Traite de con uite de la famille



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1284

The earliest statutes of the Italian crystal workers is written "Capitulare de Crisstellaris"

Circa 1286

The first eyeglasses are made by a lay person in Pisa, Italy

1300

A term for eyeglasses is used for the first time

1300

Crystal workers were forbidden to use ordinary white glass instead of crystal glass

1319

Regulations are developed to protect the glass making trade, requiring standards for materials and craftsmanship

1352

A painting by Tommaso da Modina shows Cardinal Hugh of Provence wearing rivet spectacles

1475 

The first illustration of spectacles in a printed work

1535 

The Nuremburg, Germany spectacles maker’s guild is formed

1629

The Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers is incorporated in England

Circa 1728  

London optician Edward Scarlett is credited with developing side arms for spectacles (he is the first to advertise them)

1752

James Ayescough invents the double-hinged temple

1756

Benjamin Martin devises Visual Glasses with a horn annulus to reduce the amount of light entering the eyes

Circa 1760

Benjamin Franklin conceives of the idea of the split lens bifocal

1783

Addison Smith is awarded the first spectacles patent for double spectacles which rotated down

1797

John Richardson invents four-lens spectacles which rotate in from the sides

1797 

Dudley Adams patents a device with adjustable drop-down lenses for the variation in interpupillary distance.

1806

John McAllister, Sr. makes round Franklin bifocals for President Thomas Jefferson who designed them

1825

Robert Bate patents the innovation to add spring mechanisms to the lorgnette

1825

George Airy corrects his own astigmatism with a pair of sphero-cylindrical lenses

1827

John Issac Hawkins devises and patents the trifocal in London

1828

The McAllisters begin importing astigmatic (cylindrical) lenses

1833

American Optical has its earliest beginnings when William Beecher makes coin silver spectacles in Southbridge, Ma.

1843

Beecher makes the first elastic steel wire glasses in America

1883

American Optical produces the first ophthalmic lenses in the United States

1887

Swiss ophthalmologist Dr.Adolph Eugen Fick conceives molded corneal contact lenses

1887

German artificial eye maker Frederick Muller fits a thin glass contact scleral shell to a patient who was missing a lower lid

1888

August Morck Jr. patents a bifocal cemented on the outside of the original lens

1894

The first formal school for refracting is organized in Boston - The Klein School of Optics, which later became the New England College of Optometry

1730 - Early 20th Century

During most of this period, eyeglass frames were individually handmade and newer models appeared in quick succession. The guidelines below represent the period of common use of these design elements, however they are not all-inclusive. Much remains unanswered so this should only be used as a guide. It is based on personal experience as well as reflecting much of the current literature. Additional ideas and comments are welcomed.

Realize that all pre-1730 spectacles had round frames with a bow or C bridge, no sidearms, and therefore no finials.



(Click on any of the pictures on this page to display a larger image.)

FEATURES

EXAMPLES

PERIOD OF COMMON USE

LENS design

Round lenses







pre-1730 - 1820

Visual glasses (Martin's Margins)







early 1760's - 1820

Oval lenses







around 1790 - 1900

Four lenses (Richardson)







1815 - 1900 (most found are octagonal 1860s)

Rectangular and Oblong lenses







1835 - 1890

Octagonal lenses







1835 - 1880

BRIDGE design

"C" bridge







pre 1750 - 1840

"K" and "X" bridge







1810? - 1900

"Crank" bridge - upside down "U" in the U.S.
"Arch" bridge in the U.K.







after 1835 - 1880

scroll bridge







1870? - 1900

"W" bridge (saddle)







1885 - after 1900

TEMPLE design (Side arms)

Short temple with large ring finials (Scarlett)







1740 - 1840?

Double hinge (Ayscough)







1760 - 1820

Turn-pin style (pivot)







1800? - 1900

Pin-in-slot (wide-telescopic)







1815 - 1860 (narrowing during this period)

Long straight







1850 - 1900

Loop slide (narrow telescopic) - in the U.S.
"figure of eight" in the U.K.







1840 - 1890

Curl temples (riding bow)







1885 - after 1900

TEMPLE Finials (endings)

There are many variations of temple finials

Large rings







1740 - 1810

Small rings







1810 - 1830 (only seen on wide telescopic)

Teardrop loops







1790 - 1900 (generally grew smaller during this period)

Interesting Variations

 

 


Amber colored shooter's lenses


Decorated brass temple spectacles with frosted lenses


Skull fit

Unknown

 







 

 







 

 







 


http://www.antiquespectacles.com/guide/guide_to_assist.htm

45

PINCE NEZ GUIDE by SALT

Folding 1840-

C Spring


1880-1940

Astig 1890-1940

(allowed use of cylinder)

“Ocentric” type 1910-1950

(British made)

Fingerpiece 1900-1940

Unsprung

Sprung Double sprung

Japanese American Oxford

Rigid bar Canadian pads



Rimless

Rimless


Canadian Perfection Rimless “Fairy”





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