The Face & the Orbital Region
The human face formed by combination of skin, muscles, nerves, and bones; this combination will provide our face with protection, movement, sensation, and the support.
To understand the anatomical relations between all the parts of the face we need to study the area in what is called the regional anatomy. In this lecture we will discuss all the related systems that are forming the face.
Skin of the Face:
The skin of the face contains numerous sweat glands and sebaceous glands (secrete oily/watery substances to protect the skin). The skin attached to the underlying bone in between there is a layer of connective tissue where the muscles of the facial skeleton, the nerves, and the vessels are embedded. The skin of the face varies in thickness for example it is very thin on the eyelids compared to other parts of the face.
Section 1: Sensory Nerves of the Face
The skin of the face is supplied by branches of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, except for the small area over the angle of the mandible and the parotid gland which is supplied by the great auricular nerve. There is an overlapping between the nerves that supply the face but generally the nerves are:
Ophthalmic (V1) supply the upper 3rd of the face.
Maxillary (V2) Supply the middle 3rd of the face.
Mandibular (V3) supply the lower 3rd of the face.