Fractures are often classified according to the position of the bone ends after the break:
Open (compound) è
Closed (simple) è
Common in the elderly (brittle bones).
Greenstick è bone breaks incompletely.
Sports injury/Injury of abuse.
Reduction of fracture
XI. Nutritional Effects on Bone
Normal bone growth/maintenance cannot
Calcium and phosphate are not absorbed in the intestine unless the hormone calcitriol is present.
XII. Hormonal Effects on Bone
At puberty, the rising levels of sex hormones (estrogens in females and androgens in males) cause osteoblasts to produce bone faster than the epiphyseal cartilage can divide.
Other hormones that affect bone growth include insulin and the glucocorticoids.
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are 2 hormones that antagonistically maintain blood [Ca2+] at homeostatic levels.
XIII. Clinical Conditions
More detrimental due to the fact that their bones are still growing.
Osteo=bone + myelo=marrow + itis=inflammation.
Inflammation of bone
Fatal before the advent of antibiotics.
Compression fractures of the vertebrae and fractures of the femur are common.
Often seen in