size brush for the job

  • Students will glaze their face jug and use color to emphasize the facial features

  • CLEAN UP: Place pot up; put glaze containers up- put like colors together; organize and group supplies for pick up by helpers; clean hands in clay rinse/ wash


Day 11: Critique of student work

  • Opening Discussion/ Observation- compare and contrast with the face pots in the Arts & Activities Magazine: February 2006~ Face Vessels: Original African-American Folk Art

    • Face vessels made by seventh & eighth graders

      • Which are better crafted and creative? Why or Why not? Justify answer.

  • Teacher gives instructions on critiquing and judging student sculptures (Token Response)

    • All student art works (face jugs)are put out on the tables for display

    • Students are to walk around and look at all the art works (face jug sculptures)

    • Students are to choose art works (two jugs)

      • one art work (jug) that they prefer/like (preference- heart token);

      • another artwork (jug) that shows the best overall effort (judgment- blue ribbon token ); students should think about the areas on their evaluation / grade sheet when considering the overall best effort – like good craftsmanship, original creativity, facial features, showing emotion/ evoking an emotional response; If you had to select one artwork to represent the class which student artwork would you chose

    • Students pick up a token of each (heart & blue ribbon) and place them next to the artwork (face pot) of their choice; students may choose both on the same pot or two different artworks (pots); their choice should not be influence by their peers and any pot may be chosen whether no tokens or many tokens; each student should make their own decision

    • Teacher asks

      • “If everyone in the class picks only one or two art works (jugs), do you think every student will receive a token?” ---NO;

      • “If a student does not receive any tokens doe that mean they did not do well or that no one likes their art work (jug)?” –NO

  • Teacher leads and directs the discussion about individual jugs; noticing the number of hearts and blue ribbons; posing questions such as: who gave this token? Why?; teacher makes any opportunity to discuss a few that did not get any tokens and makes positive comments or asks if there were any jugs that you weren’t able to give a token for but you thought they were unique

    • Students should differentiate between preference and judgment; for preference students should use phrases similar to “I like this because…”; judgment phrases would be more like “They did a great job…”, “She used good craftsmanship. She ….”

    • Students should make positive encouraging comments

  • Teacher tries to get every student in the class the opportunity to make a positive comment about someone else’s art work (jug) and tries to discuss each art work

  • The art work with the most blue ribbons are often selected to represent the class in school-wide exhibits

  • ADDITIONAL DISCUSSIONS/ ACTIVITIES

    • Students will give a price value to their face pots for their student exhibit

      • Do you think you will be able to get as much money for yours? Why? Does that make it less valuable?

    • Aesethic Discussion

      • Are face jugs art or craft? Why or why not?

      • Does how much an artwork is worth have any bearing on whether it is art or not?


TECHNOLOGY COMPONENT: (optional)

Southern face jugs ~

Research websites and write reflections/ impressions (1-2 days)


  • Students will be instructed to check out some specific websites and also see what sites they can locate using specific search engines on the internet

    • Websites to try include: slave face pots

      • www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmah/facevess.htm

      • www.smithosianlegacies.si.edu – click on exhibit search from the left side; search- face jug; should bring you to www.smithosianlegacies.si.edu/objectdescription.cfm.ID=209

      • www.tfaio.com – article your looking for is “Making faces: Southern Face Vessels from 1840 – 1990

    • other websites of more recent artists influenced or carrying on the tradition

      • http://www.blackpotter.com/

      • http://www.newton.k12.in.us/art/3d/images/facejugs/

      • www.mintmuseum.org/craftingnc/06-04-04.htm

      • www.barnwell.com/pawprintpottery/face_jugs.htm

      • www.drexelantiques.com/catawabvalleypottery.html

    • Search engines include: slave face pots; face jugs, face vessels; southern effigy vessels; African-American slave face pots; etc.

