《The Annals of the World (Vol. 5)》 table of contents

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The Annals of the World (Vol. 5)

The Seventh Age

4000b AM, 4710 JP, 4 BC

4028 AM, 4738 JP, 25 AD

4053b AM, 4763 JP, 50 AD


The Seventh Age of the World

6057. Jesus Christ and Son of God, in the fulness of time was born of the most blessed virgin Mary, at Bethlehem. {Mt 1:25 2:1,5 Ga 4:4} Mary wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger because there was no room in the inn. {Lu 2:7}

6058. The birth of our saviour was revealed by an angel of the Lord to shepherds who kept their flock by night in the neighbouring fields. They heard the word of a multitude of the heavenly host who prayed for glory to God, peace to the earth and good will to men. The shepherds hurried to Bethlehem and found Mary and Joseph and the child lying in the manger. They told everyone what they had heard concerning the child and they returned praising and glorifying God. {Lu 2:8-20}

6059. The child was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth and his name was called Jesus as foretold by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. {Lu 2:21}

4000b AM, 4710 JP, 4 BC

6060. The wise men from the east were guided by a star and came to Herod at Jerusalem. They were told that the birth place of Christ was in Bethlehem of Judea. They went there and entering into the house which was showed to them by the star that stood over it. They found the little child with Mary, his mother. They fell down and worshipped him and gave their treasures to him, gold, frankincense and myrrh. They were warned by God in a dream that they should not return to Herod and so they departed into their own country by another way. {Mt 2:1-12}

6061. On the fortieth day after her delivery, Mary went to Jerusalem to the temple to present him to the Lord according to the law of the firstborn and also to offer for herself a pair of turtle doves or two young pigeons. (She could not afford to offer a lamb.) This was according to the Levitical law. {Lu 2:22-24,27 Le 12:2-4,6,8}

6062. When his parents brought the child Jesus into the temple to perform the requirements of the law, Simeon came into the temple to whom it was revealed by God that he should not die until he had seen the anointed of the Lord. He took Jesus in his arms and praised the Lord and spoke prophesies about Christ and his mother. At the same time, Anna, a prophetess the daughter of Phanuel, came and publicly acknowledged the Lord and spoke of him to all who looked for redemption in Jerusalem. {Lu 2:25-38}

6063. When Joseph and Mary had performed all the things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to their own city of Nazareth. {Lu 2:39}

6064. The angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and warned him to flee to Egypt to save the life of the child and escape the machinations of Herod. When he awoke, he took the young child and his mother by night and went into Egypt where he remained until the death of Herod. {Mt 2:13-15}

6065. Herod thought the young child was still at Bethlehem. He killed all the children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding area who were two years old or less. This was according to the time when the star first was seen in the east and when the wise men enquired about the child. {Mt 2:16}

6066. Herod received letters from Antipater from Rome, in which he told him that he had settled all his business according to his wishes and he would return home in a short time. Herod wrote to him back again and concealed his anger. He said he should hurry home lest anything happen to him while he was away. He also modestly complained of his mother and promised that he would settle all differences after his return. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 7. }

6067. Antipater heard no news all this time either of the death of Pheroras or of those things that were brought against him even though seven months had elapsed. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. 20} {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 6. fin. } On his journey, he received a letter at Tarentum about Pheroras' death. In Cilicia he got those letters from his father that told him to hurry home. When he came to Celenderis, a town of Cilicia, he began to have doubts about his return and was extremely sorrowful for the disgrace of his mother. However, he sailed on and he came to Sebaste, the port of Caesarea. He was greeted by no one and he went to Jerusalem. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 6. fin. }

