The Leadership Quarterly Volume 25, Issue 5, October 2014

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The Leadership Quarterly

Volume 25, Issue 5, October 2014

1. Title: Facial Appearance and Leadership: An Overview and Challenges for New Research

Authors: Panu Poutvaara.

Abstract: There is plenty of evidence showing that facial features predict success in politics, business and the military. Some of the papers providing this evidence are related to selection into leadership positions, others into how facial features predict performance in such a position. The purpose of this introduction is to provide an overview of The Leadership Quarterly special issue on Facial Appearance and Leadership, as well as to discuss the use of good looks as a heuristic, and difficulties related to establishing causal relationships in this area of research.
2. Title: The Age of Exploration and Exploitation: Younger-Looking Leaders Endorsed For Change and Older-Looking Leaders Endorsed For Stability

Authors: Brian R. Spisak, Allen E. Grabo, Richard D. Arvey, Mark van Vugt.

Abstract: The current contribution extends theorizing on leadership and the exploration–exploitation dilemma using an evolutionary perspective. A theoretical connection is made between the exploration–exploitation dilemma and age-biased leadership preferences for exploratory change versus stable exploitation. For the majority of human evolution our species was semi- or entirely nomadic and the trade-off between exploration versus exploitation had substantial physical- and experience-based requirements which align with leadership opportunities as moderated by age. Thus, given the consistency and importance of correctly assigning leadership for the exploration–exploitation dilemma, human evolution has likely selected for age-biased leadership endorsement. Across three experiments we find that younger-looking leaders are endorsed for times of exploratory change and older-looking leaders for stable exploitation. Further, our results indicated that older leaders are endorsed for leading conservative exploitation of nonrenewable resources and younger leaders for exploration of renewable alternatives (i.e., green leadership). The results introduce an age-biased leadership endorsement hypothesis.
3. Title: The Many (Distinctive) Faces of Leadership: Inferring Leadership Domain from Facial Appearance

Authors: Christopher Y. Olivola, Dawn L. Eubanks, Jeffrey B. Lovelace.

Abstract: Previous research has shown that people form impressions of potential leaders from their faces and that certain facial features predict success in reaching prestigious leadership positions. However, much less is known about the accuracy or meta-accuracy of face-based leadership inferences. Here we examine a simple, but important, question: Can leadership domain be inferred from faces? We find that human judges can identify business, military, and sports leaders (but not political leaders) from their faces with above-chance accuracy. However, people are surprisingly bad at evaluating their own performance on this judgment task: We find no relationship between how well judges think they performed and their actual accuracy levels. In a follow-up study, we identify several basic dimensions of evaluation that correlate with face-based judgments of leadership domain, as well as those that predict actual leadership domain. We discuss the implications of our results for leadership perception and selection.
4. Title: Negotiating Face-To-Face: Men's Facial Structure Predicts Negotiation Performance

Authors: Michael P. Haselhuhn, Elaine M. Wong, Margaret E. Ormiston, M. Ena Inesi, Adam D. Galinsky.

Abstract: Although a great deal of research has examined specific behaviors that positively affect leaders' negotiation processes and outcomes, there has been considerably less attention devoted to stable characteristics, psychological or physical, that might also influence outcomes at the bargaining table. In the current research, we identify a measureable physical trait – the facial width-to-height ratio – that predicts negotiation performance in men. Across four studies, we show that men with greater facial width-to-height ratios are less cooperative negotiators compared to men with smaller facial ratios. This lack of cooperation allows men with greater facial width-to-height ratios to claim more value when negotiating with other men, but inhibits their ability to discover creative agreements that benefit all negotiating parties. These results provide insight into the factors linking leadership, facial structure and conflict resolution.
5. Title: The Influence of Economic Context on the Relationship between Chief Executive Officer Facial Appearance And Company Profits

Authors: Nicholas O. Rule, Konstantin O. Tskhay.

