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NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: A thorough crew briefing should be conducted prior to NVG operations, crew coordination is crucial. Firing of the weapon system may cause the NVGs to momentarily shut down.

  • TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


    1. Training. Training may be conducted in the aircraft or CSMET.

    2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus FM 1-140.

  • The following checklist is an example of a standardized procedure for conducting Hellfire engagements for the shooter to ensure that all items are systematically verified. This procedure can be used for Remote or Autonomous engagements, and Lock-On After Launch (LOAL) or Lock-On Before Launch (LOBL) shots. Some steps are not required for some types of engagements as noted.


      1. Analyze the Mission - Assuming the tactical decision to employ a Hellfire has already been assessed, the crew will determine if the particular target is a feasible Hellfire target based on the following technical parameters;

            1. Launcher/Designator Angle (LDA) - Determine if the angle created by drawing a line between the observer/designator to the target and then back to the shooter is equal to or less than the maximum allowable. If the tactical situation allows, the shooter may have to reposition to meet requirements to accept the mission. (Remote engagements only, N/A for Autonomous engagements)

            2. Number of Missiles - Determine if the number of missiles requested or required are available. For a Remote engagement if the requested number exceeds the number available the mission may still be accepted with the number of missiles the shooter has available transmitted to the requestor in the ACCEPT message.

            3. Min/Max Range - Determine if the range to the target is within the allowable range for the type of shot to be performed. If the tactical situation allows, the shooter may have to reposition, or may adjust the type of shot (LOAL Direct/Low/High or LOBL) to meet requirements to accept the mission.

            4. Safety Fan - The safety fan is predetermined, based on an angle either side of a line from shooter to target. Ensure that the designator is not within the minimum angle allowable. Ensure that the designator is not with in the shooters safety fan. If the tactical situation allows, the shooter may have to reposition to ensure the designator is outside the safety fan.

            5. Obstacle Clearance - Determine if the missile can clear any obstacles on the gun target line for the type of shot to be performed. The shooter may have to reposition, if the tactical situation allows, or may adjust the type of shot (LOAL Low/High) to meet requirements to accept the mission.

            6. Cloud Height - The crew should attempt to determine if the missile will remain out of the clouds for the type of shot to be performed. This can be accomplished by visually confirming the cloud ceiling, based on the forecast. If cloud ceiling is a concern, the lowest trajectory can be achieved by shooting LOAL Direct with maximum laser delay.

    1. If the shooter must reposition to meet the requirements to accept the mission the ACCEPT message may be sent prior to moving.

      1. Accept or Reject Mission - Based on the analysis of tactical considerations and technical parameters. For Remote engagements this is done by sending the ACCEPT or REJECT message, the ACCEPT message will include all changes made to meet the technical parameters verified in the analysis.

      2. Missile Set-up - The following items must be verified.

            1. Laser Codes - Ensure the missile(s) is(are) coded to the match the laser code of the lasing participant.

            2. Launch Mode - Choose Manual, Normal, or Ripple based on the mission requirements.

            3. Delivery Mode - Choose LOAL Direct, LOAL Low, LOAL High, or LOBL based on the mission requirements.

      3. Choose and Set Constraints Driver(s) - The constraints driver(s) is what the weapon system uses to determine if the Hellfire missile is correctly pointed at the target. For LOAL shots the choices for the azimuth constraints drivers include the MMS or navigation systems, for LOBL the properly coded laser energy will drive the in-constraints or out-of-constraints indication.

      4. Arm the Armament Control Panel MASTER ARM switch if not already armed.

      5. Constraints - Verify on the Pilot's Sparse Hellfire VSD that there is an in constraints (Solid Box) indication.

      6. The Hellfire is now Ready to be fired. For Remote engagements the READY command can be sent. After the READY command the shooter must wait for the FIRE command from the observer. The observer must be prepared to lase when the FIRE command is sent.

      7. Shoot the Mission - After the FIRE command is received the shooter sends the SHOT command, verify that an ACK is received. Shoot the missile.

      8. Standby3 - Reset switches (MASTER ARM, Launch Mode, LASER ) as required by the situation. Recode remaining Hellfire missiles as necessary. Remove unnecessary constraints drivers (Direct Waypoint/Prepoint etc.).



  • The following page contains a sample of a hellfire engagement checklist


      1. Analyze the Mission

            1. LDA

            2. Number of Missiles

            3. Min/Max Range

            4. Safety Fan

            5. Obstacle Clearance

            6. Cloud Height

      1. Accept or Reject Mission (based on analysis)

      2. Missile Set-up

            1. Laser Codes

            2. Launch Mode

            3. Delivery Mode

      3. Choose and Set Constraints Driver(s)

      4. MASTER ARM switch – ARM

      5. Constraints – Verify

      6. Ready

      7. Shoot the Mission

      8. Standby, Reset Hellfire Missile Codes, Remove Constraints Drivers

    Figure 4-6. Sample of a hellfire engagement checklist


    1. 1462

      1. ENGAGE TARGET WITH 2.75-INCH FFAR SYSTEM
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter on an approved range (when non-eye-safe-laser or live rockets are employed) or in a simulated tactical environment.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Place the system into operation.

      2. Engage the target using the appropriate tech­niques.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew Actions. While maneuvering the aircraft to align symbology the P* may divert his attention inside the cockpit. He must coordinate with the P prior to doing so. Each crewmember must know where the other is focused during the weapon engagement.

