The tempest



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YEAR 9

SHAKESPEARE FOR SATS
Courtesy of Watford Grammar School for Girls
THE TEMPEST

SET SCENES FOR 2007:
Act 1, Scene 2, lines 189-321

Act 5, Scene 1, lines 1-134

THE TEMPEST” – OUTLINE OF ACTIVITIES IN SOW


WEEK

TASK


1

INTRODUCTION TO THE PLAY

Students should make predictions based on images from “The Tempest” and familiarise themselves with Shakespeare’s characters and use of language.

2

OUTLINE OF THE PLOT AND CHARACTERS

Students should understand the plot and characters of “The Tempest”. Some of these activities are ideal for a series of drama lessons.

Reading Act One, Scene One – drama based activities on the storm.

3


ACT ONE, SCENE TWO

Examine stereotypical characters and then explore the behaviour of Prospero, Miranda, Ariel, Ferdinand and Caliban, finding suitable quotations.

4


ACT TWO

Writing to imagine, explore, entertain - students should describe their own utopias;

Writing to argue, persuade, advise – students to use techniques to write persuasively on a number of topics;

Analyse Caliban’s soliloquy at the start of the scene;

Order key events in the scene and use the key quotations sheet to test students’ knowledge of who said what;

Storyboard the entrance of Trinculo and Stephano and show how it contrasts with the mood of Caliban’s opening soliloquy.

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ACT THREE

Scene One: Consider Ferdinand’s opening soliloquy and explore the use of oppositions or antithesis;

Scene Two: Directorial response to the drunkards;

Scene Three: Writing to imagine, explore, entertain. Students should imagine themselves as Gonzalo. He has returned to Milan and is recounting the events on the island for the benefit of a friend. Students should write a script of his monologue for the events of Act 3, Scene 3.

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ACT FOUR

Consider Shakespeare’s use of language, stage directions and characterisation in Act Four, Scene One.

7


ACT FIVE

Revise the main characters and actions to revise events in the play;

Students should write a response to this scene, considering if they are surprised by the ending of the play and consider how Prospero’s power changes as the play progresses.

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CONSIDER HOW SHAKESPEARE PRESENTS THE MAIN CHARACTERS IN THE TEMPEST

Prospero, Ariel and Caliban.

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EXPLORATION OF THEMES, CHARACTERS AND IMAGES

Sonnet in a Bottle – writing to imagine, explore, entertain:

Each students chooses one character to focus on and should write about who they are, what has happened to them, their ambitions and disappointments, etc. They must write in the first person. Challenge students to write their message as a sonnet.

Love – writing to analyse, review, comment:

Students to consider which type of love is most important in “The Tempest”.

Magic – writing to analyse, review, comment:

Explain that most, if not all, of the characters in the play undergo a “sea-change” and are forever altered by the events following the tempest.

Essay: How is magic used in “The Tempest”?
Enslavement - Does Shakespeare present enslavement as a positive or negative concept in “The Tempest”?

Consider how the following characters experience some kind of enslavement: Prospero; Caliban; Alonso; Miranda; Ariel; Ferdinand.
Language techniques - Alliteration, onomatopoeia, repetition of key words, balanced phrases, exaggeration, emotive language, dramatic words or phrases, use of imagery, groups of three, pronouns to involve the audience, exclamations and questions.
Imagery and patterns of language - Students to identify and explore a range of images and comparisons in the play.
Songs - Sequencing Ariel’s song. Consider why The Tempest includes more songs and music than other Shakespeare plays. Students may wish to compose a song for Ariel to sing to celebrate his release.
Sea-changes - Who changes the most and who changes the least in the play? Consider Miranda, Prospero, Alonso, Ariel, Antonio, Ferdinand, Sebastian and Caliban.
Reporting the news - Students to imagine they are part of a TV news channel, bringing important stories and updates to viewers as they happen. Each group is a news team and is in competition with every other team to bring the most relevant, interesting and insightful news reports to the viewers. Each group will need to give the “bare bones” of the top stories on the island and work out how to present them to make the most impact. Remind students that they need to imagine that they do not know what will happen next – this news is unfolding as they are working. Groups should be numbered and given only ten minutes to prepare for each key event. Individually, students could write articles about the most important event.
Additional Drama Activities based on the play

12


TIMED ESSAY ON THE SET SCENES (ONE HOUR)

Set scenes are available from:

http://www.qca.org.uk/downloads/qca-06-2657-ks3-en-07-tempest-v5.pdf
Consider how Prospero changes his attitude to others in the play. How would you direct the two extracts from Act 1 Scene 2 and Act Five Scene 1 to show these changes?