6068. It happened that at the same time, Quintilius Varus was at Jerusalem, who was sent as the successor to Saturninus in Syria and was summoned there by Herod. Herod wanted Varus to help him with his council in his weighty affairs. As they were sitting both together, Antipater came in not suspecting anything. He entered the palace in his purple garment that he usually wore. When he entered, the guards at the gates allowed none of his followers to come in with him. As he approached them, his father thrust him from him and accused him of the murder of Pheroras, Herod's brother and of intendeding to poison his father. He told him that on the next day Varus would both hear and determine all things between them. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 6. fin. }

6069. The next day Varus and the king sat in judgment. His father first began the accusation and left the prosecution and confirmation of it to Nicholas Damascene, his dear and close friend and one who knew all the business. When Antipater could not clear himself from the crimes alleged against him, Varus ordered the poison which he had prepared for his father to be brought out. It was given to another condemned man who immediately died. After this, Varus arose from the council and the next day he went to Antioch because this was the main palace of the Syrians. Herod soon put his son into prison and sent letters to Caesar indicating what he had done. He also sent messengers who by word of mouth, might verify to Caesar of the cursed treason of Antipater. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 6. fin. }

6070. At the same time, letters were intercepted from Antiphilus to Antipater from Egypt along with others from Rome which were sent to Antipater and Herod the king and written from Acme. She was a Jew and a chambermaid to Livia, Caesar's wife. She was well bribed by Antipater and sent a forged letter to Herod as if it had been written from Salome to her Livia against him, in which she desired that she might have permission to marry Syllaeus. (This is that Nabatean who was Herod's sworn enemy.) A little after this, Syllaeus was beheaded at Rome for betraying Aelius Gallus on the Arabian expedition and for other crimes. {*Strabo, l. 16. 7:363} Herod sent by his ambassadors to Caesar, a copy of these letters together with those of his own against his son. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 6. fin. }

6071. While the ambassadors hurried to Rome, Herod fell sick and made his will. He left the succession of his kingdom to his youngest son, Herod Antipas since he was estranged from Archelaus and Philip, by the false accusations of Antipater. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 8. }

6072. Judas, the son of Saripheus and Matthias, the son of Margalothus, were two of the most learned of the Jews and best interpreters of the law. When they knew that the king's sickness was incurable, they persuaded some young men who were their scholars that they should throw down the golden eagle that Herod erected over the large gate of the temple. They went at noon day, they pulled and hewed down with their axes the eagle while a large number in the temple witnessed their actions. As soon as it was told the captain, he came with a strong band of soldiers and laid hold upon some forty of the young men together with their masters and brought them to Herod. These continually defended their actions and Herod ordered them to be bound and sent to Jericho. He convened the rulers of the Jews and was brought into the assembly in a litter because he was so weak. He complained not so much of the wrong done to himself as to God, as he said. They denied that it was done according to their order and Herod dealt more mildly with them. He took away the high priesthood from Matthias since he knew of this affair and replaced him with Jazar the brother of his wife, (Mariamme, the daughter of Simon the high priest.) He burned alive the other Matthias that was partner of this sedition along with his companions. That night the moon was eclipsed {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 8 } on March 13th, three hours after midnight according to the astronomical tables.

6073. Herod's disease grew worse, for he was inflamed with a slow fire which was not felt but it burnt up his very bowels. He had also the disease called bulimia which was a continual desire for food. To satisfy this, he was always eating. He was also continually tortured with ulcers in his bowels and pains of the colic. His feet swelled with a moist liquid. Also his thighs and his members rotted and were full of worms. He also had a filthy and no less troublesome priapism and a most terrible stench. In addition, he was troubled with convulsions and had difficulty in breathing. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 8. }

6074. Although he was so grievously tormented that everyone thought he would die from this, yet he hoped he should get well. He very carefully sent for physicians and sought medicines from every place. He went also beyond the Jordan River into the hot baths at Callirrhoe which drained into the Dead Sea. Beside their medicinal value, the water is pleasant to drink. By the advice of his physicians, he was placed in a bathing tub filled with oil. When he seemed to have died, his friends suddenly cried out and bewailed him. He came to himself and now realised there was no more hope for recovery. He ordered 50 drachmas to be given to every soldier and was generous to his captains and friends. He returned again to Jericho. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 8. }

6075. Augustus had heard that among the children that Herod, the king of the Jews had ordered to be killed who were two years or under. One of Herod's own sons was also killed by this same edict. Augustus said: {Macrobius, Saturnal, l. 2. c. 4.}

``It was better to be Herod's hog than his son.''

