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NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS: Proper scanning techniques are necessary to avoid spatial disorientation. Before descending below obstacles, determine the need for use of the searchlight.

  • TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


    1. Training. Training may be conducted in the aircraft.

    2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
  • REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1146

      1. PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter, VMC, with tactical flight mission planning completed.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Terrain Flight Mode.

            1. NOE flight.

          1. Fly as close to the earth's surface as obstacles, vegetation, and ambient light will allow, appropriate for the mission.

          2. Maintain an airspeed appropriate for the terrain, enemy situation, weather, and ambient light.

            1. Contour flight.

          3. Maintain an altitude that allows safe clearance of obstacles while generally conforming to the contours of the earth.

          4. Maintain an airspeed appropriate for the terrain, enemy situation, weather, ambient light.

          5. Maintain the aircraft in trim.

            1. Low-level flight.

          6. Maintain altitude 50 feet.

          7. Maintain airspeed 10 KIAS.

          8. Maintain the aircraft in trim.

      2. Terrain Flight Navigation.

            1. During NOE flight--

          1. Know the en route location within 200 meters (500 meters NVG).

          2. Identify all check points.

          3. Locate the final objective within 100 meters.

            1. During low-level or contour flight--

          4. Know the en route location within 500 meters (1,000 meters NVG).

          5. Identify all check points.

          6. Locate the final objective within 100 meters.

      3. Confined area operations.

            1. Prior to the approach--

          1. Establish entry altitude 100 feet.

          2. Establish entry airspeed 10 KIAS.

          3. Perform a landing area reconnaissance.

            1. During the approach--

          4. Maintain ground track alignment with the selected approach path without deviation.

          5. Maintain a constant approach angle.

          6. Maintain the appropriate rate of closure no faster than a brisk walk..

          7. Perform a low reconnaissance.

          8. Execute a smooth, controlled termination in the forward one-third of the landing area.

            1. Prior to takeoff--

          9. Complete the ground reconnaissance and select a suitable takeoff path.

          10. Perform a hover power check as required and complete the before-takeoff check.

          11. Clear the aircraft.

            1. Prior to clearing obstacles--

          12. Maintain heading 10 degrees.

          13. Maintain ground track with no deviation.

          14. Use power as required to clear obstacles without exceeding aircraft limitations.

            1. After clearing obstacles--

          15. Establish climb airspeed 10 KIAS.

          16. Maintain rate of climb 100 FPM.

          17. Maintain the aircraft in trim.

          18. Maintain ground track alignment with the selected takeoff path without deviation.

      4. Pinnacle or Ridgeline Operations.

    1. All elements of this standard may be accomplished academically if the area of operation does not facilitate it’s undertaking.

            1. Reconnaissance.

          1. Establish desired altitude 100 feet.

          2. Establish desired airspeed 10 KIAS.

          3. Perform a continuous reconnaissance.

            1. Approach.

          4. Maintain ground track alignment with the selected approach path without deviation.

          5. Maintain a constant approach angle.

          6. Maintain an appropriate rate of closure.

          7. Perform a continuous reconnaissance.

          8. Execute a smooth, controlled termination.

            1. Takeoff.

          9. Complete a before-takeoff check.

          10. Clear the aircraft.

          11. Perform an airspeed-over-altitude takeoff while main­taining heading 10 degrees.

          12. Maintain appropriate airspeed 10 KIAS.
    1. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft and is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will acknowledge all navigational and obstacle clearance instruc­tions given by the P. He will announce the intended direction of flight and any deviation from instructions given by the P.

            2. The P will provide adequate warning to avoid obsta­cles detected in the flight path or identified on the map. Duties permitting, he will assist with clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

      2. Procedures. Terrain flying involves flight close to the earth's surface. The modes of terrain flight are NOE, contour, and low-level. The transition mode of flight symbology is the normal mode for terrain flight. The crew will seldom perform pure NOE or contour flight. Instead, they will alternate techniques while maneuvering over the desired route. During terrain flight, the crew's primary concern is the threat and obstacle avoidance.

            1. Terrain flight takeoff. Determine the direction of takeoff by analyzing the tactical situation, wind, long axis, and lowest obstacles. Select reference points to assist in maintaining the takeoff flight path. Remain focused outside the aircraft during the maneuver. Announce whether the takeoff is from the ground or from a hover and the intent to abort or alter the takeoff. Coordinate the cyclic and collective as necessary to attain a constant angle of climb that will ensure obstacle clearance. Maintain power as required to clear obstacles safely without exceeding aircraft limitations. Maintain heading with the pedals. Once obstacles are cleared, adjust the flight controls as required to transition into the desired terrain flight mode (NOE, contour, or low level).

    1. OGE hover power is required for terrain flight takeoff.

            1. Terrain flight mode. Terrain flight is conducted at one of, or a combination of, three distinct modes of flight as described below:

          1. NOE flight. NOE flight is conducted at varying airspeeds and altitudes as close to the earth's surface as vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light will permit.

          2. Contour flight. Contour flight is characterized by varying altitude and relatively constant airspeed, depending on vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light. It generally follows the contours of the earth.

          3. Low-level flight. Low-level flight is usually per­formed at a constant airspeed and altitude. It generally is conducted at an altitude which prevents or reduces the chance of detection by enemy forces.

