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CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with hover power and before­‑takeoff checks completed and the aircraft cleared.

  • STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


    1. Maintain takeoff heading ±10 degrees.

    2. Maintain takeoff flight path until clear of obstacles.

    3. Maintain power as required to clear obstacles safely while not exceeding aircraft limitations.
  • DESCRIPTION:


    1. Crew actions.

          1. The P* will remain focused primarily outside the aircraft during the maneuver. He will direct the other crew member to maintain visual reference outside the aircraft to assist in clearing. He will ensure that the aircraft is cleared and select reference points to assist in maintaining takeoff flight path. The P* will announce that he is initiating the takeoff and whether the takeoff is from the ground or from a hover. He will also an­nounce his intentions to abort or alter the takeoff.

          2. The P will maintain visual reference outside the aircraft, acknowledge that he is ready for takeoff and provide adequate warning of any obstacles or hazards in the flight path.

    2. Procedures. Determine the takeoff direction by analyz­ing the tactical situation, wind, long axis of the takeoff area, and the lowest obstacles. Select reference points to assist in maintaining the takeoff flight path. Coordinate the collective and cyclic controls as necessary to establish a climb angle that will clear any obstacles in the takeoff path. Maintain heading with the pedals and once the obstacles are cleared, smoothly adjust the flight con­trols to transi­tion to the terrain flight mode (NOE, contour, or low level).

    1. Hover OGE power is required for terrain flight takeoffs.

    2. When this maneuver is performed from a confined area, repositioning the aircraft downwind will minimize the power require­ments on take­off.
    1. NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:


      1. Before the aircraft leaves the ground, determine if the landing or searchlight is required.

      2. Treat visual obstacles, such as shadows, the same as physical obstacles.

      3. Maintain proper scanning techniques to avoid becoming spatially disoriented.

      4. In the absence of obstacles, perform a normal takeoff as described in Task 1040. If sufficient illumination does not exist to view obstacles, an altitude-over-airspeed takeoff should be performed.
    2. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


      1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft.

      2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft.
    3. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


    1. 1147

      1. PERFORM TERRAIN FLIGHT APPROACH
    1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter with the before‑landing check completed.

    2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


      1. Perform a landing area reconnaissance and select a suitable landing area.

      2. Maintain a constant approach angle to clear obstacles.

      3. Maintain ground track aligned with the selected approach path with minimum drift.

      4. Maintain the appropriate rate of closure.

      5. Make a smooth, controlled termination at the intended landing area.
    3. DESCRIPTION:


      1. Crew actions.

            1. The P* will maintain visual reference outside the air­craft throughout the approach and landing (to include the go-around, if required). He will direct the P to main­tain visual reference outside the aircraft to assist in clearing and announce his intent to land, abort, or alter the approach. The P* will announce that he is beginning the approach when he inter­cepts an angle that assures obstacle clearance. He will announce if the approach will terminate to a hover or to the ground, his intended landing area, and any devia­tion to the approach.

            2. The P will remain focused outside the aircraft and confirm suitability of the area. He will announce adequate warning to avoid obstacles or hazards detected in the flight path or identified on the map. The P will also announce if his attention is focused inside the aircraft. If a go-around is required, the P will focus outside the aircraft to assist in obstacle avoidance, unless he must focus inside to monitor the aircraft instruments.

      2. Procedure. Determine the landing direction by analyz­ing the tactical situation, wind, long axis of the landing area, and the lowest obstacles. Maneu­ver the aircraft as required (straight-in or circle) to intercept the desired approach path. Adjust the flight path and airspeed as necessary and maintain orientation of the landing area. Coordinate the collective and cyclic as necessary to maintain the approach angle, ensure obstacle clear­ance, and control the rate of closure.

    1. The decision to terminate at a hover, to the ground with zero forward speed, or with a run-on landing will depend on aircraft loading, environmental conditions, and surface condi­tions at the landing area. A go-around should be made before descending below obstacles or decelerating below ETL or when visual contact with the approach point is lost on final.

    2. If at anytime during the approach the P* loses visual contact or it becomes apparent he will lose visual contact with the intended landing area, he will inform the P and request assis­tance. If the P still has the intend­ed landing area in sight, he will take the controls and complete the ap­proach. If the P does not have the intended landing area in sight, the P* will perform a go-around.

    3. Hover OGE power is required prior to a terrain flight approach.

    4. Movement over areas of limited contrast, such as tall grass, water, or desert, tends to cause spatial disorientation. Seek hover areas that provide adequate contrast. If disorienta­tion occurs, apply sufficient power and execute an instrument takeoff. If a takeoff is not feasible, attempt to maneuver the aircraft forward and down to the ground to limit the possibility of touchdown with sideward or rearward movement.

    5. FM 1-202 outlines proce­dures for reducing hazards associated with the loss of visual references during landing due to blowing snow or dust.

    6. If landing to a confined area, landing to the forward one-third will minimize the power requirements.

    7. Barriers surrounding a confined area may cause turbulence and downdrafts near the ground on the upwind side during moderate to strong wind conditions. Additional power may be needed when descending below the barriers and if not planned for, may result in exceeding engine torque and/or TOT.
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