4001a AM, 4710 JP, 4 BC

6076. Herod by an edict, convened to Jericho from every place, the most noble of the Jews and locked them up in a place called the hippodrome. He ordered his sister Salome and her husband Alexas, that as soon as he was dead, they would order the soldiers to kill all those that were confined so that the people should have cause for sorrow otherwise they would rejoice at the death of their king that they hated so much. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 8. }

6077. Letters came from Rome from the ambassadors that were sent to Caesar. They stated that Acme was put to death by Caesar who was angry for her involvement in Antipater's conspiracy. Antipater was left to his father's pleasure, either to banish him or to put him to death. When Herod had heard these things, he was cheered a little but presently he was in pain again. He was hungry and called for an apple and a knife to peal it. When he tried to stab himself, Achialus, his nephew, prevented him and called for help as he held out Herod's right hand. A great sorrow with fear and tumult struck the whole palace, as if Herod had been dead. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 9. }

6078. When Antipater heard the noise, he thought certainly that his father was dead. He began to bargain with his keeper about letting him out. He promised him many things now and in the future when it was within his power. The keeper told the king who for very anger cried out. Although he was so near death yet raised himself up in his bed and ordered one of his guard to immediately go and execute Antipater. He was to be buried in the castle of Hircania without any honour. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 9. }

6079. Then Herod changed his mind and made a new will. Antipas who before he had made his successor in the kingdom, he made him tetrarch of Galilee and Petrea. He gave the kingdom to Archelaus and assigned to his son Philip the regions of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Batanaea and Paneada in the name of a tetrarchy. He gave to Salome, his sister, Jamnia, Azotus and Phasaelis with 500,000 drachmas. To the rest of his family, he gave money and yearly pensions. To Caesar he gave 10,000,000 drachmas of silver and all his vessels as well of gold as silver, and a great quantity of precious clothes. To Livia, Caesar's wife and to some certain friends he gave 5,000,000 drachmas. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 10. }

6080. After Herod had ordered these things, he died five days after he had executed Antipater. He held the kingdom for 34 years after he had killed Antigonus but from the time that he was declared king by the Romans, 37 years. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 9. } He died about the 25th of November that is the 7th of the month Chisleu which is therefore accounted a joyful and festival day because in that day:

``Herod died who hated all wise men.''

6081. This is according to Edward Liveley, a most learned man, as noted in his chronology, in the tyn[t tlygm, Volume of the Fejunii.

6082. Before the king's death was known, Salome and Alexas, sent all those home that were locked up in the hippodrome. They said that Herod had so ordered that they should go into the country and follow own their businesses. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 10. }

6083. When the king's death was declared, all the soldiers were called into the amphitheatre of Jericho. They first read the king's letter to the soldiers in which Herod thanked them for their fidelity and love to him. Herod desired that they would be faithful to his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed to be his successor in the kingdom. Then Ptolemy the keeper of the king's seal, read his will which he could not ratify without Caesar's consent. Then was there a shout for joy that Archelaus was king and the soldiers came flocking in with their captains around him. They promised that they would be just as faithful to him as they had been to his father and they prayed God to prosper him in his reign. Archelaus prepared the king's funeral most royally. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 10. }

4001b AM, 4711 JP, 3 BC

6084. After Herod had died who sought the life of the young child, Jesus, the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream in Egypt and ordered that he should return with the young child and his mother to the land of Israel. When he awoke, he did what he was commanded to do. {Mt 2:19-21.}