    1. OGE hover power is required for NOE flight.

            1. Terrain flight navigation. Terrain flight navigation requires the crew to work as a team. Remain primarily focused outside the aircraft. Acknowledge commands for heading and air­speed changes necessary to navigate the desired course. Announce significant terrain features and other cues to assist in navigation. Announce any verified or perceived hazards to flight and provide instructions and perform actions for obstacle/hazard avoidance. Change aircraft heading and airspeed as appropriate to navigate the desired course.. Announce all plotted hazards prior to approaching their location. Use standardized terms to prevent misinterpretation of infor­mation and unnecessary cockpit conversation. The crew must look far enough ahead of the aircraft at all times to avoid hazards.

          1. During NOE flight, the crew identifies promi­nent terrain features that are located some distance ahead of the aircraft and which lie along or near the course. Using these points to key on, maneuver the aircraft to take advan­tage of the terrain and vegetation for concealment. If general navigational techniques do not apply, identify the desired route by designating a series of successive check­points. To remain continuously oriented, compare actual terrain features with those on the map.

          2. Contour navigation is less precise than NOE naviga­tion because the contour route is more direct. An effective technique to combine the use of terrain features and rally terms when giving directions. This will allow the P* to focus his attention outside the aircraft.

          3. For low-level navigation, compute time and distance to fly specific headings and airspeeds. The crew can also use radio navigation, depending on the terrain and enemy situation.

    1. If the area permits, the crew should navigate at least 20 kilometers during NOE flight training or 40 kilometers during low-level or contour flight training.

    2. The aircrew should incorporate the use of AMPS resources in coordination with this task. Consideration should be given to the crew utilizing AMPS produced strip maps and when possible, the crew should review the AMPS digital projections of the proposed routes prior to conducting the flight. All known terrain flight hazards should be input into the aircraft’s navigation system, via the AMPS loaded DTC/DTM, prior to the execution of this task.

    3. Each of the methods for stating heading information is appropriate under specific conditions. When a number of terrain features are visible and prominent enough for the P* to recognize them, the most appropriate method is navigation instruction to­ward the terrain feature in view. Navigation instructions toward a distant, unseen terrain feature is appropriate when few changes are anticipated. When forward visibility is restricted and fre­quent changes are necessary, controlled turning instruc­tions are more appropriate. As a general rule, clock headings by them­selves should be avoided. However, clock headings are recom­mended when associated with a terrain feature and with controlled turning instructions.

            1. Confined area operations. Select a flight path, an airspeed, and an altitude that afford best observation of the landing area. Remain focused outside the aircraft to evaluate suitability of the area, evaluate the effects of wind, and clear the aircraft throughout the approach and landing. Select a touch­down point in the forward one-third of the landing area and an­nounce termination of the approach to a hover or to the ground. Announce any deviation from the approach and a tentative flight path for the departure. On final approach (see NOTE), perform a low recon­naissance and confirm the suitability of the selected landing area. Evaluate obstacles that constitute a possible hazard and confirm the suitability of the departure path. Once in the confined area, perform a ground reconnaissance and announce the intent to conduct a specific hovering maneuver and the termination of the maneuver. If instability is encountered during the touchdown, reposition the aircraft. Announce the intent to take off, the direction of takeoff, and whether the takeoff will be normal or terrain flight. Formulate the takeoff plan by evaluating the wind, obstacles, and shape of the area. Select the takeoff point and ensure that there is adequate main rotor and tail rotor clearance while maneuvering. Call out the before-takeoff check and verify a hover power check if required. Clear the aircraft during the takeoff. Announce whether the takeoff is from the ground or from a hover and the intent to abort or alter the takeoff. Coordinate the cyclic and collective as necessary to attain a constant angle of climb that will ensure obstacle clearance. Maintain heading with the pedals.

    1. OGE hover power is required for confined area operations.

    2. Depending on the simulated threat or type of terrain flight being conducted, this maneuver may be initiated from either a straight-in or a circling pattern.

            1. Pinnacle or ridgeline operations. Select a flight path, an airspeed, and an altitude that afford best observation of the landing area. When practical, position the aircraft on the windward side of the pinnacle or ridgeline. Remain focused outside the aircraft to evaluate suitability of the area, evaluate the effects of wind, and clear the aircraft throughout the approach and landing. Select a touchdown point in the forward one-third of the landing area and announce termination of the approach to a hover or to the ground. Announce any deviation from the approach and a tenta­tive flight path for the departure. The approach angle can vary from a shallow to a steep angle, depending on the wind, density alti­tude, gross weight, and availability of forced landing areas. Continue the reconnaissance on the final approach to confirm suitability of the area, and effects of wind. Reduce airspeed to slightly above ETL until the rate of closure can be determined and then adjust the rate of closure to no faster than a brisk walk. Execute a go-around before going below ETL if the reconnaissance reveals that a safe landing cannot be ac­com­plished. After touchdown, check aircraft stability as the collective is lowered and, if aircraft movement is detected, reposition the aircraft. Perform a ground recon­naissance and clear the aircraft. Perform the before-takeoff check and verify a hover power check if required. Clear the aircraft during takeoff. Announce the intent and the direction of takeoff. Execute an airspeed-over-altitude takeoff and announce the intent to abort or alter the takeoff. If the takeoff requires clearing obstacles, Use power as necessary to clear the obstacles while main­taining a constant climb angle and ground track. After clearing the obstacles, adjust attitude to gain forward airspeed.

    1. OGE hover power is required for pinnacle/ridgeline operations.
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