Abstract: Inferences of leadership ability and personality from faces have been associated with leaders' efficacy across multiple domains. One influential factor that has only been scarcely explored, however, is the context in which leadership occurs. The present studies examined the effect of two such contextual variables: economic conditions across time and economic conditions across nations. In Study 1, inferences of leadership ability from the faces of American Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) predicted their companies' financial performance prior to the Financial Crisis of 2008 but not after. In Study 2, traits previously found to predict the success of American CEOs before the Financial Crisis (i.e., Power) predicted the success of CEOs in Germany in the year following the crisis but not in the US, consistent with the differential impact of the international recession in the two nations. These results suggest that economic events may affect the relationship between facial appearance and business leaders' success.
6. Title: The Face Says It All: Ceos, Gender, And Predicting Corporate Performance

Authors: Julianna Pillemer, Elizabeth R. Graham, Deborah M. Burke.

Abstract: This study examined relationships among CEOs' facial appearance, gender-linked traits, and the financial performance of their company as indicated by Fortune 1000 rank and company profits. Naïve college students rated traits based solely on the facial appearance of male and female CEOs whose companies were matched by Fortune 1000 rank. Female CEOs were rated higher than male CEOs on communal traits (supportiveness, compassion, warmth), whereas male CEOs were rated higher than female CEOs on agentic traits (dominance, leadership, powerfulness), consistent with social role theory. Correlations with company rank and/or profits were found for powerfulness for male CEOs, and for supportiveness, warmth and compassion for female CEOs. For female CEOs, a communal composite predicted company rank and profits, and an agentic composite marginally predicted company rank. The findings do not indicate why these variables are related, but implications for the association of gender-linked traits with top corporate leaders are discussed.
7. Title: Facial Appearance and Leader Choice in Different Contexts: Evidence for Task Contingent Selection Based On Implicit and Learned Face-Behaviour/Face-Ability Associations

Authors: Anthony C. Little.

Abstract: Facial appearance plays a role in leader selection and some facial traits are more valued in certain contexts. Here, I examined associations between facial appearance and perceptions of leadership. In Study 1, male faces were rated for several traits and leadership ability under general, war-time, and peace-time scenarios. Masculinity was found to be favoured in war-time over peace-time, however, this association was diminished when controlling for dominance. In Study 2, cues to physical ability or cooperative personality were associated with different face traits. When subsequently asked to select the best leader for a physically competitive task, participants chose faces with the trait associated with physical ability. For a cooperative task, participants chose faces with the trait associated with cooperation. These data suggest that leaders may be chosen based on their visual characteristics because certain characteristics suggest that they possess abilities that make them well suited to lead in particular situations.
8. Title: Better Not Look Too Nice? Employees' Preferences Towards (Un)Likeable Managers

Authors: Benny Geys.

Abstract: Recent research shows that, all else equal, most people prefer likeable colleagues. In this article, two experiments are employed to analyze preferences with respect to (un)likeable superiors. We thereby focus on perceptions of likeability based on appearance rather than as a behavioral characteristic, which allows us to concentrate on the impact of quick, unconscious evaluations in zero-acquaintance situations. The results indicate that, all else equal, managers of higher perceived likeability are less preferred than managers of lower perceived likeability. Such likeability-aversion emerges among male and female respondents, affects male and female managers, and holds both for preferences expressed from the perspective of employees ( Experiment 1) or a HR department ( Experiment 2).
9. Title: Supervisor Commitment to Employees: Does Agreement among Supervisors' and Employees' Perceptions Matter?

Authors: Guylaine Landry, Christian Vandenberghe, Ahmed Khalil Ben Ayed.