6085. When Joseph came into the land of Israel, he heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea in the place of his father, Herod and he feared to go there. God warned him in a dream and he departed into the region of Galilee (the tetrarchy which Archelaus' father Herod had given to Antipas in his will.) He settled in the city of Nazareth from whence Jesus took the name of Nazarene, {Mt 2:22,23} and the Christians of Nazarenes. {Ac 24:5}

6086. Herod's body was carried in a funeral possession 45 miles from Jericho, to the citadel Herodion where he had arranged to be buried. {Josephus, Wars, l. 1. c. ult. fin. } Each day they only travelled one mile. He was carried on a golden bier embroidered with precious jewel and covered with a purple cloth. His body was clothed with purple also. A diadem was put on his head and also over him a crown of gold and a sceptre in his right hand. His son and his relatives walked beside the bier and were followed by the soldiers, marshalled according to their countries. Then came 500 servants who carried perfumes. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 10. }

6087. After the funeral ceremony was over, Archelaus came to Jerusalem, and solemnized the mourning for his father for seven days according to the traditions of the Jews. At the end of the mourning, he made a funeral banquet to the people. He went up into the temple and wherever he went he was congratulated. He went up to a higher place and sat on a golden throne. He spoke graciously and honestly to the people. However, he said that he would not take the name of king until Caesar had confirmed his father's will. After the sacrifices were over, he banqueted with his friends. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 10. }

6088. The friends of those whom Herod had put to death for throwing down the golden eagle, made a sedition. They reproached the dead king and demanded some of his friends also to be punished. Moreover they desired that Joazar, the high priest to be removed from the priesthood. Archelaus tried to appease them but in vain. It happened that about the feast of the passover, Archelaus sent the whole army against them and 3000 men were killed by the cavalry around the temple. The rest fled to the adjoining mountains. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6089. Archelaus went down to the sea with his mother (Malthace, a Samaritan) to sail to Caesar. He took along Nicolaus Damascene, Ptolemy (Herod's agent) and his many other friends. He committed his family and kingdom to the trust of his brother Philip. Salome also, the sister of Herod, went with him and took with her all her children. Others of his relatives also went under the pretence of helping him to get the kingdom when indeed they planned to oppose him and to accuse him for that deed that was committed in the temple. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6090. As Archelaus was travelling with this group, Sabinus, Caesar's agent in Syria met him and said he sent to Judea to take charge of Herod's money. Varus, the governor of Syria fortunately met him and restrained him for Archelaus had sent for Varus by Ptolemy. Sabinus yielded to the governor and neither seized the citadels of Judea nor sealed up the king's treasures. He left all things in Archelaus' control until Caesar should determine something concerning them. When Sabinus had promised this, he stayed at Caesarea. After Archelaus sailed for Rome and Varus returned to Antioch, Sabinus went to Jerusalem and seized the palace. He convened the captains of the citadels and the king's agents and demanded the accounts from them and that the citadels should be delivered over to him. The captains obeyed Archelaus and kept all things as they were until the king's return. They pretended that they kept them for Caesar. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6091. At the same time Antipas, the son of Herod, sailed to Rome with hopes of getting the kingdom for himself. Salome instigated him to do this since he was to be preferred before Archelaus because he was appointed the successor of the kingdom in Herod's first will which ought to have more validity than the second. He took with him his mother (Cleopatra who was born at Jerusalem) and Ptolemy, the brother of Nicolaus Damascene. He was one of Herod's best friends and favoured his title. He especially included Irenaeus, an orator who was an eloquent man knowledgable in the king's businesses, to help him secure the kingdom. After Antipas came to Rome, all the relatives sided with him because they hated Archelaus. Sabinus wrote letters to Caesar also to accuse Archelaus. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6092. Archelaus through Ptolemy showed a petition to Caesar containing his own right and the accounts of Herod's money that was sealed up. When Caesar had read the petition as well as Varus' and Sabinus' letters, he convened his friends. He gave the first place in the council to Caius, the son of Agrippa and his daughter Julia whom he had now adopted. Antipater, the son of Salome who was a very eloquent man, spoke against Archelaus to whom Nicolaus Damascene answered in his defence. When he had finished his discourse, Archelaus fell down at Caesar's feet, whom he courteously raised up and pronounced that he was worthy of the kingdom. Caesar said pretending that he would do nothing unless it was prescribed in his father's will or that should be profitable for Archelaus. When Caesar saw the young man confirmed in some hope by his promise, he determined nothing more at that time. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6093. Varus came from Antioch to repress the seditions that were raised in Judea after Archelaus' departure. He punished the instigators of the sedition and after the sedition was mostly settled, he returned and left one legion in Jerusalem to prevent further seditions. As soon as he was gone, Sabinus, Caesar's agent came there and took control of those troops. He thought he was more than a match for the people and tried to seize the citadels. He forcibly searched for the king's money for his own private wealth and covetousness sake. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6094. Many thousands came to the feast of Pentecost not so much for religion's sake but to revenge Sabinus. They came not only from Judea which was more grievously afflicted but from Galilee, Idumaea, Jericho and from the towns that were beyond the Jordan River. They fiercely attacked Sabinus and divided their troops into three brigades. The Roman soldiers valiantly opposed them and killed many of them. The soldiers entered the treasure house of the holy treasure and stole most of it. 400 talents of that money was openly brought to Sabinus. A company of the most warlike Jews besieged the palace but Rufus and Gratus, who had under their command 3000 men of the most warlike and best of Herod's soldiers, allied themselves with the Romans. In spite of this, the Jews zealously continued the assault and undermined the walls. They exhorted their adversaries to depart and promised them safe conduct. Sabinus did not trust them and would not withdraw his soldiers. He expected help from Varus. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6095. In this state of things, there were various other seditions raised in Judea and in other places because the country did not have a king of their own who might restrain the multitude and compel obedience to the law. For 2000 men, who had served under Herod, were disbanded to live at home. They got together and attacked the king's faction who were under Archiabus, Herod's nephew, and general for the king. He dared not attack the old soldiers on equal terms and so he defended himself and his side as well as he could by retreating to the mountainous regions that were hard to get at. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. }