    • Addition links for websites on https://www.edmodo.com/soniamcdowell

  • Students should locate/ find at least three or more slave face pots and then choose one or two; reading the contextual information about the jug(s)

  • Students will import images to a PowerPoint or Word program, add some contextual information about the jug, and write their impressions about the slave face pot they chose – why they like or dislike it, how it compares to their own jug they created

  • Students will share information they learned from their research on the internet during class


Evening Opening class exhibit

  • Students will have their face jugs on exhibit at an opening night for parents to see the class sculptures

  • Students will have an opportunity to be docents (for parents) explaining and answering questions about the exhibit, Southern face jugs & slave pots and/or the production process.

  • Parents and students can fill out compliment/ comment forms for face jugs.

  • Alternate activity- mock silent auction

    • Audience writes the amount of money they would pay for the jug

  • Show the PowerPoint presentation on southern face jugs

    • If completed, display/ share the student’s informational pages about African-American slave face pots & southern face jugs.

  • This will also provide an opportunity for many of the face pots to be transported home safely.

NGSSS Third Grade ~ covered by SOUTHERN FACE JUGS – grades 3-5


VA.3.C.1.1 Use the art-making process to develop ideas for self-expression.

VA.3.C.1.2 Reflect on and interpret works of art, using observation skills, prior knowledge, and experience.

VA.3.C.2.1 Assess personal artworks for completeness and success in meeting intended objectives.

VA.3.C.2.2 Compare techniques used by peers and established artists as a basis for improving one’s own work.

VA.3.C.2.3 Use constructive criticism to improve artwork.

VA.3.C.3.1 Critique one’s own and others’ artworks, and identify the use of structural elements of art and organizational principles of design.

VA.3.C.3.2 Describe the connections between visual art and other contexts through observation and art criticism.

VA.3.C.3.3 Explain the similarities and differences between artworks and utilitarian objects.

VA.3.F.1.1 Manipulate art media and incorporate a variety of subject matter to create imaginative artwork.

VA.3.F.1.2 Explore the effects and merits of different solutions to solve an artistic problem.

VA.3.F.2.1 Identify places where artists or designers have made an impact on the community.

VA.3.F.3.1 Create artwork that communicates an awareness of events within the community.

VA.3.F.3.2 Collaborate to complete a task in art.

VA.3.F.3.3 Demonstrate the skills needed to complete artwork in a timely manner, demonstrating perseverance and development of 21st-century skills.

VA.3.H.1.1 Describe cultural similarities and differences in works of art.

VA.3.H.1.2 Describe the importance of displaying suitable behavior as part of an art audience.

VA.3.H.1.3 Identify and be respectful of ideas important to individuals, groups, or cultures that are reflected in their artworks.

VA.3.H.2.1 Compare differences or similarities in artworks across time and culture.

VA.3.H.2.2 Examine artworks and utilitarian objects, and describe their significance in the school and/or community.

VA.3.H.2.3 Describe various venues in which artwork is on display for public viewing.

VA.3.H.3.1 Discuss how knowledge gained in the visual art classroom can serve as prior knowledge in other classrooms.

VA.3.O.1.1 Demonstrate how the organizational principles of design are used to arrange the structural elements of art in personal work.

VA.3.O.2.1 Use creative and innovative ideas to complete personal artworks.

VA.3.O.3.1 Use symbols, visual language, and/or written language to document self or others.

VA.3.S.1.1 Manipulate tools and media to enhance communication in personal artworks.

VA.3.S.1.2 Use diverse resources to inspire artistic expression and achieve varied results.

VA.3.S.1.3 Incorporate ideas from art exemplars for specified time periods and cultures.

VA.3.S.1.4 Choose accurate art vocabulary to describe works of art and art processes.

VA.3.S.2.1 Integrate the structural elements of art and organizational principles of design with sequential procedures and techniques to achieve an artistic goal.

VA.3.S.2.2 Follow procedures, focusing on the art-making process.

VA.3.S.3.1 Use materials, tools, and processes to achieve an intended result in two- and/or three-dimensional artworks.

VA.3.S.3.2 Develop craftsmanship skills through repeated practice.

VA.3.S.3.3 Work within safety guidelines while using tools, media, techniques, and processes.

