Uk standards for Microbiology Investigations Acknowledgments

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Haemophilus influenzae from cases of invasive disease (isolates from normally sterile sites)

Haemophilus Reference Unit

Respiratory and Systemic Infection Laboratory

Public Health England

61 Colindale Avenue



Telephone: +44 (0) 208 327 7331/ 6091/ 7330

HACEK group and Haemophilus species for identification

Laboratory of Health Care Associated Infections (LHCAI)

Public Health England

61 Colindale Avenue



Telephone: +44 (0) 208 327 7241

Haemophilus ducreyi

The Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Laboratory (STBRL) will be offering molecular testing for Haemophilus ducreyi in the near future.

Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Laboratory

Public Health England

61 Colindale Avenue



Tel: +44 (0) 20 8327 6464

Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring & Reference Laboratory (ARMRL)

Public Health England

61 Colindale Avenue



Telephone: +44 (0)208 327 6511


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18. Mutters R. Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Eikenella, Kingella and other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram Negative Rods. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, editors. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 7th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1999. p. 561-71.

19. Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ, La Fontaine S, Rood JI. Transfer of Kingella indologenes (Snell and Lapage 1976) to the genus Suttonella gen. nov. as Suttonella indologenes comb. nov.; transfer of Bacteroides nodosus (Beveridge 1941) to the genus Dichelobacter gen. nov. as Dichelobacter nodosus comb. nov.; and assignment of the genera Cardiobacterium, Dichelobacter, and Suttonella to Cardiobacteriaceae fam. nov. in the gamma division of Proteobacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence comparisons. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1990;40:426-33.

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22. Snell JJS, LAPAGE SP. Transfer of some saccharolytic Moraxella species to Kingella Henriksen and Bovre 1976, with descriptions of Kingella indologenes sp.nov. and Kingella denitrificans sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1976;26:451-8.

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24. Henriksen SD, Bovre K. Transfer of Moraxella kingae Henriksen and Bovre to the Genus Kingella gen. nov. in the family Neisseriaceae. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1976;26:447-50.

25. Dewhirst FE, Chen CK, Paster BJ, Zambon JJ. Phylogeny of species in the family Neisseriaceae isolated from human dental plaque and description of Kingella oralis sp. nov [corrected]. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1993;43:490-9.

26. Lawson PA, Malnick H, Collins MD, Shah JJ, Chattaway MA, Bendall R, et al. Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an organism isolated from a wound caused by an animal bite. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:3526-9.

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30. Health and Safety Executive. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002. 5th ed. HSE Books; 2002.

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33. British Standards Institution (BSI). BS EN12469 - Biotechnology - performance criteria for microbiological safety cabinets. 2000.

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37. Collins CH, Kennedy.D.A. Laboratory acquired infections. In: Woburn MA, editor. Laboratory acquired infection: History, incidence, causes and prevention. 4 ed. 1999. p. 1-37.

38. Jacobson JT, Orlob RB, Clayton JL. Infections acquired in cinical laboratories in Utah. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1985;21:486-9.

39. Murphy TF. Respiratory infections caused by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2003;16:129-34.

40. Berbari EF, Cockerill FR, III, Steckelberg JM. Infective endocarditis due to unusual or fastidious microorganisms. Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72:532-42.

41. Brenner DJ, Mayer LW, Carlone GM, Harrison LH, Bibb WF, Brandileone MC, et al. Biochemical, genetic, and epidemiologic characterization of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Haemophilus aegyptius) strains associated with Brazilian purpuric fever. J Clin Microbiol 1988;26:1524-34.

42. Bottone EJ, Zhang DY. Haemophilus parainfluenzae biliary tract infection: rationale for an ascending route of infection from the gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:3042-3.

43. Auten GM, Levy CS, Smith MA. Haemophilus parainfluenzae as a rare cause of epidural abscess: case report and review. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:609-12.

44. Spinola SM, Bauer ME, Munson RS, Jr. Immunopathogenesis of Haemophilus ducreyi infection (chancroid). Infect Immun 2002;70:1667-76.

45. Somers CJ, Millar BC, Xu J, Moore DP, Moran AM, Maloney C, et al. Haemophilus segnis: a rare cause of endocarditis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003;9:1048-50.

46. Bullock DW, Devitt PG. Pancreatic abscess and septicaemia caused by Haemophilus segnis. J Infect 1981;3:82-5.

47. Carson HJ, Rezmer S, Belli J. Haemophilus segnis cholecystitis: a case report and literature review. J Infect 1997;35:85-6.

48. Kuklinska D, Kilian M. Relative proportions of Haemophilus species in the throat of healthy children and adults. Eur J Clin Microbiol 1984;3:249-52.

49. Douglas GW, Buck LL, Rosen C. Liver abscess caused by Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus. J Clin Microbiol 1979;9:299-300.

50. Hoffman MJ, Macrie BD, Taiwo BO, Qi C. Prosthetic valve/conduit infection caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum. Infection 2010;38:245-6.

51. Orle KA, Gates CA, Martin DH, Body BA, Weiss JB. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:49-54.

52. Gatselis N, Malli E, Papadamou G, Petinaki E, Dalekos GN. Direct detection of Cardiobacterium hominis in serum from a patient with infective endocarditis by broad-range bacterial PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:669-72.

53. Binks MJ, Temple B, Kirkham LA, Wiertsema SP, Dunne EM, Richmond PC, et al. Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays. PLoS One 2012;7:e34083.

54. Anderson R, Wang X, Briere EC, Katz LS, Cohn AC, Clark TA, et al. Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates causing clinical disease. J Clin Microbiol 2012;50:2462-5.

55. Brown TJ, Ison CA. Non-radioactive ribotyping of Haemophilus ducreyi using a digoxigenin labelled cDNA probe. Epidemiol Infect 1993;110:289-95.

56. Sarafian SK, Woods TC, Knapp JS, Swaminathan B, Morse SA. Molecular characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi by ribosomal DNA fingerprinting. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:1949-54.

57. Wang CC, Siu LK, Chen MK, Yu YL, Lin FM, Ho M, et al. Use of automated riboprinter and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological studies of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Taiwan. J Med Microbiol 2001;50:277-83.

58. Pettigrew MM, Foxman B, Ecevit Z, Marrs CF, Gilsdorf J. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus typing, and automated ribotyping to assess genomic variability among strains of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:660-2.

59. McCrea KW, Xie J, LaCross N, Patel M, Mukundan D, Murphy TF, et al. Relationships of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains to hemolytic and nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus strains. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46:406-16.

60. Couturier MR, Mehinovic E, Croft AC, Fisher MA. Identification of HACEK clinical isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:1104-6.

61. Frickmann H, Christner M, Donat M, Berger A, Essig A, Podbielski A, et al. Rapid discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and two matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) platforms. PLoS One 2013;8:e63222.

62. Wallet F, Loiez C, Decoene C, Courcol R. Rapid identification of Cardiobacterium hominis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry during infective endocarditis. Jpn J Infect Dis 2011;64:327-9.

63. Health Protection Agency. Laboratory Reporting to the Health Protection Agency: Guide for Diagnostic Laboratories. 2010.

UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations were formerly known as National Standard Methods.

Microbiology is used as a generic term to include the two GMC-recognised specialties of Medical Microbiology (which includes Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology) and Medical Virology.

Issued by the Standards Unit, Microbiology Services, PHE

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