6096. Judas (the son of Ezekias who headed a robber band and in previous times tried to overthrow Herod,) gathered a band of desperate men at Sepphoris, a city of Galilee and made incursions into the king's dominion. He captured the king's armoury and he armed all his soldiers and seized the king's treasure in those places. Thereupon he began to terrorise the inhabitants. He spoiled all that fell into his hands. He aspired also to the kingdom, not by lawful means, of which he was wholly ignorant, but by force. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. } For whereas hdwhy of the Hebrews, is the same with hdwt of the Syrians, from which comes Judas and Thaddaeus. {Lu 6:16 Mr 3:18} The name is Theudas since this Judas seems to be no other than Theudas, of whom {Ac 5:36} Gamaliel spoke:

``Before these times rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be some body, to whom a number of men, about 400, joined themselves, who were slain, and all as many as obeyed him, were scattered and brought to nought.''

6097. Simon also, a servant of King Herod's was a wise man esteemed among all men, for his handsomeness, height and strength. He dared assume the kingdom. He was attended by a large company and proclaimed king by them. These were an unbridled multitude and persuaded him that he was more fit to be the king than anyone else. He began his kingdom by plundering and burning the king's palace at Jericho. Then he burned other palaces and gave their plunder to those who followed him. He would also have done more licentious deeds if he had not been quickly stopped. Gratus, the captain of the king's soldiers, who then followed the Roman side, marched with his forces against Simon. There was a fierce conflict on the other side of Jordan. Simon's men fought in disorder and more from courage than skill and were defeated. Gratus captured Simon, as he was fleeing through a narrow valley and cut off his head. {Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c. 11. } Tacitus refers this rather to Varus {Tacitus, History, l. 5. c. 5} and wrote this about Simon:

``After the death of Herod, Simon made himself king, without so much as looking for Caesar's consent, but he was punished by Varus, the governor of Syria.''