NATIONAL LITERACY STRATEGY OBJECTIVES:
Word Level

7. recognise layers of meaning in the writer’s choice of words, eg. connotation, implied meaning, different types of multiple meanings.


Sentence Level

4. integrate speech, reference and quotation effectively into what they write;

11. investigate ways English has changed over time;
Text Level – Reading

2. synthesise information from a range of sources, shaping material to meet the reader’s needs;

5. evaluate their own critical writing about texts;

6. comment on the authorial perspective offered in texts on individuals, community and society;

14. analyse the language, form and dramatic impact of scenes and plays by published dramatists;

15. extend their understanding of literary heritage by relating major writers to their historical context, and explaining their appeal over time.


Text Level – Writing

1. review their ability to write for a range of purposes and audiences, recognising their strengths and identifying skills for further development;

3. produce formal essays in standard English within a specified time, writing fluently and legibly and maintaining technical accuracy when writing at speed;

11. make telling use of descriptive detail, eg. eye witness accounts, travel writing;

17. cite specific and relevant textual evidence to justify critical judgements about texts.
Speaking and Listening / Drama

9. discuss and evaluate conflicting evidence to arrive at a considered viewpoint;

12. use of range of drama techniques, including work in role, to explore issues, ideas and meanings, eg. by playing out hypotheses

13. develop and compare different interpretations of scenes or plays by Shakespeare;

14. convey action, character, atmosphere and tension when performing plays.

WEEK ONE – INTRODUCTION TO THE PLAY
TASK: Students should discuss their expectations / knowledge of Shakespeare, and make predictions based on images from “The Tempest”. They should also familiarise themselves with Shakespeare’s characters and use of language.
PROCESS:
Shakespeare Baggage”:

Get students to be open about their fears / reservations / excitement / preconceptions about Shakespeare. In pairs, assign an A and B. As are to brainstorm to their partners on the word “Shakespeare” for two minutes. Swap and repeat.

In two minutes, on sugar paper, As and Bs should then write / scribble / draw everything they can remember their partner saying, before presenting their partner’s thoughts and ideas to the whole group.
Use images attached (or use Google to research their own) to gauge students’ first impressions of the play.
These should be developed by using De Bono’s Thinking Hats and CoRT tools (see attached).
Introduce students to the main characters in the play (see attached resource). Students should consider who they would prefer to be stranded on a desert island with, and why.
Insults: give each student an insult from the play to “throw” at another member of the class, who in turn insults someone else. See attached resource.
Iambic Pentameter
Explain the meaning of iambic pentameter:

Pent = five, iambic means stresses, one stress on, one stress off. So there are five stresses on and five stresses off.



Di Dum Di Dum Di Dum Di Dum Di Dum (10 beats).

Get this rhythm going by asking students to clap their hands and stamp their feet.

Students should then identify this beat in the language:

A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse

If music be the food of love play on

But soft what light through yonder window breaks

Get them to work out their own birthdays in iambic pentameter, eg.

My birthday is the …….
Examine lines from “The Tempest” which use iambic pentameter.

Encourage students to look at Shakespeare’s verse as poetry.



USING THESE IMAGES, MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT “THE TEMPEST”



DE BONO’S THINKING HATS and CoRT
Use the following SIX HATS to organise students’ first impressions of “The Tempest”:
White Hat

Facts – what information do I have? What information do I need to get?


Red Hat

How do I feel about studying Shakespeare? What are my first feelings about the play?


Yellow Hat

What are the benefits of studying Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”? What am I looking forward to?


Green Hat

What ideas do I have already about the play? Do you have any predictions about the outcome of the play?


Black Hat

What are the negative points about studying Shakespeare and “The Tempest”? What don’t I like and what are the problems?


Blue Hat

What have I discovered and what is still left to discover? How can I discover it?


