The Hat with a Thousand Faces: The Hat as a Communication Artifact of the

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The Hat with a Thousand Faces:

The Hat as a Communication Artifact of the

Legendary Heroes Davy Crockett and Indiana Jones

Submitted to Regent University

School of Communication and the Arts
In partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

in Communication

Gary Andrew Gould

April 2012

School of Communication and the Arts

Regent University

This is to certify that the dissertation prepared by:

Gary Andrew Gould




Has been approved by his committee as satisfactory completion of the dissertation

requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

John Keeler, Ph.D., Chair Date

William Brown, Ph.D., Committee Member Date

Michael P. Graves, Ph.D., Committee Member Date

© 2012

Gary Andrew Gould

All Rights Reserved


Gould, Gary Andrew. The Hat with a Thousand Faces: The Hat as a Communication Artifact of

the Legendary Heroes Davy Crockett and Indiana Jones. Diss. Regent University,

Virginia Beach, 2012.

This study explored how, when a hat is used in media such as film and television, it can be an important communication artifact—especially when worn by a mediated hero. This study focused on the use and impact of the hats worn by Disney’s Davy Crockett, a television character from the 1950s, and Indiana Jones, a film hero from the 1980s to present day. This study examined the historic context and decision-making on the part of the producers, directors, writers, costumers, and others involved in the development of the identity of these characters and their hats. It also examined the effects these productions, their heroic characters, and their hats had on audiences and culture, both at the time they were released and long afterward. This study showed how, in the case of both Crockett and Jones, the hat was an important part of what helped create the character’s legend and led to the immediate and lasting success of the productions they were in and the marketing and other efforts that were associated with them.


I have always loved hats and even as a child I knew they were an important part of transforming into a character. I not only had a collection of hats that reflected my interests but parents who encouraged my imagination and creativity and for that I will always be grateful. My mother chose to be a stay-at-home parent and she was always making something for me or my siblings. This included a huge trunk of homemade costumes which gave us hours of fun.

My father was killed in a car accident when I was twelve but I know how incredibly proud he would have been to see me complete this Ph.D. He grew up on a farm and never went to university, choosing instead to start his own printing business. I inherited my dad’s love of working with images, which led me into visual communication. My parents also introduced me to Davy Crockett and the many wonderful worlds of Disney, which inspired this dissertation.

And so, it is with heartfelt appreciation that I dedicate this dissertation to my parents— Ken and Marilyn Gould.

To my committee, thank you for serving. Special thanks to my chair, Dr. Jack Keeler, whose genuine interest in my research and my life was unwavering along with his support. This dissertation would not be what it is without him. Thanks to Dr. Michael Graves for his leadership, insight, and friendship. Thanks to Dr. William Brown, a man I have the utmost respect for, both personally and professionally. Besides being highly skilled academics, all three are strong Christians and maintain the highest standards of excellence. Knowing they would be scrutinizing this dissertation made me work harder. Thanks also to Dr. Terry Lindvall, Dr. Ben Fraser, Dr. Darlene Graves, and my doctoral advisor, Dr. Bob Schihl. Thanks to Diane Clark, Maryanne Williams, and Suzanne Morton who always solved my problems and made me smile.

To my family: Thanks to my son Asher Gould-Murtagh—whose birth transformed my life in ways I could not have imagined. What a joy to be his father and I pray I have influenced his life as radically as he did mine. Thanks to my eagle-eyed sister Laurie for finding me the best old research books and thanks to my brother Shawn for the many great hat wearing adventures we shared growing up. My own childhood was made richer because of my brother and sister.

Special thanks to my Regent friends: To Kim Bloomstrom for her strong support and friendship. To “Scoop” Dave and Lynn Milbrandt for their kindness, humor, insights, and friendship. To Rebecca Dinning-Brinkmann for her friendship, hospitality, prayers, and advice. To Matt and Melette Cabot for both the fun and the serious. To the remarkable Christine and Dan Bacon for their hospitality. There are so many others—the kind hearted Minyon Rusher, the delightful Ellen Kleiman, the funny Michelle Selk, the ever helpful Lauren Duncan, the outstanding Susan Ward, the charming Christie Peterson, the witty Beth McLaughlin, the wonderful Suzanne Uhl, and the lovely Lisa Neely. Long live the Dedicated Scholars Society.

