-Attrition: wear of tooth resulting from tooth to tooth contact. Primary teeth are more susceptible to attrition than permanent teeth because enamel layer is thinner in primary teeth.
-Abrasion: physical wear of tooth substance produced by something other than tooth to tooth contact .exp : using a toothbrush.
-Erosion: irreversible loss of tooth substance brought by chemical process and does not involve bacterial action .it could be just in enamel and sometimes it exposes the dentine or the pulp.(in this lecture we are going to talk about erosion).
Although erosion is a rare compared with caries , once a practitioner is aware of erosion he will see it in many more patients.(GV black 1908).
What is the different between erosion and caries?
1-Including bacteria and sugar. 1-chemical without bacterial involvement.
2-Plaque accumulation on: 2- areas free of plaque like:
a-pits and fissure a- palatal and buccal surface of incisor
. (the most affected teeth by erosion) .
b-proximal surface b-occlusal cusps .
c-gingival margins c- palatal and buccal surfaces of posterior teeth.
3- slow process compared to erosion 3- rapid process.
Note: Caries … happen through cycles of De-mineralization and Re-mineralization,,, so it doesn’t happen quickly ,, so it’s a slow process
-Erosion … it can happen rapidly if you didn’t notice or control the cause ( more rapid demineralization)
Why it is Important to prevent erosion?
1-Because of it prevalence ,examples:
-In uk one third of pre-school children have significant tooth wear and One half of teenagers show tooth surface loss on incisor teeth that is largely due to erosion.
There is some evidence suggests that tooth wear due to erosion is increasing in the child and young adult population
2-Difficult and expensive to treat.
Plan of action for erosion:
-Recognize that the problem is present .
-Identify the likely cause or causes .
-monitor the progress of the disease .
Causes of erosion:
1-intrinsic: Acids from inside the body mainly it’s the stomach
2- extrinsic: Acids from outside the body mainly through diet and some environmental sources
Intrinsic (regurgitation erosion Gastric acid) :
Through regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric acid PH is 1 or lower)
1-gastro-oesophegeal reflux disease (GORD):acidic content of the stomach reflux into the oesophagus .
Heart burn ,retrosternal discomfort ,dysphagia, Coughing ,dry mouth ,acidic taste in the mouth, dental erosion
Causes of GORD:
-Sphincter incompetence(does not close so the acid goes up): like in hiatus hernia ,neuromuscular (cerebral palsy).
-increase gastric pressure: like in pregnancy, obesity .
Increase gastric volume:like after a heavy meal.
1-Symptom of medical problem )(causing vomiting)
2-Eating disorder :disorder body image(for example seeing yourself fat but you are thin)
Anorexia nervosa eating a little amount of food .it could lead to death.
Anorexia bulimia: when a person eating a lot and then vomiting. So for example you can see erosion on the palatal surface of the incisors
5% of females (20-30 years old) have this conditions but mostly on younger teens.
There was a pic showing princess Diana ,she had an eating disorder.
Intervention of eating disorder
Deliberately induce reflux of gastric contents and chew this before reswallowing ,it is uncommon.
Aetiology of erosion:
. -Fizzy drinks like coke (carbonated beverages) are the main cause,
which become more and more popular among children.
-they contain high amount of acids and sugar, so they induce both tooth’s decay and erosion especially on pts who are more susceptible to erosion, also one of their other side effects is the huge calorie content.
-As in exposed teeth’s workers to acidic atmosphere (e.g. battery factor’s workers,,And swimmers who usually expose their teeth to water with high chlorine contents)
-Here we notice the erosion on labial surface of teeth
development of erosion in individual is dependent on individual host factor, for example salivary flow rate and buffering capacity.
*Factors that increase the likelihood of someone to have erosion:
1.Diminished Saliva flow … so there’s decrease in the balancing effect.
2.Susceptibility of tooth structure… the carbonated hydroxyl appetite content in tooth has higher susceptibility to erosion than the fluoro-appetite content .
so we can use fluoride to reduce tooth susceptibility to erosion as it increase the tooth-acid resistance
Factors influencing tooth surface loss by erosive agent:
1-nature of the acid
b-type of acid
citric,malic and tartaric acids.
c-titratable acidity(TA):the amount of alkali that needs to be added to an acid to bring it up to natural ph.
Diet cock is more erosive because the availability of H ions is more.
Ph 3.3 , TA 4.5 (highly erosive agent).
ph 3.8, TA 4.5 (highly erosive agent).
Ph 3.2 ,TA 9.3 (highly erosive agent).
3-frequency of intake (number of times a day.)
4-length of time that the drink is in contact with teeth (some people like to sip juice then drink it , other would keep it in their mouth for a long period specially children as they like the fizzy drinks they hold and gurgle it and here they destroy their teeth, because of high acid content which induce erosion , 2. High sugar content which induce carious lesion).
5-method of application :the doc show a pic of a erosive central incisors because the child was using straw in a wrong way he put it directly in the diastema between the central incisors !
6-Time of intake:
-acidic drinks between meals has more effect than during the meal
-acidic drink has more effect before bed time as a result of diminished salivary flow, So those drinks should be avoided 1 hour before bed time.
7-Brushing habits :
-Not to brush immediately , you have to wait (30-60 min) before brushing
because the acid has already soften enamel and if you brush immediately you will remove the soften enamel.
-So you have to tell patient if they took acidic diet to wait at least 30 minutes before brushing.