David P. Ellerman*
The World Bank
The original book is long out-of-print. This is a revised version that was published in Chinese as: The Democratic Corporation 1997, Xinhua Publishing House, Beijing.
Capitalism, Socialism, and Economic Democracy 1
Outline of the Approach 3
Chapter 1: The Labor Theory of Property 5
Property Rights and the Firm 5
The Fundamental Myth about Private Property 5
Ownership of a Corporation is not “Ownership of the Firm” 7
The Appropriation of Property 8
The Normative Question of Appropriation 10
“The Labor Theory” of Value—or of Property 10
Is Labor Peculiar? 11
Only Labor is Responsible 15
Juridical Principle of Imputation = Labor Theory of Property 16
What is Labor’s Product? 19
Property Theoretic Themes in Marxian Value Theory 21
The Employment Contract vs. de facto Inalienability 25
Chapter 2: Democratic Theory 30
Democracy in the Firm 30
The Enterprise as a Governance Institution 30
Stakeholders: the Governed and the Affected 30
Direct versus Indirect Control 31
The Affected Interests Principle 32
The Democratic Principle 33
“Shareholders’ Democracy” 33
Democratic Socialism is not Democratic in the Enterprise 35
The Public/Private Distinction in Democratic Theory 36
Personal Rights and Property Rights 36
Quarantining Democracy in the Public Sphere 37
Redefining “Social” to Recast the Public/Private Distinction 38
People-based versus Property-based Organizations 39
Democracy Denied by the Employment Contract, not Private Property 42
The Employment Contract 42
Democratic and Undemocratic Constitutions 43
Are Democracy and Private Property in Conflict? 44
The De Facto Theory of Inalienable Rights 46
Chapter 3: The Democratic Firm 49
Theoretical Basis for the Democratic Firm 49
The Democratic Principle and the Labor Theory 49
Implementing the Democratic Principle in an Organization 50
Implementing the Labor Theory in an Organization 52
The Democratic Labor-based Firm 53
Definition of the Legal Structure 53
The Social Aspects of Democratic Labor-based Firms 54
Capital Rights in Democratic Firms 56
What About the Net Asset Value of a Corporation? 56
Capital Accounts as Flexible Internal Debt Capital 58
The Internal Capital Accounts Rollover 59
A Collective Internal Capital Account 60
Financing Internal Capital Account Payouts 62
Participating Securities 63
Mutual Funds for Participating Securities 65
Chapter 4: Worker Cooperatives 67
Introduction: Worker Ownership in America 67
Worker Cooperatives in General 67
Traditional Worker Stock Cooperatives 68
Common-Ownership Firms in England 69
Mondragon-type Worker Cooperatives 71
The Mondragon Group of Cooperatives 71
Implementing the Mondragon-type Co‑op in America 72
Risk Diversification and Labor Mobility 73
Chapter 5: Employee Stock Ownership Plans 75
ESOPs: An American Phenomenon 75
Worker Capitalist Corporations 77
Origin of ESOPs 78
Structure of ESOP Transactions 79
Two Examples of ESOPs 81
Chapter 6: Model of a Hybrid Democratic Firm 82
Introduction: A Model for Transplanting 82
A Hybrid Mondragon-type Worker Cooperative 82
An Internalized Democratic ESOP 83
The Hybrid Democratic Firm 83
The ESOP Transactions with an Internal ESOP 87
The “Leveraged ESOP” Transaction 87
The “Leveraged ESOP” Buyout Transaction 88
The Simplified Internal ESOP 88
Implementation Questions 89
Management and Governance Structures 90
Chapter 7: Self-Management in Former Yugoslavia 94
Yugoslavian Self-Management: Pitfalls of a Pioneer 94
A Decentralizing Model for Restructuring Large Firms 97
Chapter 8: Employee Sovereignty in the Japanese Model 99
The Hegemony of the American Model 99
The Japanese Model 100
Economic Democracy as a Third Way 108
First Principles 108
The Labor Theory of Property 108
Democratic Theory 110
The Democratic Firm 112
Worker-owned Companies in the USA and Europe 113
Employee Sovereignty in the Japanese Firm 113
The Democratic Firm and East/West Convergence 114
Capitalism, Socialism, and Economic Democracy
The socialism of state ownership—state socialism—is no longer considered a worthy goal in almost all the countries that used to be "socialist". Central planning has been abandoned in favor of the market. There are many types of market economy. The Anglo-American type of a capitalist market economy is one widely studied and highly acclaimed model. There are, however, alternative forms for a market economy. For example, the Japanese economy is today more and more recognized as representing an alternative to the Anglo-American model (rather than just an "imperfect" imitation of the Anglo-American model). China is currently evolving towards a model referred to as a "socialist market economy."
This book argues that the Anglo-American model of a capitalist economy is not an ideal type. Indeed, the book argues that Anglo-American capitalism (hereafter referred to simply as "capitalism") suffers from a deep-lying inconsistency wherein it violates the basic principles of democracy and private property—principles often but mistakenly thought to be fundamental to capitalism. There is an alternative form of a market economy based on democracy and justice in private property. This book is about that alternative form of a market economy.
A democratic firm (also “democratic worker-owned firm” or “labor-based democratic firm”) is a company “owned” and controlled by all the people working in it—just as a democratic government at the city, state, or national level is controlled by all of its citizens. In each case, those who manage or govern are ultimately responsible not to some absentee or outside parties but to the people being managed or governed. Those who are governed vote to directly or indirectly elect those who govern.