VA.3.S.3.4 Demonstrate awareness of copyright laws to show respect for the ideas of others when creating art.

NGSSS Fourth Grade~ covered by SOUTHERN FACE JUGS – grades 3-5
VA.4.C.1.1 Integrate ideas during the art-making process to convey meaning in personal works of art. VA.4.C.1.2 Describe observations and apply prior knowledge to interpret visual information and reflect on works of art.

VA.4.C.2.1 Revise artworks to meet established criteria. VA.4.C.2.2 Use various resources to generate ideas for growth in personal works. VA.4.C.2.3 Develop and support ideas from various resources to create unique artworks. VA.4.C.3.1 Use accurate art vocabulary when analyzing works of art. VA.4.C.3.2 Compare purposes for the structural elements of art and organizational principles of design in artworks and utilitarian objects. VA.4.C.3.3 Use the art-making process, analysis, and discussion to identify the connections between art and other disciplines.



VA.4.F.1.1 Combine art media with innovative ideas and techniques to create two- and/or three-dimensional works of art.

VA.4.F.1.2 Examine and apply creative solutions to solve an artistic problem. VA.4.F.2.1 Discuss how artists and designers have made an impact on the community.

VA.4.F.2.2 Identify the work of local artists to become familiar with art-making careers. VA.4.F.3.1 Create art to promote awareness of school and/or community concerns.

VA.4.F.3.2 Collaborate with peers in the art room to achieve a common art goal.

VA.4.F.3.3 Work purposefully to complete personal works of art in a timely manner, demonstrating development of 21st-century skills. VA.4.H.1.1 Identify historical and cultural influences that have inspired artists to produce works of art. VA.4.H.1.2 Identify suitable behavior for various art venues and events. VA.4.H.1.3 Describe artworks that honor and are reflective of particular individuals, groups, events, and/or cultures.

VA.4.H.1.4 Identify and practice ways of showing respect for one’s own and others’ personal works of art. VA.4.H.2.1 Explore works of art, created over time, to identify the use of the structural elements of art in an historical event or art style. VA.4.H.2.2 Identify differences between artworks and utilitarian objects. VA.4.H.2.3 Identify reasons to display artwork in public places.

VA.4.H.3.1 Discuss how analytical skills and thinking strategies are applied to both art production and problem-solving in other content areas. VA.4.O.1.1 Use the structural elements of art and organizational principles of design to understand the art-making process.

VA.4.O.1.2 Identify the structural elements of art used to unite an artistic composition. VA.4.O.2.1 Use a variety of resources and art skills to overcome visual challenges in personal artworks.

VA.4.O.3.1 Apply meaning and relevance to document self or others visually in artwork. VA.4.S.1.1 Manipulate tools and materials to achieve diverse effects in personal works of art. VA.4.S.1.2 Explore and use media, technology, and other art resources to express ideas visually. VA.4.S.1.3 Create artworks that integrate ideas from culture or history. VA.4.S.1.4 Use accurate art vocabulary to discuss works of art and the creative process. VA.4.S.2.1 Organize the structural elements of art to achieve an artistic objective. VA.4.S.2.2 Demonstrate the ability to recall art procedures and focus on art processes through to the end of production.

VA.4.S.3.1 Experiment with various materials, tools, techniques, and processes to achieve a variety of results in two- and/or three-dimensional artworks. VA.4.S.3.2 Plan and produce art through ongoing practice of skills and techniques. VA.4.S.3.3 Follow procedures for using tools, media, techniques, and processes safely and responsibly. VA.4.S.3.4 Discuss the importance of copyright law in regard to the creation and production of art.

NGSSS Fifth Grade~ covered by SOUTHERN FACE JUGS – grades 3-5



VA.5.C.1.1 Develop a range of interests in the art-making process to influence personal decision-making. VA.5.C.1.2 Use prior knowledge and observation skills to reflect on, analyze, and interpret exemplary works of art. VA.5.C.1.3 Examine and discuss exemplary works of art to distinguish which qualities may be used to evaluate personal works.

