Table of contents introduction



Download 1.63 Mb.
Page48/50
Date conversion08.07.2018
Size1.63 Mb.
1   ...   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50

TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


  1. Training. Training may be conducted in the aircraft.

  2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 4282

      1. PERFORM AFTER-LANDING CHECK
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:

    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The MP may perform these checks or direct the RCM/NCM to perform them, as appropriate. If the MP performs the checks, he will direct the RCM (P*) to remain focused outside during the procedures, maintain airspace surveillance and obstacle avoidance.

            2. The RCM or NCM should assist the MP as directed.

      2. Procedures. Announce initiation of the after landing checks. Perform the after landing checks in sequence. Upon completion of the check, record required data on the MTF check sheet.
    4. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training may be conducted academically or in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    5. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 4284

      1. PERFORM ENGINE SHUTDOWN CHECKS
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with the after-landing check performed.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:

    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The MP may perform these checks or direct the RCM/NCM to perform them, as appropriate. If the MP performs the checks, he will direct the RCM (P*) to monitor the area for safety hazards, (vehicles, equipment and personnel), and maintain the flight controls neutral, and collective full down.

            2. The RCM or NCM should assist the MP as directed.

      2. Procedures. Announce initiation of the engine shutdown checks. Perform the engine shutdown checks in sequence. Direct assistance from the RCM/NCM as necessary. Upon completion of the check, record required data on the MTF check sheet.
    4. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training may be conducted academically or in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    5. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    CREW COORDINATION

    This chapter describes the background of crew coordination development. It also describes the crew coordination elements, basic qualities, and objectives, as found in the Army Aircrew Coordination Training Program.


    1. Digitization of the OH-58D has expanded and redefined the lines of responsibility for each crew member. The ability for either crew member to perform most aircraft/system functions from his crew station breaks down the standard delineation of duties and has added capabilities in training and in combat. This could mean that during an unforeseen event, one crew member may attempt to resolve the situation on his own rather than seeking assistance from the other crew member. It is essential for the PC to brief specific duties prior to the flight. Effective sharing of tasks relies on good crew coordination and information management. The OH-58D cockpit and systems, can cause a crew to lose situational awareness. It is imperative that that crew communicate to each other where their attention is focused. It is each crew members duty to ensure that that the P* is in fact focused outside the cockpit, providing obstacle avoidance and clearing the aircraft. No matter what is happening in the cockpit the P* must have the discipline to keep his attention focused on flying the aircraft.
      1. CREW COORDINATION BACKGROUND


    An analysis of US Army aviation accidents revealed that a significant percentage of these accidents resulted from one or more crew coordination errors committed before or during the mission flight. Often an accident was the result of a sequence of undetected crew errors that combined to produce a catastrophic result. Additional research showed that even when accidents are avoided, these same errors can result in degraded mission performance. A systematic analysis of these error patterns identified specific areas where crew-level training could reduce the occurrence of such errors and break the error chains leading to accidents and poor mission performance.
      1. CREW COORDINATION ELEMENTS


    Broadly defined, aircrew coordination is the interaction between crewmembers necessary for the safe, efficient, and effective performance of tasks. The essential elements of crew coordination are described below.
        1. Communicate positively. Good cockpit teamwork requires positive communication among crew members. Communication is positive when the sender directs, announces, requests, or offers information; the receiver acknowledges the information; the sender confirms the information, based on the receiver's acknowledgment or action. The receiver must anticipate what the sender says or wants and listen carefully. Either crew member must have no doubt what is said or meant prior to taking action.

        2. Direct assistance. A crew member will direct assistance when he cannot maintain aircraft control, position, or clearance. He will also direct assistance when he cannot properly operate or troubleshoot aircraft systems without help from the other crew members.

        3. Announce actions. To ensure effective and well-coordinated actions in the aircraft, all crew members must be aware of the expected movements and unexpected individual actions. Each crew member will announce any actions that affect the actions of the other crew members.

        4. Offer assistance. A crew member will provide assistance or information that has been requested. He also will offer assistance when he sees that another crew member needs help.

        5. Acknowledge actions. Communications in the aircraft must include supportive feedback to ensure that crew members correctly understand announcements or directives.

        6. Be explicit. Crew members should use clear terms and phrases and positively acknowledge critical information. They must avoid using terms that have multiple meanings, such as "Right," "Back up," or "I have it." Crew members must also avoid using indefinite modifiers such as, "Do you see that tree?" or "You are coming in a little fast."

        7. Provide aircraft control and obstacle advisories. Although the P* is responsible for aircraft control, the other crew members may need to provide aircraft control information regarding airspeed, altitude, or obstacle avoidance.

        8. Coordinate action sequence and timing. Proper sequencing and timing ensure that the actions of one crew member mesh with the actions of the other crew members.