Also try the following CoRT tools to elicit responses and ideas from the students:
PMI – Plus, Minus, Interesting

How do they feel about studying Shakespeare? What are the PMIs of reading “The Tempest”?


CAF – Consider All Factors

What do you need to think about when reading Shakespeare?


AGO – Aims, Goals and Objective

Why are we studying Shakespeare – it is not just for exams!



THE MAIN CHARACTERS IN “THE TEMPEST”

A BRIEF INTRODUC TION!
WHO WOULD BE THE BEST (AND WORST) ISLAND COMPANION AND WHY?
Students should try to “match” these character descriptions to famous celebrities. They could bring in pictures or make quick sketches in their books:
Miranda

She is a young, innocent and naïve teenage girl who has lived with her father on a remote island since she was a baby. Her father is fiercely over-protective. Miranda is unfamiliar with the “real” world.


Ariel

A mysterious spirit, neither male or female, who has magical abilities to fly and become invisible. Ariel feels trapped on the island and longs to be free. However, Ariel is also loyal and obedient if you could offer the opportunity of freedom from the island.


Caliban

A native of an island, sometimes described as a fish, and at other times as a monster. It is rumoured that his father is the devil himself. He is full of foul language, but will work hard for you – if you can tame him!


Alonso

Alonso is a king who has recently attended the wedding of his daughter. He fears that his son has been drowned and is at risk from political plots against him.


Ferdinand

He is a good looking teenage prince, who has recently lost contact with his father, the King Alonso. Ferdinand is very romantic, and prone to falling in love quite easily.


Gonzalo

He is an honest old man with very idealistic views about the world. Gonzalo is a loyal friend and companion who always looks on the bright side of life. He can be a little naïve.


Antonio

He is a Duke, who gained his title by dishonest means. Antonio is selfish and likes to bully and intimidate others. He is friends with Sebastian, King Alonso’s brother.


Sebastian

Sebastian is King Alonso’s brother. He sometimes envies his brother’s position, and can be cruel and unkind. He is also easily led by Antonio.


Stephano

Stephano is the butler to the king. He likes to drink alcohol and can often be found staggering around the island in a drunken haze. He also dreams about being as powerful as the king.


Trinculo

Trinculo is a clown who likes to keep people entertained. He is also a coward, and likes to drink too much alcohol.



INSULTS FROM “THE TEMPEST”





  • Unwholesome fen




  • The devil himself




  • Abhorred slave




  • A thing most brutish




  • Hag seed




  • Most lying slave




  • Thy wicked dam




  • Thou jesting monkey



NOW MIX AND MATCH YOUR OWN!
Use one or more insulting adjective:


  • Freckled

  • Poisonous

  • Brutish

  • Ignorant

  • Monstrous

  • Foolish

  • Bawling

  • Howling

  • Abominable

  • Incharitable

And add an insulting noun:




  • Traitor

  • Fool

  • Hag

  • Ass

  • Monster

  • Devil

  • Tortoise

  • Ninny

  • Imposter


WEEK TWO – OUTLINE OF THE PLOT AND CHARACTERS
TASK: Familiarise students with the plot and characters of “The Tempest”

This programme of activities is ideal for a series of drama lessons.
PROCESS:
Using the attached synopsis of “The Tempest”, the class should attempt to re-enact the whole play in mime. Read them the synopsis of the play (attached) before casting the following characters:
A ship master Ferdinand Gonzalo

Boatswain Antonio Prospero

Mariners (2 or 3) Miranda Ariel

Alonso Caliban Adrian

Sebastian Francisco Trinculo

Stephano Iris Ceres

Juno Spirits and Nymphs – anyone not already cast.
Go through each Act and scene, reading the synopsis aloud while the appropriate characters mime their roles. This will be quite chaotic, and need more than one run through!
After this activity, examine the mini scenes (attached). Divide the class into groups of four or five, and give them two scenes each. Ask them to then come up with a frozen picture for each mini scene. The whole class should then present their mini scenes in the correct order of the play, with the title of each scene being read aloud.
Read Act One, Scene One and perform with students taking different roles. Aim to show the chaos and confusion of the scene with its many entrances and exits.
THE SYNOPSIS OF THE PLAY
DRAMA EXERCISE

Cast the following characters among the class:


  • A ship master

  • Boatswain

  • Mariners

  • King Alonso

  • Sebastian

  • Antonio

  • Sebastian

  • Ferdinand

  • Gonzalo

  • Prospero

  • Miranda

  • Ariel

  • Caliban

  • Adrian

  • Francisco

  • Trinculo

  • Stephano

  • Iris

  • Ceres

  • Juno

  • Spirits and Nymphs – anyone who isn’t already cast

Explain to students that you want them to explore all the possible exits and entrances in this exercise, including heaven and hell.