6098. At Amatha, also by the Jordan River, a royal palace of the king, was burnt by the rabble of men that Simon had. Athronges who was an obscure shepherd and only famous for his great height and strength, made himself king. He had four brothers that were just as tall and strong whom he made his lieutenants over the multitude that came flocking to him in this time of unrest. He wore a crown and although he consulted others, he kept the sole command in his own hands. The power of this man lasted long, (for he was not a king for nothing) until he was brought under the power of Archelaus when he returned from Rome. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6099. Athronges' cruelty affected especially the Romans and the king's side for he hated them both alike. His forces surprised a cohort near Emmaus as it was carrying food and weapons to the army. He killed with their arrows, Arius, a centurion along with 40 of his best foot soldiers. The rest would have been killed had not Gratus arrived with the king's soldiers and rescued them but left the dead bodies. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6100. Quintilius Varus knew the danger that Sabinus was in by his letters and feared the utter destruction of the third legion. He left with two other legions, (for at the most there were but three legions in all Syria) and four troops of cavalry and the auxiliaries of the king and tetrarchs. He hurried into Judea to help the besieged and ordered those who were sent ahead, to meet him at Ptolemais. On his way past the city of Berythus, he received 1500 auxiliaries from them. Antus was a Petrean and a friend to the Romans. In spite of his hatred of Herod, he sent him good a number of cavalry and foot soldiers. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6101. After all the army came to Ptolemais, Varus turned part of it over to his son and to one of his friends. They were to march against the Galilaeans who bordered on Ptolemais. When they entered the country, they put all to flight who dared oppose them. They took the city Sepphoris and sold all the inhabitants and burned the city. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6102. Varus went toward Samaria with the army but did no harm to the city because he knew it had not been involved in the sedition. He pitched his camp in a certain village which was called Aras and was in the possession of Ptolemy. The Arabians had burnt it because they hated Herod's friends because they hated Herod as well as anyone who was Herod's friend. He marched and came to Sampho which the Arabians first plundered and then burnt even though it was well fortified. On all that march, they burned everything and killed anyone they met. Emmaus was burnt by the order of Varus, in revenge of his soldiers who were killed there. However, the inhabitants had first abandoned it. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6103. Then when they came near to Jerusalem, the Jews who besieged the Romans on that side, were terrified as soon as they saw the army coming. They abandoned the attack they had begun. Those of Jerusalem were grievously reproved by Varus. They excused themselves and said that the people indeed were gathered together for the feast but that the sedition was not started with their consent. It was caused by the boldness of the strangers who came there. Varus was met by Joseph, a nephew of King Herod's, Gratus and Rufus with their soldiers and the Romans that had endured the siege. Sabinus would not come but stole away secretly and hurried to the seaside. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6104. Then Varus sent part of his army throughout all the country to capture the instigators of this sedition. When he found them, he punished the most guilty and some were let go free. About 2,000 were crucified for this sedition. After this he dismissed his army who were disorderly and disobedient and committed many outrages for mere money's sake. When he heard that there were 10,000 Jews gathered together, he hurried to apprehend them. They dared not withstand him and surrendered themselves by advice of Achiabus. Varus pardoned the common people for their sedition but sent the ring leaders to Caesar. So all things were made peaceful again and he left the same legion in Jerusalem in the garrison. He returned to Antioch. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6105. Malthace, the mother of Archelaus, died of a sickness at Rome.