      1. CREW COORDINATION BASIC QUALITIES


    The crew coordination elements are further broken down into a set of 13 basic qualities. Each basic quality is defined in terms of observable behaviors. The paragraphs below summarize these basic qualities.
        1. Flight team leadership and crew climate are established and maintained. This quality addresses the relationships among the crew and the overall climate of the flight deck. Aircrews are teams with a designated leader and clear lines of authority and responsibility. The PC sets the tone for the crew and maintains the working environment. Effective leaders use their authority but do not operate without the participation of other crew members. When crew members disagree on a course of action, they must be effective in resolving the disagreement. Specific goals include the following:

          1. The PC actively establishes an open climate where crew members freely talk and ask questions.

          2. Crewmembers value each other for their expertise and judgment. They do not allow differences in rank and experience to influence their willingness to speak up.

          3. Alternative viewpoints are a normal and occasional part of crew interaction. Crew members handle disagreements in a professional manner, avoiding personal attacks or defensive posturing.

          4. The PC actively monitors the attitudes of crewmembers and offers feedback when necessary. Each crewmember displays the proper concern for balancing safety with mission accomplishment.

        2. Premission planning and rehearsal are accomplished. Premission planning includes all preparatory tasks associated with planning the mission. These tasks include planning for VFR, IFR, and terrain flight. They also include assigning crew member responsibilities and conducting all required briefings and brief-backs. Premission rehearsal involves the crew's collectively visualizing and discussing expected and potential unexpected events for the entire mission. Through this process, all crew members think through contingencies and actions for difficult segments or unusual events associated with the mission and develop strategies to cop with contingencies. Specific goals include the following:

          1. The PC ensures that all actions, duties, and mission responsibilities are partitioned and clearly assigned to specific crewmembers. Each crewmember actively participates in the mission planning process to ensure a common understanding of mission intent and operational sequence. The PC prioritizes planning activities so that critical items are addressed within the available planning time.

          2. The crew identifies alternate courses of action in anticipation of potential changes in METT-T and is fully prepared to implement contingency plans as necessary. Crew members mentally rehearse the entire mission by visualizing and discussing potential problems, contingencies, and responsibilities.

          3. The PC ensures that crewmembers take advantage of periods of low workload to rehearse upcoming flight segments. Crewmembers continuously review remaining flight segments to identify required adjustments. Their planning is consistently ahead of critical lead times.

        3. Appropriate decision-making techniques are applied. Decision-making is the act of rendering a solution to a problem and defining a plan of action. It must involve risk assessment. The quality of decision making and problem solving throughout the planning and execution phases of the mission depends on the information available, time constraints, and level of involvement and information exchange among crew members. The crew's ability to apply appropriate decision-making techniques based on these criteria has a major impact on the choice and quality of their resultant actions. Although the entire crew should be involved in the decision-making and problem-solving process, the PC is the key decision maker. Specific goals include the following:

          1. Under high-time stress, crewmembers rely on a pattern-recognition decision process to produce timely responses. They minimize deliberation consistent with the available decision time. Crew members focus on the most critical factors influencing their choice of responses. They efficiently prioritize their specific information needs within the available decision time.

          2. Under moderate- to low-time stress, crewmembers rely on an analytical decision process to produce high-quality decisions. They encourage deliberation when time permits. To arrive at the most unbiased decision possible, crewmembers consider all important factors influencing their choice of action. They consistently seek all available information relative to the factors being considered.

        4. Actions are prioritized and workload is equitably distributed. This quality addresses the effectiveness of time and workload management. It assesses the extent to which the crew, as a team, avoids distractions from essential activities, distributes and manages workload, and avoids individual task overload. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers are always able to identify and prioritize competing mission tasks. They never ignore flight safety and other high-priority tasks. They appropriately delay low-priority tasks until those tasks do not compete with more critical tasks. Crewmembers consistently avoid nonessential distractions so that these distractions do not impact on task performance.

          2. The PC actively manages the distribution of mission tasks to prevent the overloading of any crew member, especially during critical phases of flight. Crewmembers watch for workload buildup on others and react quickly to adjust the distribution of task responsibilities.

        5. Unexpected events are managed effectively. This quality addresses the crew's performance under unusual circumstances that may involve high levels of stress. Both the technical and managerial aspects of coping with the situation are important. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crew actions reflect extensive rehearsal of emergency procedures in prior training and premission planning and rehearsal. Crewmembers coordinate their actions and exchange information with minimal verbal direction from the PC. They respond to the unexpected event in a composed, professional manner.

          2. Each crewmember appropriately or voluntarily adjusts individual workload and task priorities with minimal verbal direction from the PC. The PC ensures that each crewmember is used effectively when responding to the emergency and that the workload is efficiently distributed.

        6. Statements and directives are clear, timely, relevant, complete, and verified. This quality refers to the completeness, timeliness, and quality of information transfer. It includes the crew's use of standard terminology and feedback techniques to verify information transfer. Emphasis is on the quality of instructions and statements associated with navigation, obstacle clearance, and instrument readouts. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers consistently make the required callouts. Their statements and directives are always timely.