Abstract: Using 322 matched employee–supervisor dyads, we investigate how level and direction of employee–supervisor (dis)agreement on supervisor's affective commitment to the employee relate to organizational commitment, emotional exhaustion, leader–member exchange, and job performance. Results from polynomial regression and response surface analyses indicate that level of employee–supervisor agreement matters: the most beneficial outcomes appear when supervisors and employees agree that the supervisor is highly committed to the employee whereas the least favorable outcomes appear when dyads' members agree that the supervisor has low commitment to the employee. Direction of employee–supervisor disagreement is also important as employee overestimation of supervisor commitment is associated with more favorable outcomes than employee underestimation. However, for two of the outcomes (organizational commitment and emotional exhaustion), the effect of employee–supervisor disagreement was attributable to a main effect of employee perceptions of supervisor commitment. We discuss the implications of these findings for the understanding of employee–supervisor relationships.
10. Title: Perceptions of Leadership Success from Nonverbal Cues Communicated By Orchestra Conductors

Authors: Konstantin O. Tskhay, Honghao Xu, Nicholas O. Rule.

Abstract: Research has suggested that people can extract information relevant to leadership from thin slices of behavior. Nearly all of this research has been conducted in the context of large organizations where the relationships between leaders and followers are relatively indirect, however. We therefore examined here whether participants could extract similar information about leadership success from contexts with direct leader–follower interactions: conductors of orchestras. We found that perceivers could accurately discern conductors' success from brief video clips and that perceptions of expressiveness and age formed the basis for this accuracy. Thus, the current work demonstrates that leadership success is perceptible from nonverbal cues not only for the leaders of large organizations, but also in the context of groups where leaders and followers must continually and dynamically interact to produce successful outcomes.
11. Title: Differentiated Leader–Member Exchange, Justice Climate, and Performance: Main and Interactive Effects

Authors: Jeffrey J. Haynie, Kristin L. Cullen, Houston F. Lester, Jamie Winter, Daniel J. Svyantek.

Abstract: Leaders form different quality leader–member exchange (LMX) relationships with their subordinates. This variable treatment termed LMX differentiation can have negative effects on individuals' behavior and attitudes. In this study, we examined the cross-level main effect of justice climate on task performance and the moderating role of justice climate on the relationship between LMX differentiation and task performance. We tested these two hypotheses using a field study of 90 subordinates nested under 27 supervisors. Procedural justice climate, not distributive justice climate, was found to positively influence subordinate task performance. Further, distributive justice climate, not procedural justice climate, was found to moderate the LMX differentiation–task performance relationship; such that the relationship was positive when distributive justice climate was high and negative when distributive justice climate was low. Findings and future directions are discussed.
12. Title: The Shared Leadership of Teams: A Meta-Analysis Of Proximal, Distal, And Moderating Relationships

Authors: Vias C. Nicolaides, Kate A. LaPort, Tiffani R. Chen, Alan J. Tomassetti, Eric J. Weis, Stephen J. Zaccaro, Jose M. Cortina.

Abstract: The current meta-analysis examines the relationship between shared leadership and team performance. It also assesses the role of team confidence (i.e., collective efficacy and team potency) in this relationship. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that team confidence partially mediates the effects of shared leadership on team performance. We also found support for the notion that shared leadership explains unique variance in team performance, over and above that of vertical leadership. Furthermore, a variety of substantive continuous and categorical variables were investigated as moderators of the shared leadership–team performance relationship. Specifically, the relationship between shared leadership and team performance was moderated by task interdependence, team tenure, and whether performance was objectively versus subjectively measured. Finally, results suggest that the approach used when measuring shared leadership can also play a role in the observed validity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
13. Title: CEO–TMT Exchange, TMT Personality Composition, And Decision Quality: The Mediating Role of TMT Psychological Empowerment

Authors: Hao-Chieh Lin, Nayel Rababah.