A market economy where the predominant number of firms are democratic firms is called an economic democracy (see Dahl, 1985; Lutz and Lux, 1988; Ellerman, 1992).
This book is about the ideas, structures, and principles involved in the democratic firm and in economic democracy. The book develops new concepts or, rather, applies old concepts to new situations—such as the “very idea” of applying democratic principles to the workplace. The material is not technically demanding in terms of economic theory but it may occasionally be conceptually demanding.
Old words may be used in new ways. For instance, “capitalism” is often taken as referring to a private property market economy—but an “economic democracy,” where most firms are democratic firms, is also a private property market economy. The distinguishing feature of a capitalist economy vis-à-vis an economic democracy is the employer–employee relation—the legal relation for the voluntary renting or hiring of human beings.
The commodity that is traded in the labor market is labor services, or hours of labor. The corresponding price is the wage per hour. We can think of the wage per hour as the price at which the firm rents the services of a worker, or the rental rate for labor. We do not have asset prices in the labor market because workers cannot be bought or sold in modern societies; they can only be rented. (In a society with slavery, the asset price would be the price of a slave.) [Fischer, et. al. 1988, p. 323]
In a democratic firm, work in the firm qualifies one for membership in the firm. The employment relation is replaced by the membership relation.
In ordinary language, “capitalism” is not a precisely defined technical term; it is a molecular cluster concept which ties together such institutions and activities as private property, free markets, and entrepreneurship as well as the employer–employee relationship. There has also been a rather far-fetched attempt to correlate “capitalism” with “democracy.” But this does not result from any serious intellectual argument that the employer–employee relation (which used to be called the “master–servant relation”) embodies democracy in the workplace.
Our normative critique is not of “capitalism” per se but of the employment relation or contract, so it must be sharply distinguished from a critique of private property (quite the opposite in fact), entrepreneurship, or free markets. In an economic democracy, there would be private property, free markets, and entrepreneurship—but “employment” would be replaced by democratic membership in the firm where one works.
The more subtle point is that the abolition of the employment relation does, nevertheless, make a change in property, markets, and entrepreneurship. This point can be illustrated by considering the related abolition of the master–slave relationship as an involuntary or voluntary relation. In a slavery system, “private property” included property in human beings and property in slave plantations. “Markets” included slave markets and it even included voluntary self-sale contracts. “Entrepreneurship” meant developing more and better slave plantations. Thus slavery could not be abolished while private property, free markets, and entrepreneurship remained unchanged. The abolition of slavery did not abolish these other institutions but it did change their scope and nature.
In the same fashion, we will see that the abolition of the employment relation in favor of people being universally the owners/members of the companies where they work would not abolish private property, free markets, or entrepreneurship—but it would change the scope and nature of these institutions.
This leaves us with a linguistic problem. How do we refer to the economic system we are recommending to be changed in the direction of economic democracy? The word “capitalism” evokes private property, free markets, and entrepreneurship which are not being criticized here. Yet there is no other widely accepted word that focuses attention specifically on the employment relation. Expressions such as “wage slavery” or “wagery” are too rhetorical. “Wage system” is currently used to refer to fixed wages as opposed to so-called “profit-sharing.” But “profit-sharing” is only a variable wage rate geared to a measure of performance, and it, like a piece-rate, is well within the confines of the employer–employee relationship.
We will therefore use bland expressions such as “employment system” or “employer-employee system”—when we are being careful—to refer to the system where work is legally organized on the basis of the employer-employee relation (with a private or public employer). Since the employment relation is so widespread (e.g., part of both capitalism and socialism), “employment” has also become synonymous with “having a job.” We assume the reader understands that when we argue against the employment relation (in favor of universal membership in the firm) we are not arguing that everyone should be “unemployed”!
Linguistic habits die hard—for the author as well. When the word “capitalism” is nonetheless used in this book, it will be used not as a cluster concept to include private property, free markets, and entrepreneurship, but as a technical term to refer to an economy where almost all labor is conducted under the employment contract.
Outline of the Approach
This book takes a comprehensive approach to the theory and practice of the democratic firm—from philosophical first principles to legal theory and finally down to some of the details of financial structure. The topics covered include:
— a descriptive analysis of the property rights involved in capitalist production, and a prescriptive application of the labor theory of property arguing for a democratic firm, since in such a firm people jointly appropriate the positive and negative fruits of their labor;
— a descriptive analysis of the governance rights involved in a capitalist firm, and a prescriptive application of democratic theory arguing for a democratic firm, since in such a firm people realize the right of democratic self-determination in the workplace;
— an extended discussion of the legal structure of the democratic firm—particularly of the system of internal capital accounts which corrects one of the central flaws in existing worker self-managed firms as in the former Yugoslavia;
— description and analysis of the system of Mondragon worker cooperatives;
— description and analysis of the American phenomena of employee stock ownership plans or ESOPs;
— a description of a hybrid democratic firm that combines some of the best ideas from Mondragon-type worker cooperatives and from the American ESOPs in a simple form that can be transplanted to other countries; and
— an analysis of the foremost example of firms today based on employee sovereignty, namely the large Japanese company.
The overall perspective is that a new type of economic enterprise, the democratic firm, is at last coming into clear focus. It is different from both the traditional capitalist and socialist firms. Indeed, there are forces and principles at work in both systems that are pushing towards convergence on the common ground of economic democracy.