The Skeletal System I. Functions



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-Fracture Types



  • Fractures are often classified according to the position of the bone ends after the break:

Open (compound) è

Closed (simple) è

Comminuted è

Common in the elderly (brittle bones).

Greenstick è bone breaks incompletely.

Spiral è

Sports injury/Injury of abuse.

Impacted è



Fracture Treatment



XI. Nutritional Effects on Bone

  • Normal bone growth/maintenance cannot



  • Calcium and phosphate are not absorbed in the intestine unless the hormone calcitriol is present.



  • Vitamins

XII. Hormonal Effects on Bone

  • Growth hormone,









  • At puberty, the rising levels of sex hormones (estrogens in females and androgens in males) cause osteoblasts to produce bone faster than the epiphyseal cartilage can divide.



  • Estrogens cause

  • Estrogen also

  • Other hormones that affect bone growth include insulin and the glucocorticoids.

    • Insulin

    • Glucocorticoids

  • Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are 2 hormones that antagonistically maintain blood [Ca2+] at homeostatic levels.



    • Bone Resorption –




  • Bone Deposition –

XIII. Clinical Conditions







  • Rickets

    • Children's

    • More detrimental due to the fact that their bones are still growing.

    • Signs




  • Osteomyelitis

    • Osteo=bone + myelo=marrow + itis=inflammation.

    • Inflammation of bone



    • Fatal before the advent of antibiotics.



  • Osteoporosis

    • Group of



    • Bone mass

    • Compression fractures of the vertebrae and fractures of the femur are common.

    • Often seen in




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