Abstract: This research draws on the upper-echelons perspective to examine the effects of CEO–top management team (TMT) exchange quality and TMT personality composition on decision quality through the mediation of TMT psychological empowerment. Using survey data from more than 700 executives in 210 firms in a Middle Eastern country and adopting a split-data approach, we find that CEO–TMT exchange quality can advance TMT psychological empowerment. We also find that TMT neuroticism has a negative effect on TMT psychological empowerment, while TMT conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness have positive effects. Moreover, TMT psychological empowerment plays a mediating role in linking CEO–TMT exchange quality and TMT personality composition with decision quality. Our research contributes to the upper-echelons, leader–member exchange (LMX), and decision-making literature by drawing attention to the social dynamics between CEO and TMT members, as well as the psychological characteristics and psychological states of TMT members, and their implications for strategic decisions.
14. Title: CEO Grandiose Narcissism and Firm Performance: The Role of Organizational Identification

Authors: Christopher S. Reina, Zhen Zhang, Suzanne J. Peterson.

Abstract: This study reconciles the positive and negative sides of CEO grandiose narcissism by examining the role that CEO organizational identification plays in moderating the effect of CEO grandiose narcissism on top management team (TMT) behavioral integration. We first distinguish between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and we then draw on upper echelons theory and executive personality research to hypothesize and test a model in which CEO grandiose narcissism is positively related to TMT behavioral integration when CEOs are high in organizational identification. The relationship is expected to be negative when CEOs do not identify strongly with their organizations. TMT behavioral integration, in turn, predicts subsequent firm performance. Findings based on multi-source data from a sample of 97 CEOs and their firms supported the hypotheses. These results highlight the complex nature of CEO grandiose narcissism – namely, that the construct has both positive and negative aspects as it relates to top management team dynamics and firm performance and that the relationship is affected by CEOs' identification with their organizations.
15. Title: Mind The Gap: The Role of Leadership in Multiteam System Collective Cognition

Authors: Toshio Murase, Dorothy R. Carter, Leslie A. DeChurch, Michelle A. Marks.

Abstract: The increasing prevalence of team-based organizations places a premium on leadership that will “mind the gap” and enable smooth synchronization of activities across multiple distinct teams. Prior work shows that leaders can be trained to directly facilitate between-team coordination processes. Yet, relatively little is known about the intervening psychological mechanisms that enable between-team coordination. Here, we advance multiteam-interaction mental models—cognitive structures containing knowledge of appropriate between-team activities—as one mechanism that facilitates coordination among multiple teams. We use leader and team cognition data gathered in DeChurch and Marks' (2006) MTS study to test these ideas. Results reveal leaders' multiteam-interaction mental model accuracy “transfers” to teams through strategic communication, and leader strategic communication enables between-team coordination by promoting accuracy in followers' mental models. This study highlights the importance of leadership for developing collective cognition that allows teams to “scale up” from small stand-alone teams to larger and more complex systems.
16. Title: I Get By With A Little Help from My Supervisor: Creative-Idea Generation, Idea Implementation, and Perceived Supervisor Support

Authors: Miha Škerlavaj, Matej Černe, Anders Dysvik.

Abstract: In two studies using both field (165 employees and their 24 direct supervisors from a manufacturing firm in Study 1) and experimental (123 second-year undergraduate student participants in lab Study 2) data, we explore how perceived supervisor support acts as a crucial contingency that enables higher levels of idea implementation from creative-idea generation. First, we suggest that excessive creative-idea generation (in terms of both frequency and creativity of ideas) can lead to diminished returns with regard to idea implementation. Drawing on a resource allocation framework, we hypothesize and find a curvilinear inverse U-shaped relationship between employee creative-idea generation and implementation. Second, we find that higher levels of perceived supervisor support dampen the curvilinear relationship between creative-idea generation and idea implementation. Accordingly, perceived supervisor support seems to provide employees with access to resources and support needed for idea implementation, making highly creative ideas more implementable.
17. Title: Leadership As Social Identity Management: Introducing the Identity Leadership Inventory (ILI) To Assess and Validate A Four-Dimensional Model

Authors: Niklas K. Steffens, S. Alexander Haslam, Stephen D. Reicher, Michael J. Platow, Katrien Fransen, Jie Yang, Michelle K. Ryan, Jolanda Jetten, Kim Peters, Filip Boen.

