Tohono Affirmative – ddi 2015 sws

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Cards for all CPS

No other solutions, only a full rejection solves the impacts of the 1AC

Redwood Curtain Copwatch no date (based in the north coast of California, is part of a larger movement of self organized CopWatch groups throughout the US. Our local efforts seek to intervene in the drastic rise of the presence, militarization, and violence of the police, and build support networks based on self-determination, caring, and concrete needs, Author is a Tohono Activist that wishes to remain anonymous, “This Is O'odham Land: No Borders! Free Movement! Indigenous/Migrant Solidarity!,” CH

DHS's push to militarized our lands, and tribal government's cooperation in doing so not just shows how tribal sovereignty in the border region does not really exist, but shows how the voice and concerns of the O'odham people have been disregarded by both federally backed institutions. Regardless of how you see the immigration issue, the O'odham are stuck in policies that have been created not by them, but by the bigger ever-existing colonial system where borders are established to maintain capital flow. The U.S.'s objectives in its war with Mexico and James Gadsden purchase in the 1800's are no different to what the U.S. Border policies is today, to ensure capital at expense of indigenous displacement. If people were informed about the history of the border, and why it was established, it would then put today's struggle in perspective. The O'odham people are now in the shadows of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which leads to the bigger struggle of globalization. I feel, the basic principals of these policies and the history of its oppression to the many other indigenous nations worldwide , must be told to show the colonial nature that each embodies. The O'odham people must be informed of “why” migrants cross and “why” O'odham land is now a corridor for migration and drug smuggling . If TON took a broader approach with the immigration issue, it would not be a issue of migration, but a issue of globalization. TON is in a unique position to publicly critique these issue, but decides not to due to the colonial framework of tribal nations and the United States (ward/guardian relationship). The Defenders of Wildlife v. Chertoff case reflects the importance that the U.S. holds in their global economic agenda of globalization by justifying the Border Walls in their courts, and the expense of the displacement of all people. It shows that justice in our lands will not come from the courts because they represent the colonial power. The same arguments that the courts offered in the Marshall Trilogy that stated they have no choice to rule the way they did because the policies of the United States mandated them to do so, is just as alive today. National Security is the guise today. But for the O'odham, it has ushered in a apartheid-like tribal nation, where tribal government operates in a confined colonial system which offers only colonial solutions to the many migrants who journey to this country for survival. In conclusion, I felt the need to provide the history of the O'odham and the Border was important because it shows the continuation of colonization and puts the struggle in perspective for people who are unaware of the O'odham. In my travels, as a Tohono O'odham, I find myself meeting many who have no idea of our connection to our traditional land. This connection has long been under attacked since the days of the Spanish, and the United States endorsement of globalization policies is now attacking our O'odham Him'dag. The need to understand the Defenders of Wildlife v. Chertoff case is important because it shows the politics of the colonial rule. Politics that put the O'odham voice behind their security and capital. Militarization now is the state of my lands, and judicial system is not the answer. I wrote this to educate my fellow O'odham, and those who stand in solidarity with us, so we can construct ideas thats may, or may not work in their system. Hopefully, this understanding of the issue will lead to a bigger debate. Not just the same colonial one that is offered by them.


1. Papers don’t solve because infringement still occurs.

Leza 9 (Christina, Approved Dissertation for doctor of philosophy, Anthropology,5/29/09, DIVIDED NATIONS: POLICY, ACTIVISM AND INDIGENOUS IDENTITY ON THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER, Arizona University, Accessed 7/16/15, CH

Joseph Joaquin, an O’odham elder and Tohono O’odham Nation cultural resources specialist, states, “We were brought into this world for a purpose, to be the caretakers of this land.” Due to present border enforcement policies and procedures, however, “ancestors' graves are unvisited; relatives go years without seeing family; and fiestas, wakes, and ceremonial offerings go unattended. Elders, hampered from crossing for a number of reasons, fail to share traditional stories, and to pass on knowledge about the past, about plants and animals, and about caring for their desert home…” (Arietta 2004). Current border enforcement, therefore, severely disrupts the Tohono O’odham’s ability to fulfill their purpose and sustain the vitality of their community. Eileen Luna-Firebaugh (2005) argues that because border enforcement inhibits the right of O’odham people to move freely on Tohono O’odham traditional lands, “enhanced and restrictive border crossing procedures are an assault on indigenous sovereignty” and violate native religious freedoms guaranteed under federal Indian law.26 and advocated through international human rights law. Many O’odham make an annual pilgrimage to Magdalena de Kino in Sonora to honor St. Francis Xavier, an indigenous Catholic pilgrimage also carried out by the Yaqui. O’odham have also traditionally traveled to Baboquivari, the sacred mountain on O’odham lands north of the U.S.-Mexico border where I’toi, the O’odham Creator, resides. Such visits are now impossible for Mexican O’odham who lack travel documentation required by U.S. officials to cross the border into Arizona. Any movement through the desert is also difficult for O’odham in the U.S. who are often approached by Border Patrol to prove their identities as U.S. citizens. Traditional medicine men on both sides of the border lacking required travel documents are limited in their ability to attend healing ceremonies (Norrell 2009). Even when O’odham medicine men do hold the appropriate paperwork, they must give over their medicinal bundles to Border Patrol for search, disrupting the healing ceremony, according to one Tohono O’odham traditional medicine man voicing his concerns at an Alianza meeting earlier this year. According to Tohono O’odham activist Mike Flores, O’odham ceremonies that require movement across the U.S.-Mexico border, like the O’odham deer hunting and salt gathering ceremonies, are constantly disrupted by border official questioning and detention. As Flores states, “To be detained for eight hours disrupts the whole ceremony.” Two members of the Baboquivari Defense Project, and 26 In reference to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. affiliated members of the Alianza Indígena, have also observed and spoken against Border Patrol presence in and damage to sacred areas of Baboquivari Peak.

2. Perm, remove all border patrol and extend section 289 to the natives

3. Extend LEZA 9, multiple internal links. More then just crossing the border also the destruction of artifacts, which the cp can never solve, only a full removal can actually do anything.

4. Cant solve for the physical violence visited by the tohono, also is a form of physcological violence described by RIVAS 9

5. Their card says that the tribes condition severely decreased after extending 289

Expansion of the liberal “aboriginal right” concept to free movement is demonstrated by Congress’ treatment of the Texas Band of Kickapoo Indians; this group was divided by the U.S.-Mexican border, creating essentially a rightless, landless tribe.173 Although granted a year-to-year parole status by Congress in the 1950s,174 living conditions of the tribe decreased so dramatically that Congress ultimately intervened to offer health and educational assistance in conjunction with the Mexican government.175

6. Let me quote the 1ac rivas ev

We are requ ired to carry docum ent to travel on our lands. The di ssecting of O’odham la nds also caused segregation and discrim i nation against the

Ofelia Rivas is a Tohono tribe member, this means they solve 0% of the cae, so weigh the case vs the net benefit

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