            1. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft and oriented on the target. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will acknowledge that P is ready to engage the target and maneuver the aircraft to align the rocket symbology on the MFD. He will announce firing the rockets, and will coordinate with the P when he remasks or repositions the aircraft. He will announce whether he is focused inside or outside the aircraft.

            2. The P will keep the MMS on target, prepare the rocket system and announce when ready to engage. He will announce ready for each firing and when the laser is on. He will assist the P* by monitoring aircraft instruments and clear the aircraft duties permitting. He will announce rocket impact and record BDA data. He will keep track of the number of rockets fired. He will announce whether he is focused inside or outside the aircraft.

      2. Procedures.

            1. To engage the target, place the ACP Master Arm switch in the ARM position. From the Weapons VSD or Sparse Weapons VSD verify and change as necessary the rocket firing mode, volley mode, fuze timing, cueing information, and selected zone. The Pitch Attitude Cue driver is selectable between laser information, navigation system range to waypoint, or a manually entered distance. Turn the aircraft to align the heading with the MMS carat. The best firing solution is met when the Rocket Steering Cue (I-Bar) and the Pitch Attitude Cue are both centered on the Aircraft Reference symbol.

            2. The PDU (if installed) may be used to engage targets. Place the ACP Master Arm switch in the ARM position, and select the rocket system. Verify the MODE/FUZE/CUE/ZONE information is correct, and makes changes as necessary. The center of the PDU display is used for alignment and the horizontal bars are used for range cueing, remain "heads-up" while engaging targets. Verify that the system is ARMED. Position the aircraft to align the PDU symbology on the target.

    1. Use of the laser range input will vary depending on the range setting selected in FUZE. If the fuze cue is set to NAV or a manual range, then the system will use the valid laser range for five seconds then default to what is set.

    2. Live fire not needed to complete this task.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: A thorough crew briefing should be conducted prior to NVG operations, crew coordination is crucial. Firing of the weapon system may cause the NVGs to momentarily shut down.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training may be conducted in the aircraft or CSMET.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus FM 1-140.


    1. 1464

      1. ENGAGE TARGET WITH THE ATAS
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter (or CSMET) on an approved range (when non-eye-safe-laser or live missiles are employed) or in a simulated tactical environment.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Place the system into operation.

      2. Engage the target using the appropriate tech­niques.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew Actions. While maneuvering the aircraft to align weapons symbology the P* may divert his attention inside the cockpit. He must coordinate with the P prior to doing so. Each crewmember must know where the other is focused during the weapon engagement.

            1. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft and oriented on the target. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will acknowledge that P is ready to engage the target and maneuver the aircraft to align the ATAS symbology on the MFD. He will announce “engaging” just prior to firing, and will coordinate with the P when he remasks or repositions the aircraft. He will announce whether he is focused inside or outside the aircraft.

            2. The P will keep the MMS on target, prepare the ATAS system and announce when ready to engage. He will announce ready for each firing. He will assist the P* by monitoring aircraft instruments and clear the aircraft duties permitting. He will monitor missile impact, and record BDA data. He will announce whether he is focused inside or outside the aircraft.

      2. Procedures.

            1. To engage the target, place the ACP Master Arm switch in the ARM position. From the Weapons VSD or Sparse Weapons VSD verify and change as necessary the seeker slaving mode and uncage mode. When the target is being tracked press the Missile Activate switch. Verify the proper indications of missile activation, spin-up, and cooldown. At the same time maneuver the aircraft to place the MMS LOS cue near the center of the MFD. If the target is within operational parameters, press the WEAPONS FIRE switch to the first detent; this will allow the missile to uncage if the seeker acquires IR energy (in the AUTO UNCAGE mode). If the seeker acquires the target, the track reticle and the super elevation cue are displayed. Continue to maneuver the aircraft to keep the tracking box in the middle of the display. If the track reticle nears the edge of the MFD and starts to flash, the seeker is nearing its FOV limits.) Confirm the tracking box and MMS LOS cue are in coincidence and a solid tone is present. Then maneuver the aircraft to place the super elevation bar on top of the aircraft reference symbol, and press the fire switch to the second detent. The selec­ted missile will fire and the SPARSE WEAPONS VSD missile symbology will disappear; the next missile to fire will go "solid" and start to cool down. To interrupt the sequence, the MISSILE ACTIVATE switch is pressed. The ACTIVE display goes away and missile activation is deselect­ed. If the first detent is released before the se­lected missile is fired, the missile will recage and cease tracking on an active target.

      3. Pilot's Display Unit.

            1. The PDU may be used to engage targets Place the ACP Master Arm switch in the ARM position. Select the ATAS system. Using the 20-degree fixed refer­ence and the acquisition reticle, maneuver the aircraft until the symbology is steady over the target. Press the MISSILE ACTIVATE switch and listen for a low growl which indi­cates that the missile is cooling. Then the missile symbology will box. If a target is within track parameters, pressing the WEAPONS FIRE switch to the first detent will cause the acquisition reticle to be replaced by the track reticle and the super elevation cue will be displayed. Pressing the WEAPONS FIRE switch to the second detent will cause the missile to fire if a track reticle is displayed.

    1. Live fire not needed to complete this task.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: A thorough crew briefing should be conducted prior to NVG operations, crew coordination is crucial. Firing of the weapon system may cause the NVGs to momentarily shut down.

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