Abstract: Although nearly two decades of research have provided support for the social identity approach to leadership, most previous work has focused on leaders' identity prototypicality while neglecting the assessment of other equally important dimensions of social identity management. However, recent theoretical developments have argued that in order to mobilize and direct followers' energies, leaders need not only to ‘be one of us’ (identity prototypicality), but also to ‘do it for us’ (identity advancement), to ‘craft a sense of us’ (identity entrepreneurship), and to ‘embed a sense of us’ (identity impresarioship). In the present research we develop and validate an Identity Leadership Inventory (ILI) that assesses these dimensions in different contexts and with diverse samples from the US, China, and Belgium. Study 1 demonstrates that the scale has content validity such that the items meaningfully differentiate between the four dimensions. Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence for the scale's construct validity (distinguishing between dimensions), discriminant validity (distinguishing identity leadership from authentic leadership, leaders' charisma, and perceived leader quality), and criterion validity (relating the ILI to key leadership outcomes). We conclude that by assessing multiple facets of leaders' social identity management the ILI has significant utility for both theory and practice.
18. Title: Contesting Gender Stereotypes Stimulates Generalized Fairness in the Selection of Leaders

Authors: Carola Leicht, Georgina Randsley de Moura, Richard J. Crisp.

Abstract: Exposure to counter-stereotypic gender role models (e.g., a woman engineer) has been shown to successfully reduce the application of biased gender stereotypes. We tested the hypothesis that such efforts may more generally lessen the application of stereotypic knowledge in other (non-gendered) domains. Specifically, based on the notion that counter-stereotypes can stimulate a lesser reliance on heuristic thinking, we predicted that contesting gender stereotypes would eliminate a more general group prototypicality bias in the selection of leaders. Three studies supported this hypothesis. After exposing participants to a counter-stereotypic gender role model, group prototypicality no longer predicted leadership evaluation and selection. We discuss the implications of these findings for groups and organizations seeking to capitalize on the benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce.
19. Title: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Effects of the Agentic and Affiliative Aspects of Extraversion on Leadership Outcomes

Authors: Mark H. Do, Amirali Minbashian.

Abstract: Building on previous research that has shown that extraversion is the strongest Big Five personality predictor of effective leadership, the present study employed meta-analytic procedures to examine the independent effects of the two main aspects of extraversion—agency and affiliation—on leadership outcomes (transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness). Results showed that it is specifically the agentic aspect of extraversion that has a positive impact on leadership, whereas the affiliative aspect is unrelated to transformational leadership and negatively related to leadership effectiveness. Additionally, we demonstrate that assessing extraversion in terms of these two aspects leads to substantial improvements in predictive validity relative to broad measures of extraversion. Limitations associated with common method bias and modest effect sizes notwithstanding, our findings inform theory on specifically why it is that extraverts are perceived as better leaders than introverts. We also discuss practical implications for how to select and develop leaders in organisational settings and outline the types of organisations in which agency measures are likely to be most useful for selection purposes.
20. Title: The Use of Discrete Computer Simulation Modeling To Estimate Return on Leadership Development Investment

Authors: Brett W. Richard, Elwood F. Holton III, Vicky Katsioloudes.

Abstract: Organizational leaders seek monetary returns on their investments (ROI). Thus, making decisions to invest in human capital, such as in leadership development interventions, are often difficult due to the lack of research demonstrating monetary returns on leadership development investment (RODI). This study introduces an innovative approach to estimating leadership development investments and expands on previous research conducted by Avolio, Avey, and Quisenberry (2010), which was the first attempt to estimate leadership development RODI using utility analysis. Further, it is a unique study in that it uses computer simulation modeling to generate random distributions of each utility analysis variable to estimate RODI. Computer simulation modeling enables organizations to better estimate RODI for both current and future leadership development programs. Comparisons of RODI methods are conducted. Results demonstrate that potential gains from effective leadership development are greater than previously estimated but potential losses from poorly executed leadership development are also larger than previously estimated.

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