To those who helped me in my research: First, the irreplaceable Fess Parker, who was so helpful and who honored me by calling me his friend. It was a joy to meet one of my childhood heroes. He was a genuine person with a gracious spirit and he will be missed by many. Thanks to his assistants: Bridget Pomaville, Bobbie Rosenstrauch, and Leslie Wilson. Special thanks to Dr. Deborah Nadoolman Landis whose expertise, experience, and research were a gold mine. Her generosity with her time and resources were invaluable. Thanks also to her assistant Natasha Rubin. Thanks to Karen Allen for her time and insight. Thanks to Anthony Powell and his agent Andrew Glynne. Thanks to John Lee Hancock for his help and for his unforgettable version of The Alamo. Special thanks to chief Disney archivists David Smith and Rebecca Cline. Special thanks to curator Dwight Blocker Bowers for allowing me access to the Smithsonian’s archives. Thanks to Lucasfilm and Lucasfilm archives. Thanks to Harrison Ford and his assistant Renee Willis. Thanks to artist Jim Steranko and his agent J. D. Spurlock. Thanks to Larry Kasdan and his assistant Greg Schmidt. Thanks to the best stuntman in the world, Vic Armstrong. Thanks to John Rhys-Davies. Thanks to Sean Patrick Flanery. Thanks to authors Rob MacGregor, Stephen Harrington, J. W. Rinzler, Stephen Sansweet, and Douglas Brode. Thanks to hat maker Steve Delk. Thanks to Jack Winburn, John Bickel, Mike Marosy, Mark Cross, Holly Martin, Anthony Magnoli, Lucas L. Schulte, Jeff Murphy, Gailen David, Todd Hayes and the many Indy fans.

There were others who helped, supported, and inspired me. Thanks to Dr. Merritt Maduke for her encouragement and hospitality. Thanks to Derek Dresser for his invaluable support and outstanding friendship over the years. Thanks to my dear friend Rita Van Halteren for her wise and godly counsel. Thanks also to (in no particular order): Dr. Jim Beverley, Dr. Joyce Smith, Andre and Andrea Turcotte, Mike Lovestrand, Karen Murtagh, Laura Pratt, Scott Dyer, Elizabeth and David Givens, Dave Gent, Dr. Dale Golding, Walter and Francis Cosman, Desmond Smith, Dale Shuttleworth, Richard Maeda, Dr. Sandra Maduke, Dahlia Younan, Ian, Kate, Sam, Julie, Jordan and Matthew Gary Batterbury, Robin Glasser, Bernie and Peggy Maduke, Joanne Leggat, Anne and George Topic, Lesley Salvadori, Greg Valiquette, Angela Glover, Lindsay Smith, Sally Goldberg Powell, Marty Krasney, Dr. Cherie Nau, Dr. Laurie Petrou, Dr. Antonella Morra, Nick Smith, Silva Basmajian, Charly Smith, my Oxford friends and Dr. Bob Gardiner who told me to go and get a Ph.D. Many bricks have made up this house.

Finally, a house is nothing without a firm foundation. For me, that is my faith in a living God who cares about me personally. Robert Frost wrote, “Two roads diverged in a woods, and I—I took the one less travelled by, and that has made all the difference.” I examined the claims of Jesus Christ and believed them. I decided to take the road less traveled and follow Him, and that has made all the difference in my life. Highest Praise and thanks to my greatest friend.

Table of Contents


Chapter One 1

Introduction 1

Growing Up Wearing Hats 3

A Brief History of the Hat 5

An Area of Study Unexplored 8

What About Hats Worn by Mediated Heroes? 10

Why Davy Crockett and Indiana Jones? 14

Purpose of the Study 19

Visual Rhetoric 22

Research Questions 26

Significance of Study 26

Historiography 27

Bibliographic Resources 30

Davy Crockett 31

Indiana Jones 36

Costuming 37

Chapter Descriptions 39

The Hat with a Thousand Faces 42

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