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NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:


  1. Terrain flight modes. Wires and other hazards are difficult to detect with the NVG. The crew must use proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance. Clear communication in the cockpit is required. Each crewmember must know and understand what the other is doing.

  2. Terrain flight navigation. Conducting the flight in reduced visibility or at night (aided or unaided) requires more detailed flight planning and map preparation. TC 1-204 contains details on night navigation. NVG navigation with standard maps can be difficult because of map colors and symbology. The crew must use proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance.

  3. Confined area operations. Confined areas are more difficult to evaluate at night because of low contrast. To perform successful confined area operations, the crew must know the various methods of determining the height of obstacles. Ensure that the searchlight is in the desired position. If the searchlight is used, night vision may be impaired. Exercise added caution if flight is resumed before reaching full dark adaptation. When possible both crewmembers should be focused outside the cockpit.

  4. Pinnacle or ridgeline operations. Awareness of the various methods of making a suitable evaluation at night (for example, lines of contrast) is essen­tial. Treat visual obstacles the same as physical obstacles. When flying above terrain flight altitudes, keep in mind the inherent limitations of night vision devices. Also be aware of the increased difficulty in estimating the rate of closure and make the approach slower. Both crewmembers should be focused outside the cockpit.
  • OVERWATER CONSIDERATIONS: Overwater flight, at any altitude, is characterized by a lack of visual cues and therefore, has the potential of causing spatial disorientation. Be alert to any unannounced changes in the flight profile and be prepared to take immediate corrective actions. The radar altimeter low altitude warning should be set to assist in altitude control. Hazards to terrain flight (for example, harbor lights, buoys, wires, and birds) must also be considered during overwater flight. When possible both crewmembers should be focused outside the cockpit.

  • TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


    1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

    2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references and FM 21-26.


    1. 1152

      1. PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT DECELERATION.
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Maintain tail rotor clear of all obstacles.

      2. Decelerate to the desired airspeed or to a full stop ±50 feet of the selected location.

      3. Maintain heading +-10 degrees.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* remains focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will announce his intention to decelerate or come to a full stop, any deviation from the maneuver, and completion of the maneuver.

            2. The P will provide adequate warning to avoid obstacles detected in the flight path and will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

            3. The crew must clear the area below the aircraft before descending.

      2. Procedures: Consider variations in the terrain and obstacles when determining tail rotor clearance. With terrain and obstacle considerations made, increase the collective just enough to maintain the altitude of the tail rotor. (Initially increasing the collective may not be necessary at higher airspeeds.) Apply aft cyclic to slow down to the desired airspeed/ground speed or come to a full stop while adjusting the collective to maintain the altitude of the tail rotor. Maintain heading with the pedals and make all control movements smoothly. If the attitude of the aircraft is changed too much or too abruptly, returning the aircraft to a level attitude will be difficult and over­­­­ controlling may result.

    1. OGE hover power is required for terrain flight decelerations during NOE flight.

    2. Closely monitor the pedals if heading hold is used during the maneuver.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Because of the limited FOV of the NVG, avoid making abrupt changes in aircraft attitude. An extreme nose-high attitude limits the forward FOV. Maintain proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance and tail rotor clearance. If possible both crewmembers should focus outside the cockpit.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1155

      1. NEGOTIATE WIRE OBSTACLES
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter, or academically.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Locate and determine the height of wires.

      2. Determine the best method to negotiate the wire obstacle.

      3. Negotiate the wire obstacle.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The PC will determine if under flight of the wire obstacles will be performed.

            2. The P* will focus his primary attention scanning outside the aircraft and will confirm visual contact with wires and supporting structures. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance.

            3. The P will assist clearing the aircraft. He will announce adequate warning to avoid hazards, wires, and poles or supporting structures. He also will announce when the aircraft is clear. He will announce when focused inside the aircraft.

      2. Procedures.

            1. Program known wire hazards and other obstacles through the AMPS and download to the DTC/DTM before flight. During terrain/tactical flight, display on HSD. During the mission search for wires and other hazards to flight.

            2. Announce when wires/obstacles are seen and specify the direction and distance to them.

            3. Accurately determine the amount of clearance between the wires and the ground. Locate guy wires and supporting poles. Determine the method of negotiating the wires and initiate the maneuver.

          1. Overflight. Identify the top of the pole and the highest wire. Cross near a pole to aid in estimating the highest point. Minimize the time that the aircraft is unmasked.

          2. Underflight. When crossing under wires, the lowest point of the wire must at least 25 feet plus hover height, above the ground. This means if hovering at 5 feet above the ground or obstacles, the lowest point of the wire must be 30 feet above the ground or obstacles. Ground speed will not be greater than that of a brisk walk. Ensure lateral clearance from guy wires and poles.

    1. Since the aircraft is approximately 13 feet in height from the skids to the top of the MMS, there will always be at least 12 feet of clearance from the lowest point of the wires to the MMS when crossing under wires.

    2. The crew must maintain proper scanning techniques to ensure obstacle avoidance and aircraft clearance.

    3. The P can use the MMS and radar altimeter as aids in determining the height of the wires.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Wires are difficult to detect at night with NVGs. For training, under flight of wires will not be performed unless the location has been checked during daylight conditions and all hazards have been identified. Both crewmembers should be focused outside the cockpit.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1158

      1. PERFORM MASKING AND UNMASKING
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter, and OGE power available.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Perform a map reconnaissance.

      2. Mask the aircraft from enemy visual and electronic detection.

      3. Minimum exposure time for task completion.

      4. When using the MMS, unmask the MMS only

      5. Maintain a sufficient distance behind obstacles to allow for safe maneuvering.

      6. Move to a new location, if available, before subsequent unmasking
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The PC will assign observation sectors to the other crewmember to maximize the areas scanned during the time unmasked. He will also ensure observations are reported.

