Discuss the salt march to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Cause- Tax on Salt and government monopoly
Salt was consumed by rich and poor alike and it was one of the essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, and it was considered the most oppressive face of British rule. So Gandhi wrote a letter to the Viceroy Lord Irwin with eleven demands. One of the important demands was the abolishment of salt tax. In this letter Gandhi states that these demands were not fulfilled congress would launch a Civil Disobedience Movement on 11 March 1930. But Lord Irwin was not willing to negotiate these demands.
Course of the Salt March
Gandhi started his salt march with 78 trusted volunteers.
It was started from Gandhi ashram in Sabarmati to Gujarat Coastal town Dandi.
The volunteers walked for 24 days about 10 miles a day and totally they covered 240 miles.
Thousands of people gathered everyday to hear the word of Gandhi he asked the people to protest against the British very peacefully.
Gandhi reached at Dandi on 6 April 1930 and he ceremonially violated the Salt Law manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
To prepare a note about the course of the Civil Disobedience Movement
After the salt march the people they had done the refusal of British goods same in 1921 to 1922 and also they had break the Colonial laws.
Thousands of people they broke the salt law and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories.
Peoples they boycotted the foreign cloth and liquor shops were picketed.
Peasants refused to pay revenue and Chaukiddari tax.
Village officers resigned their post and forest people they had violated the forest laws and they entered the reserved forest for collect food and graze cattle.
What was the reason Gandhi called off the CDM?
What was the reaction of British (Colonial) government towards the Civil Disobedience Movement?
The British government very much worried about the progress of the CDM and they started to arrest the Congress leaders.
This led to violent clashes in many places.
Congress leader Abdul Gaffar Khan was arrested in April 1930, the angry crowds demonstrated the streets of Peshawar and they faced armoured cars and police firing. Many people were killed in this incident.
After one month Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested. As a result the workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations.
But British used some more brutal methods to suppress this problem
A peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and one lakh people were arrested.
So Gandhi once again decided to call off the movement and entered in to a pact with Irwin 5 March 1931.
What was the reason Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement?
The first Civil Disobedience Movement was started in 1930 March 11 and ended in 1931 March 5 on the base of the Gandhi - Irwin Pact.
The Congress had boycotted the first round table conference in London.
But the British government agreed to release the Indian political prisoners so Gandhi went to London for attend the conference.
But the negotiations broke down and Gandhi returned disappointed.
Back in India, Gandhi discovered that the government following the repressive measures against the Indians.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Ghaffar Khanwas in jail and the Britishers had prevented the meetings and demonstrations.
So once again Gandhi decided to relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
But after a year in 1934 this movement had lost its importance.
To prepare a note about Gandhi- IrwinPact.
When the Civil Disobedience Movement at its peak the British government in 1930 called the First Round Table Conference in London for to solve the constitutional problems in India
But the Indian National Congress had boycotted the conference
As result of this pact Gandhi called of Civil Disobedience Movement and he attended the Second Round Table Conference and British government released all the prisoners arrested during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Participants of the Non Cooperation Movement
From the Village (Countryside) - Rich Peasant Community &
Poor Peasant Community
Rich Peasant Community
The rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh were actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
They were engaged in the commercial cultivation but they were very much worried about the trade depression and falling price.
They were faced lot of problem to pay the government tax but British refused to reduce the tax.
So they were very enthusiastically participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and they were asked the people to boycott the British programmes and British goods.
In their understanding Swaraj means struggle against the high tax.
They were deeply disappointed in the withdrawal of CDM by Gandhi in 1931 without the revising of the revenue rates.
So when the movement was arrested in 1932, many of them refused to participate.
Poor Peasant Community
Along with the high tax the poor peasants and small tenants faced lot of problems from the landlords in the form of rent.
They wanted the reduction of tax and abolishment of rent.
They were joined in variety small radical groups leaded by the Socialists and the Communists.
But the congress was unwilling to support ‘No Rent Campaign’ in most places.
So the relationship between poor peasants and Congress remained uncertain.
Business Class Community
During the time of the First World War Indian Merchants and Industrialists earned huge profit and became powerful.
To expand their business they reacted against the Colonial policies and restrictions.
They wanted the protection against the import of foreign goods and a rupee- sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
For their business interest they were formed
1. Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress- 1920
2. Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) – 1927
The Leaders like- Purshottamdas Thakudars and G.D.Birla they attacked the colonial controlled Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
They gave the financial assistance and refused to buy or sale the imported goods.
Most of the business people expected the swaraj will come and they could flourish their business without restrictions.