          2. Crewmembers use standard terminology in all communications. Their statements and directives are clear and concise.

          3. Crewmembers actively seek feedback when they do not receive acknowledgment from another crew member. They always acknowledge understanding of intent and request clarification when necessary.

        7. Mission situational awareness is maintained. This quality considers the extent to which crew members keep each other informed about the status of the aircraft and the mission. Information reporting helps the aircrew maintain a high level of situational awareness. The information reported includes aircraft position and orientation, equipment and personnel status, environmental and battlefield conditions, and changes to mission objectives. Awareness of the situation by the entire crew is essential to safe flight and effective crew performance. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers routinely update each other and highlight and acknowledge changes. They take personal responsibility for scanning the entire flight environment, considering their assigned workload and areas of scanning.

          2. Crewmembers actively discuss conditions and situations that can compromise situational awareness. These include, but are not limited to, stress, boredom, fatigue, and anger.

        8. Decisions and actions are communicated and acknowledged. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members are kept informed of decisions made and actions taken by another crew member. Crew members should respond verbally or by appropriately adjusting their behaviors, actions, or control inputs to clearly indicate that they understand when a decision has been made and what it is. Failure to do so may confuse crews and lead to uncoordinated operations. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers announce decisions and actions, stating their rationale and intentions as time permits. The P verbally coordinates the transfer of or inputs to controls before action.

          2. Crewmembers always acknowledge announced decisions or actions and provide feedback on how these decisions or actions will affect other crew tasks. If necessary, they promptly request clarification of decisions or actions.

        9. Supporting information and actions are sought from the crew. This quality addresses the extent to which supporting information and actions are sought from the crew by another crew member, usually the PC. Crew members should feel free to raise questions during the flight regarding plans, revisions to plans, actions to be taken, and the status of key mission information. Specific goals include the following.

          1. The PC encourages crewmembers to raise issues or offer information about safety or the mission. Crewmembers anticipate impending decisions and actions and offer information as appropriate.

          2. Crewmembers always request assistance from others before they become overloaded with tasks or before they must divert their attention from a critical task.

        10. Crew member actions are mutually cross-monitored. This quality addresses the extent to which a crew uses cross-monitoring as a mechanism for breaking error chains that lead to accidents or degraded mission performance. Crew members must be capable of detecting each other's errors. Such redundancy is particularly important when crews are tired or overly focused on critical task elements and thus more prone to make errors. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers acknowledge that crew error is a common occurrence and the active involvement of the entire crew is required to detect and break the error chains that lead to accidents. They constantly watch for crew errors affecting flight safety or mission performance. They monitor their own performance as well as that of others. When they note an error, they quickly and professionally inform and assist the crewmember committing the error.

          2. The crew thoroughly discusses the two-challenge rule before executing the mission. When required, they effectively implement the two-challenge rule with minimal compromise to flight safety.


    1. The two-challenge rule allows one crew member to automatically assume the duties of another crew member who fails to respond to two consecutive challenges. For example, the P* becomes fixated, confused, task overloaded, or otherwise allows the aircraft to enter an unsafe position or attitude. The P first asks the P* if he is aware of the aircraft position or attitude. If the P* does not acknowledge this challenge, the P issues a second challenge. If the P* fails to acknowledge the second challenge, the P assumes control of the aircraft.
        1. Supporting information and actions are offered by the crew. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members anticipate and offer supporting information and actions to the decision maker--usually the PC--when apparently a decision must be made or an action taken. Specific goals include the following.

          1. Crewmembers anticipate the need to provide information or warnings to the PC or P* during critical phases of the flight. They provide the required information and warnings in a timely manner.

          2. Crewmembers anticipate the need to assist the PC or P* during critical phases of flight. They provide the required assistance when needed.

        2. Advocacy and assertion are practiced. This quality concerns the extent to which crew members are proactive in advocating a course of action they consider best, even when others may disagree. Specific goals include the following.

          1. While maintaining a professional atmosphere, crewmembers state the rationale for their recommended plans and courses of action when time permits. They request feedback to make sure others have correctly understood their statements or rationale. Time permitting, other crewmembers practice good listening habits; they wait for the rationale before commenting on the recommended plans or courses of action.

          2. The PC actively promotes objectivity in the cockpit by encouraging other crew members to speak up despite their rank or experience. Junior crewmembers do not hesitate to speak up when they disagree with senior members; they understand that more experienced aviators can sometimes commit errors or lose situational awareness. Every member of the crew displays a sense of responsibility for adhering to flight regulations, operating procedures, and safety standards.

        3. Crew-level after-action reviews are conducted. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members review and critique their actions during or after a mission segment, during periods of low workload, or during the mission debriefing. Specific goals include the following:

          1. The crew critiques major decisions and actions. They identify options and factors that should have been discussed and outline ways to improve crew performance in future missions.

          2. The critique of crew decisions and actions is professional. "Finger pointing" is avoided; the emphasis is on education and improvement of crew performance.

  • 1   ...   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50


    The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
    send message

        Main page