The diagram below shows the structure of a cell. (a) State the names of I and II



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1. The diagram below shows the structure of a cell.

(a) State the names of I and II.

I: ...........................................................................................................................

II: ...........................................................................................................................



(2)

(b) Calculate the actual length of the cell, showing your working.

Answer: ...................................................................................................................

(2)

(c) State the function of the structure labelled III.

.....................................................................................................................................

(1)

(d) Deduce which type of cell is shown in the diagram, giving reasons for your answer.



(2)

(Total 7 marks)


2. Which organelles have a transport function?

A. Ribosome and Golgi apparatus

B. Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum

C. Mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum

D. Mitochondrion and ribosome

(Total 1 mark)

3. (a) The table below compares prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Place a tick () wherever the organelle is present.


Organelle

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

Nucleus







Mitochondrion







Ribosomes







(2)

(b) (i) The graph below shows the energy changes in a reaction.



On the above graph draw the result you would obtain in this same reaction if an enzyme that catalyses this reaction were added.



(1)

(ii) Explain how the enzyme produces this effect.



(3)

(c) Outline the process of glycolysis.



(Total 9 marks)
4. (a) Explain how the surface area to volume ratio influences cell sizes.


(3)

(b) State one function for each of the following organelles.

(i) Ribosomes

...........................................................................................................................

(ii) Rough endoplasmic reticulum

...........................................................................................................................

(iii) Golgi apparatus

...........................................................................................................................



(3)

(c) Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to three different features.






Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

1.

...........................................................

...........................................................



...........................................................

...........................................................



2.

...........................................................

...........................................................



...........................................................

...........................................................



3.

...........................................................

...........................................................



.

..........................................................



...........................................................

(3)

(Total 9 marks)

5. The diagram below shows which areas on the surface of a protein are composed of hydrophobic amino acids and which areas of hydrophilic amino acids.

Where in a cell would the protein be located?

A. In a nuclear pore

B. In the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes

C. In the matrix of a mitochondrion

D. In a phospholipid bilayer



(Total 1 mark)

6. Which of the following is a feature of exocytosis but not endocytosis?

A. Shape changes of a membrane B. Vesicle formation

C. Use of ATP D. Secretion

Total 1 mark)

7. Which of the following correctly describes exocytosis?





Plasma
membrane
increases in size


Plasma
membrane is
pulled inwards


Membranes fuse

vesicles
move away
from plasma
membrane


A.

No

Yes

No

Yes

B.

Yes

No

Yes

No

C.

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

D.

No

No

No

Yes


(Total 1 mark)

1. (a) I: is the plasma membrane / cell (surface) membrane / phospholipid bilayer;II:is the mesosome; 2

(b) size of drawing divided by magnification / figures using this equation; (units not required)
Award [1] for working even if length measurement is incorrect. 1.41 (0.02) m; (units required) 2
Accept answers given in m, cm, mm and nm.

(c) protection / support / maintains shape / prevents bursting 1

(d) bacterium / bacteria / prokaryote;reason: [1 max]as no nuclear membrane / no nucleus;
as no mitochondria / membrane bound organelles;as mesosomes / small size / circular DNA;
(Do not accept naked DNA or no histone.)2 maxReject reasons if cell type is incorrectly identified.

[7]

2.b 3. (a) 2


Organelle

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

Nucleus






Mitochondrion






Ribosomes





Award [1] for each correct column.

(b) (i)


(ii) enzyme binds to substrate;lowers activation energy;by weakening bonds;making substrate more likely to react; 3 max

(c) one hexose sugar / glucose is converted to two 3-carbon compounds / pyruvate;at start 2 ATP are used / phosphorylation of glucose;net gain of 2 ATP / 4 ATP produced in total;production of 2NADH + H+ / reduced NAD; 3 max[9]

4. (a) small cells have larger ratio (than larger cells) / ratio decreases as size increases;


surface area / membrane must be large enough to absorb nutrients / oxygen / substances needed;
surface area / membrane must be large enough to excrete / pass out waste products;
need for materials is determined by (cell) volume;
cell size is limited (by SA / vol ratio) / cells divide when they reach a certin size;
reference to diffusion across / through membrane / surface area; 3 max

(b) Award [1 max] for each organelle. Mark first answer only. (i) translation / produces polypeptides / proteins / protein synthesis;(ii) support of ribosomes / site of protein synthesis / synthesis of proteins for secretion / folding of polypeptides;(iii) produces glycoproteins / processing of proteins / forms lysosomes / formation of vesicles (for exocytosis); 3 max

(c) Award [1]for each of the following pairs. Mark first answer only in boxes 1, 2 and 3. prokaryotic cells eukaryotic cells

nucleoid / no nucleus / nuclear membrane vs. nucleus / nuclear membrane;


naked DNA / no histones vs. NA associated with protein / histone;
no mitochondria vs. mitochondria present;
no Golgi / no ER vs. Golgi / ER present;
circular DNA vs. linear DNA;
no / very few membrane-bound organelles vs. membrane-bound organelles;
ribosomes smaller / 70S vs. ribosomes larger / 80S; dbb




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