6106. When Caesar had received Varus' letter about the revolt of the Jews, he pardoned the rest of the captains of the seditions and only punished some of King Herod's relatives who with no regard for justice had fought against their own relatives. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6107. At the same time, with the permission of Varus, an embassy of the Jews came who desired that they might live according to their own laws. There were about 50 ambassadors who were joined by about 8000 Jews who lived at Rome. Caesar had convened a council of his friends and chief citizens into the temple of Apollo which he had built at great expense. The ambassadors and a multitude of the Jews who following them also went there. Archelaus came also with his company. Philip was also there who came by Varus' advice from Syria so that he might be an advocate for his brother to whom Varus wished well. He also wanted a share in the division of Herod's kingdom. The ambassadors were given permission to speak and they began with accusations against Herod and Archelaus and then desired that they might have no more kings. They wanted the government to be annexed to Syria and that they would obey the governors sent to them from Rome. When Nicolaus Damascene had answered the objections for Herod who was dead and for Archelaus who was present, Caesar dismissed the council. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 12. }

6108. A few days later, Caesar declared Archelaus not to be king but made him lord of half part of that dominion that was left him by his father, Herod. He promised him a kingdom if he behaved himself so as to merit a kingdom. A fourth part of their tribute was remitted because they did not join the sedition. These cities were included in his government, the tower of Strato, Sebaste, Joppe, and Jerusalem. The cities Gaza, Gadara, and Hippos were cities which followed the laws of Greece. For this reason Caesar annexed them to Syria. There accrued to Archelaus 600 talents annually from his own dominion. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 13. }

6109. Caesar divided the other half of Herod's dominion into two parts, one for each of Herod's sons. Herod Antipas was given Galilee with the little country of Petraea. (It was a most fertile country and lies beyond Jordan between the two lakes of Tiberias and the Dead Sea.) This generated 200 talents a year in revenue. Philip received Batanea with Trachonitis as well as Auranitis, with a certain part of the palace of Zenodorus, (as they call it) which paid annually 100 talents. Salome received in addition to the cities which were left her by her brother, Jamnia, Azotus and Phasaelis and 500,000 drachmas of silver. Caesar gave her a palace in Askelon and she also received from those places which were subject to her, 60 talents. Her residence was within the dominion of Archelaus. The rest of Herod's relatives received what was bequeathed by his will. Also two of Herod's daughters who were virgins, received in addition to what was bequeathed them, 250,000 drachmas of silver from the bounty of Caesar and they were married to the sons of Pheroras. Caesar gave his portion of the king's estate which amounted to the sum of 1500 talents to his sons. He kept only a few vessels not so much for their value but as keep sakes for the memory of his friend. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 13. }

6110. Thus the children of Herod governed the country and were now restrained by a threefold division. {Tacitus, l. 5. c. 9.} Strabo added this about his children:

``Some of them Herod put to death himself under the charges of treachery, others at his death he left as his successors and assigned to everyone his portion. Caesar also highly honoured Herod's children and his sister Salome and Berenice the daughter of Salome.''

6111. A certain young man, a Jew of lowly parentage, was brought up in Sidon, with a Roman freed man. He resembled Alexander the son of Herod in his face and pretended to be Alexander who was saved from death with his brother Aristobulus by means of a certain friend of his keeper. This man took on an accomplice who was very well acquainted about Herod's palace and well instructed by this fellow's cunning and deceits. When he had sailed into Crete, he persuaded all the Jews that came to meet him this thing was so. He got money from them and he sailed to the island of Melus, where he got a huge amount of money under pretence that he was of the king's family. He now hoped that he should recover his father's kingdom and he hurried to Rome with his friends. When he had sailed to Puteoli, he was there likewise well received and deceived the Jews. As he was coming to Rome, all the Jews who lived there came out to meet him. When this news was brought to Caesar, he sent there Celadus, one of his freemen who was previously very well acquainted with the young men. Caesar ordered him that if he was Alexander, he should bring him to him. He likewise was deceived and brought him to Caesar. However, he did not deceive Caesar who sent this false Alexander when he had confessed his imposture to the galleys as a rower because he had a strong body. He executed the one that put him up to this fraud. {Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c. 14. }

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