            2. The P* will remained focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will announce the type of masking and unmasking before executing the maneuver. The P* may elect to utilize the heading hold mode during the maneuver. His primary concern will be aircraft control while viewing his assigned sector.

            3. The P will initially focus his attention inside the aircraft. He will perform a map reconnaissance to identify natural and man-made features before the unmasking (may be accomplished in pre-mission planning or in the aircraft), brief the P* and announce when ready. Visually he will primarily view his assigned sector, overlap the P* sector, and warn the P* of obstacles or unanticipated drift and altitude changes. He will announce when he is focused inside the cockpit. When operating the MMS he will scan the primary sector using all sensors as appropriate.

      2. Procedures.

            1. Masking in flight. Fly to the destination with the aid of the navigation system, or a map. Take maximum advantage of terrain and vegeta­tion to prevent exposure of the aircraft to enemy visual observation or electronic detection. Maintain orien­tation at all times and look far enough ahead on the map for hazards.

            2. Unmasking in flight. Keep aircraft exposure time to a minimum to prevent enemy visual observation or electronic detection. Radar can lock onto a target within two to nine seconds. Depending on METT-T, only the MMS may need to be exposed.

            3. Unmasking at a hover (vertically). Ensure that sufficient power is available to unmask. Heading hold may be used during the maneuver. Apply collective until sufficient al­titude is obtained to either see or expose the MMS over the mask without exceeding aircraft limit­ations. Main­tain horizontal main rotor blade clearance from the mask in case of a power loss or a tacti­cal need to mask the aircraft quickly. Keep aircraft ex­posure time to a mini­mum.

    1. There is a common tendency to move forward or rearward while vertically unmasking and re­mask­ing.

            1. Unmasking at a hover (laterally). Unmask­ing may be accomplished by moving laterally from the mask. Hover the aircraft sideward to provide the smallest silhouette possible to enemy observation or fire. Keep aircraft exposure time to a minimum.

    1. When unmasking the helicopter, select a new loca­tion that is a significant distance from the previous location and where the target area can still be observed. If the target area is a long distance (2,000 to 3,000 meters) away, moving only 100 meters will still keep the aircraft in the same field of view from the target. However, if the target area is close to the unmasking posi­tion, a drift of 100 meters will make a signifi­cant difference.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Maintaining altitude and position is more difficult when hovering above 25 feet without aircraft lights. Use the radar altimeter to assist in main­taining altitude and the position box to assist in maintaining aircraft position. Use refer­ences such as lights, tops of trees, or man-made objects above and to the front and sides of the aircraft. By establis­hing a reference angle to these objects, the P* can detect altitude changes by changing his viewing perspective. Hovering near ground featur­es, such as roads, pro­vides ideal references for judging lateral movement. However, the P* may become spatially disoriented when alternating his viewing per­spective between high and low refer­ences. There­fore, he must rely on the P for assis­tance if he becomes disoriented. Regardless of the mission the P* must fly the aircraft first and then observe his sector.

    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references plus ASET Program and AMPS.


    1. 1170

      1. PERFORM INSTRUMENT TAKEOFF
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with reference to flight instruments only.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following.


      1. Set attitude indicator.

      2. Maintain required takeoff power +-2 percent mast torque.

      3. Maintain accelerative climb attitude +-1 bar width

      4. Maintain takeoff heading +-10 degrees.

      5. Maintain aircraft in trim after ETL.

      6. Maintain appropriate rate of climb +-100 FPM.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will focus primarily inside the aircraft on the instruments. He will follow the heading/course, altitude, issued by ATC/P. He will announce any deviation not directed by ATC/P and will acknowledge all navigation directives.

            2. He will assist the P* by warning of drift or excessive roll of the aircraft. The P will verify climb and airspeed and assist the P* as necessary to prevent fixation and spatial disorientation. The P will perform duties as directed. He will acknowledge any unannounced deviations. During simulated IMC, the P will remain focused outside the aircraft to provide adequate warning for avoiding obstacles and hazards detected.

      2. Procedures.

            1. From the ground. Align the aircraft with the desired takeoff heading. Set/confirm the attitude indicator for takeoff (approximately 4 degrees nose high). With the cyclic in the neutral position, smoothly increase the collective until the aircraft becomes light on the skids. Use outside visual references to prevent movement of the aircraft and check controls for proper response. Apply pressure and counter-pressure on the pedals to ensure the aircraft is free to ascend. While referring to the flight instruments, smoothly increase the collective to obtain takeoff power. As the collective is increased, cross check the attitude indicators to ensure proper attitude (approximately 4 degrees nose high) and constant heading. When takeoff power is reached and the altimeter shows a positive, adjust to level pitch attitude for the initial acceleration. Maintain heading with pedals until airspeed increases (generally 20-30 knots KIAS) and then make the transition to coordinated flight. Upon reaching climb airspeed (approximately 60 KIAS), adjust the controls as required to maintain desired climb airspeed.

            2. From a hover. On the runway or takeoff pad, align the aircraft with the desired takeoff heading. Set/confirm the attitude indicator for takeoff (approximately 4 degrees nose high). And check the controls for proper response. Establish the aircraft at 3 foot hover. Initiate the takeoff by smoothly and steadily increasing the collective until takeoff power is reached. Simultaneously adjust pitch attitude as necessary to establish initial accelerative climb attitude. Visually maintain runway clearance and alignment on takeoff until the aircraft accelerates through ETL. At that time the P* will direct his attention to the flight instruments and establish an instrument cross-check.

    1. Takeoff power will normally be 10 percent above mast torque required for hover.

    2. Cross-check the VSD with the standby flight instruments throughout the maneuver.
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