They should follow all stage directions and make the necessary sound effects, but mime all speeches.
Before they move, take them through a brief synopsis of the play (attached) to familiarise them with the story.
Re-read the synopsis, with characters performing their roles. It is likely to be “messy” at first, and so will need several attempts!
THE TEMPEST” - SYNOPSIS
ACT ONE, SCENE ONE

  • Noise of thunder and lightning and a ship at sea;

  • Enter a Shipmaster and a Boatswain. Speak. The Shipmaster exits. Mariners enter and exit;

  • King Alonso, Sebastian and Antonio, Ferdinand, Gonzalo enter. The Boatswain asks them to keep out of the way, then exits with the others;

  • The Boatswain re-enters. Sebastian, Antonio and Gonzalo re-enter, speak to the Boatwain.

  • Mariners enter (wet) and announce the ship is sinking. Antonio and Sebastian exit, soon followed by Gonzalo.


ACT ONE, SCENE TWO

  • The island, before Prospero’s cell (house)

  • Prospero tells Miranda their history, but he is concerned that she is not listening;

  • Miranda falls asleep;

  • Ariel enters and describes how he created the storm, but saved the boat and its occupants. Prospero and Ariel speak then argue;

  • Miranda awakes. Ariel re-enters as a water nymph, then exits;

  • Caliban enters furiously and complains to Prospero about his bondage. Prospero tells him off. Caliban exits;

  • Ariel enters invisible, followed by Ferdinand. Ariel sings;

  • Ferdinand and Miranda see each other and instantly fall in love. Prospero magically enslaves Ferdinand.


ACT TWO, SCENE ONE

  • Another part of the island;

  • King Alonso, Sebastian, Antonio, Gonzalo, Adrian, Francisco enter. Gonzalo, Adrian and Francisco try to comfort Alonso, who cannot find his son, Ferdinand.

  • Antonio mocks them;

  • Ariel enters, invisible, and plays music and puts all by Sebastian and Antonio to sleep;

  • Ariel exits;

  • Antonio then persuades Sebastian to kill Alonso so he will become king. They raise their swords to kill Alonso and Gonzalo. Ariel re-enters and wakes Gonzalo just in time. Antonio and Sebastian make pathetic excuses about their raised swords;

  • All wake up and exit to look for Ferdinand.


ACT TWO, SCENE TWO

  • Another part of the island;

  • Caliban enters and curses Prospero. Trinculo enters, sees Caliban and thinks he is a monster. He takes shelter from the storm under Caliban’s cloak;

  • Stephano enters drunk and singing. He thinks the shape of Caliban and Trinculo under his cloak represents a monster. He gives Caliban a drink of alcohol;

  • Trinculo then emerges from Caliban’s cloak and greets Stephano. Caliban thinks the alcohol is magical and assumes Stephano is a god. Caliban promises to show Stephano the wealth of the island.



ACT THREE, SCENE ONE

  • Ferdinand enters carrying logs. He and Miranda see each other and fall in love instantly;

  • Prospero pretend to disapprove, but secretly he approves of the match.


ACT THREE, SCENE TWO

  • Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo enter drunk. Trinculo shows his dislike for Caliban and Stephano tells him off for being rude to Caliban;

  • Ariel enters and plays a trick, imitating Trinculo’s voice to call Caliban a liar;

  • Stephano hits Trinculo;

  • Caliban then persuades Stephano to murder Prospero in order to gain control of the island;

  • Ariel then plays some music which frightens the cowardly Trinculo;

  • Stephano and Trinculo then decide to follow Ariel’s music.


ACT THREE, SCENE THREE

  • Enter Alonso, Sebastian, Antonio, Gonzalo, Adrian and Francisco;

  • Sebastian and Antonio are still secretly plotting to kill Alonso;
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