VA.5.C.2.1 Revise artwork as a necessary part of the creative process to achieve an artistic goal. VA.5.C.2.2 Analyze personal artworks to articulate the motivations and intentions in creating personal works of art.



VA.5.C.2.3 Apply established criteria to the art-making process to measure artistic growth. VA.5.C.2.4 Identify examples of constructive criticism and use them to improve artworks and enhance artistic growth. VA.5.C.3.1 Use the structural elements of art and organizational principles of design when engaged in art criticism. VA.5.C.3.2 Use art-criticism processes to form a hypothesis about an artist’s or designer’s intent when creating artworks and/or utilitarian objects. VA.5.C.3.3 Critique works of art to understand the content and make connections with other content areas. VA.5.F.1.1 Examine and experiment with traditional or non-traditional uses of media to apply imaginative techniques in two- and/or three-dimensional artworks. VA.5.F.1.2 Develop multiple solutions to solve artistic problems and justify personal artistic or aesthetic choices. VA.5.F.2.1 Describe the knowledge and skills necessary for art-making and art-related careers. VA.5.F.2.2 Explore careers in which artworks and utilitarian designs are created. VA.5.F.2.3 Discuss contributions that artists make to society. VA.5.F.3.1 Create artwork to promote public awareness of community and/or global concerns. VA.5.F.3.2 Create artwork that shows procedural and analytical thinking to communicate ideas. VA.5.F.3.3 Work collaboratively with others to complete a task in art and show leadership skills. VA.5.F.3.4 Follow directions and complete artwork in the timeframe allotted to show development of 21st-century skills.

VA.5.H.1.1 Examine historical and cultural influences that inspire artists and their work. VA.5.H.1.2 Use suitable behavior as a member of an art audience. VA.5.H.1.3 Identify and describe the importance a selected group or culture places on specific works of art. VA.5.H.1.4 Explain the importance of artwork to show why respect is or should be given to the work of peer or specified professional artists. VA.5.H.2.1 Compare works of art on the basis of style, culture, or artist across time to identify visual differences. VA.5.H.2.2 Describe the ways in which artworks and utilitarian objects impact everyday life. VA.5.H.2.3 Discuss artworks found in public venues to identify the significance of the work within the community. VA.5.H.3.1 Discuss how skills learned through the analysis and art-making process are used to solve problems in non-art areas. VA.5.O.1.1 Use structural elements of art and organizational principles of design to develop content in artwork. VA.5.O.1.2 Organize the structural elements of art to achieve visual unity. VA.5.O.1.3 Explain how creative and technical ability is used to produce a work of art. VA.5.O.2.1 Analyze works of art that document people and events from a variety of places and times to synthesize ideas for creating artwork.



VA.5.O.2.2 Use a variety of sources for ideas to resolve challenges in creating original works. VA.5.O.3.1 Create meaningful and unique works of art to effectively communicate and document a personal voice. VA.5.S.1.1 Use various art tools, media, and techniques to discover how different choices change the effect on the meaning of an artwork.

VA.5.S.1.2 Use media, technology, and other resources to inspire personal art-making decisions. VA.5.S.1.3 Create artworks to depict personal, cultural, and/or historical themes. VA.5.S.1.4 Use accurate art vocabulary to communicate about works of art and artistic and creative processes. VA.5.S.2.1 Organize the structural elements of art to support planning, strengthen focus, and implement artistic vision.

VA.5.S.2.2 Identify sequential procedures to engage in art production. VA.5.S.2.3 Visualize the end product to justify artistic choices of tools, techniques, and processes.

VA.5.S.3.1 Use materials, tools, techniques, and processes to achieve expected results in two- and/or three-dimensional artworks.



VA.5.S.3.2 Use craftsmanship and technical ability in personal works to show refinement of skills over time. VA.5.S.3.3 Use tools, media, techniques, and processes in a safe and responsible manner. VA.5.S.3.4 Use ethical standards, including copyright laws, when producing works of art.

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