The Skeletal System I. Functions



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IX. Bone Development

  • Osteogenesis




  • In embryos this leads to the formation of the bony skeleton.

  • In children




  • In adults, it occurs as part of bone remodeling and bone repair.

-Formation of the Bony Skeleton

  • Before week 8, the human embryonic skeleton is made of fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage.

  • After week 8,









-Endochondral Ossification






  • Most bones in the body develop via this model.

  • More complicated




  • We’ll follow limb bone development as an example.

-Growth in Bone Length





At puberty, growth in bone length is increased dramatically by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.



-Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair

  • Deficiency of Vitamin A –

  • Deficiency of Vitamin C –

  • Deficiency of Vitamin D –

  • Insufficient Growth Hormone –

  • Excessive Growth Hormone –

  • Insufficient Thyroid Hormone –

  • Sex Hormones –




  • Physical Stress –

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